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Transcript
Our Solar System Notes
1. Geocentric Theory- All objects in the universe revolve around the Earth
SECTION 1 QUESTIONS
Picture“ge” means-
Earth
Picture-
Whose idea- ancient idea
2. Heliocentric Theory-
The sun is the center of the solar system
SECTION 2 QUESTIONS
Picture-
“helios” means- SUN
Whose idea- Copernicus came up with it, Galileo proved it.
Main points- Galileo view Jupiter with a telescope and saw that objects (moons) were going around Jupiter. All object is the
solar system don’t go around Earth.
3. What is a planet?

SECTION 3 QUESTIONS
is in orbit around the Sun
 has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape)
 has “cleared the neighborhood” around its orbit
4. Inner Planets- TERRESTRIAL PLANETS
SECTION 4 QUESTIONS
– Made of rock and metal
– Smaller, denser, iron core
– No rings, few if any moons
5. Outer Planets- JOVIAN PLANETS
SECTION 5 QUESTIONS
– Made of gases and frozen compounds
– Large, more mass
– Rings, and many moons
Asteroid belt- area between Mars and Jupiter where remnants of planetoid objects have collected in a doughnut shaped
ring around the Sun.
6. Measuring Distances in Space
SECTION 6 QUESTIONS
A. Light Year- the distance light travels in one year = about 6 trillion miles
– Used to measure extremely long distances in our galaxy and universe
B. AU- and astronomical unit to measure large distances in our solar system
C. 1 AU- The distance from the Sun to the Earth – 93 million miles (93,000,000)
7. Other objects in Space
SECTION 7 QUESTIONS
A. Comets- A comet is an icy ball that releases gas or dust. They are often
compared to dirty snowballs.
When comets pass close to the sun – the comet begins to melt releasing gases
that create a tail that always points away from the Sun.
B. Asteroids Asteroids are rocky, airless worlds that orbit our sun
 too small to be called planets
 Tens of thousands of these "minor planets" are gathered in the main asteroid belt, a vast doughnut-shaped ring
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
 Asteroids that pass close to Earth are called Near-Earth Objects (NEOs).
C. Meteoroids-Little chunks of rock and debris in space are called meteoroids.
• They become meteors -- or shooting stars -- when they fall through a planet's atmosphere
• Pieces that survive the journey and hit the ground are called meteorites.
Kuipier Belt - is a disc-shaped region of icy objects beyond the orbit of Neptune
-- billions of kilometers from our sun
Oort Cloud- is a sphere of ice dwarfs and ice particles that surround
our solar system.
General characteristics about the solar system• planet and satellite orbits are in a common plane
• nearly all planet and satellite orbital and rotation motions are in the same direction
Other Notes & Questions:
Terrestrial Planets- small, composed of rock and metallic elements (metals), small, no rings, very few moons
Planet
Rotation
Period
Revolution
Period
# of moons
# of rings
Atmosphere
composition
Mercury
58 days
88 Earth days
0
0
No atmosphere
Venus
243 days
224 Earth days
0
0
Thick, carbon dioxide, toxic,
poisonous, traps all heat
Earth
24 hours
365 Earth days
1
0
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen,
1% other gases. Breathable
Mars
24.6 hours
687 Earth days
2
0
No atmosphere
Jovian Planets- large, composed of gases and frozen compounds
Jupiter
9.8 hours
12 Earth years
66
4
Hydrogen, Helium, Nitrogen,
Oxygen, and Methane
Saturn
10.2 hours
29 Earth years
62
23
Hydrogen and Helium
Uranus
17.9 hours
84 Earth years
27
13
Methane, Hydrogen and Helium
Neptune
19 hours
164.8 Earth years
13
9
Methane atmosphere gives it
bluish color
What about Pluto?- additional objects have been discovered including Eris which is 27% more massive, the IAU reclassified
Pluto and the other objects as dwarf planets.
Dwarf Planet- Unlike planets, dwarf planets lack the gravitational muscle to sweep up or scatter objects near their orbits.
They end up orbiting the sun in zones of similar objects such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts.