Download real exchange rate

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Fixed exchange-rate system wikipedia, lookup

Currency war wikipedia, lookup

Reserve currency wikipedia, lookup

Bretton Woods system wikipedia, lookup

Currency War of 2009–11 wikipedia, lookup

Exchange rate wikipedia, lookup

Currency intervention wikipedia, lookup

International monetary systems wikipedia, lookup

Foreign-exchange reserves wikipedia, lookup

Currency wikipedia, lookup

Foreign exchange market wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
International Financial Market, Exchange Rate
and Balance of Payments
Roberta De Santis
r.desantis@isae.it
Open-Economy Macroeconomics:
Basic Concepts
Open-Economy Macroeconomics:
Basic Concepts
Open and Closed Economies
A closed economy is one that does not interact
with other economies in the world.
There are no exports, no imports, and no capital
flows.
An open economy is one that interacts freely
with other economies around the world.
Open-Economy Macroeconomics:
Basic Concepts
An Open Economy
An open economy interacts with other countries
in two ways.
It buys and sells goods and services in world product
markets.
It buys and sells capital assets in world financial
markets.
THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF
GOODS AND CAPITAL
An Open Economy
The United States is a very large and open
economy—it imports and exports huge
quantities of goods and services.
Over the past four decades, international trade
and finance have become increasingly
important.
The Flow of Goods: Exports, Imports, Net
Exports
Exports are goods and services that are
produced domestically and sold abroad.
Imports are goods and services that are
produced abroad and sold domestically.
The Flow of Goods: Exports, Imports, Net
Exports
Net exports (NX) are the value of a
nation’s exports minus the value of its
imports.
Net exports are also called the trade
balance.
The Flow of Goods: Exports, Imports, Net
Exports
A trade deficit is a situation in which net
exports (NX) are negative.
Imports > Exports
A trade surplus is a situation in which net
exports (NX) are positive.
Exports > Imports
Balanced trade refers to when net exports
are zero—exports and imports are exactly
equal.
The Flow of Goods: Exports, Imports, Net
Exports
Factors That Affect Net Exports
The tastes of consumers for domestic and
foreign goods.
The prices of goods at home and abroad.
The exchange rates at which people can use
domestic currency to buy foreign currencies.
The Flow of Goods: Exports, Imports, Net
Exports
Factors That Affect Net Exports
The incomes of consumers at home and
abroad.
The costs of transporting goods from country to
country.
The policies of the government toward
international trade.
Figure 1 The Internationalization of the U.S. Economy
Percent
of GDP
15
Imports
10
Exports
5
0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Copyright © 2004 South-Western
The Flow of Financial Resources: Net Capital
Outflow
Net capital outflow refers to the purchase
of foreign assets by domestic residents
minus the purchase of domestic assets by
foreigners.
A U.S. resident buys stock in the Toyota
corporation and a Mexican buys stock in the
Ford Motor corporation.
The Flow of Financial Resources: Net Capital
Outflow
When a U.S. resident buys stock in
Telmex, the Mexican phone company, the
purchase raises U.S. net capital outflow.
When a Japanese residents buys a bond
issued by the U.S. government, the
purchase reduces the U.S. net capital
outflow.
The Flow of Financial Resources: Net Capital
Outflow
Variables that Influence Net Capital
Outflow
The real interest rates being paid on foreign
assets.
The real interest rates being paid on domestic
assets.
The perceived economic and political risks of
holding assets abroad.
The government policies that affect foreign
ownership of domestic assets.
The Equality of Net Exports and Net Capital
Outflow
Net exports (NX) and net capital outflow
(NCO) are closely linked.
For an economy as a whole, NX and NCO
must balance each other so that:
NCO = NX
This holds true because every transaction that
affects one side must also affect the other side
by the same amount.
Saving, Investment, and Their Relationship to
the International Flows
Net exports is a component of GDP:
Y = C + I + G + NX
National saving is the income of the nation
that is left after paying for current
consumption and government purchases:
Y - C - G = I + NX
Saving, Investment, and Their Relationship to
the International Flows
National saving (S) equals Y - C - G so:
S = I + NX
or
Domestic + Net Capital
Saving =
Investment
Outflow
S
=
I
+
NCO
Figure 2 National Saving, Domestic Investment, and Net
Foreign Investment
(a) National Saving and Domestic Investment (as a percentage of GDP)
Percent
of GDP
20
Domestic investment
18
16
14
National saving
12
10
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Copyright © 2004 South-Western
Figure 2 National Saving, Domestic Investment, and Net
Foreign Investment
(b) Net Capital Outflow (as a percentage of GDP)
Percent
of GDP
4
3
2
Net capital
outflow
1
0
–1
–2
–3
–4
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Copyright © 2004 South-Western
THE PRICES FOR INTERNATIONAL
TRANSACTIONS: REAL AND NOMINAL
EXCHANGE RATES
International transactions are influenced
by international prices.
The two most important international
prices are the nominal exchange rate and
the real exchange rate.
Nominal Exchange Rates
The nominal exchange rate is the rate at
which a person can trade the currency of
one country for the currency of another.
Nominal Exchange Rates
The nominal exchange rate is expressed
in two ways:
In units of foreign currency per one U.S. dollar.
And in units of U.S. dollars per one unit of the
foreign currency.
Nominal Exchange Rates
Assume the exchange rate between the
Japanese yen and U.S. dollar is 80 yen to
one dollar.
One U.S. dollar trades for 80 yen.
One yen trades for 1/80 (= 0.0125) of a dollar.
Nominal Exchange Rates
Appreciation refers to an increase in the
value of a currency as measured by the
amount of foreign currency it can buy.
Depreciation refers to a decrease in the
value of a currency as measured by the
amount of foreign currency it can buy.
Nominal Exchange Rates
If a dollar buys more foreign currency,
there is an appreciation of the dollar.
If it buys less there is a depreciation of the
dollar.
Real Exchange Rates
The real exchange rate is the rate at which
a person can trade the goods and services
of one country for the goods and services
of another.
Real Exchange Rates
The real exchange rate compares the
prices of domestic goods and foreign
goods in the domestic economy.
If a case of German beer is twice as expensive
as American beer, the real exchange rate is 1/2
case of German beer per case of American
beer.
Real Exchange Rates
The real exchange rate depends on the
nominal exchange rate and the prices of
goods in the two countries measured in
local currencies.
Real Exchange Rates
The real exchange rate is a key
determinant of how much a country
exports and imports.
Nominal exchange rate  Domestic price
Real exchange rate =
Foreign price
Real Exchange Rates
A depreciation (fall) in the U.S. real
exchange rate means that U.S. goods
have become cheaper relative to foreign
goods.
This encourages consumers both at home
and abroad to buy more U.S. goods and
fewer goods from other countries.
Real Exchange Rates
As a result, U.S. exports rise, and U.S.
imports fall, and both of these changes
raise U.S. net exports.
Conversely, an appreciation in the U.S.
real exchange rate means that U.S. goods
have become more expensive compared
to foreign goods, so U.S. net exports fall.
A FIRST THEORY OF
EXCHANGE-RATE DETERMINATION:
PURCHASING-POWER PARITY
The purchasing-power parity theory is the
simplest and most widely accepted theory
explaining the variation of currency
exchange rates.
The Basic Logic of Purchasing-Power Parity
Purchasing-power parity is a theory of
exchange rates whereby a unit of any
given currency should be able to buy the
same quantity of goods in all countries.
The Basic Logic of Purchasing-Power Parity
According to the purchasing-power parity
theory, a unit of any given currency should
be able to buy the same quantity of goods
in all countries.
Basic Logic of Purchasing-Power Parity
The theory of purchasing-power parity is
based on a principle called the law of one
price.
According to the law of one price, a good must
sell for the same price in all locations.
Basic Logic of Purchasing-Power Parity
If the law of one price were not true,
unexploited profit opportunities would
exist.
The process of taking advantage of
differences in prices in different markets is
called arbitrage.
Basic Logic of Purchasing-Power Parity
If arbitrage occurs, eventually prices that
differed in two markets would necessarily
converge.
According to the theory of purchasingpower parity, a currency must have the
same purchasing power in all countries
and exchange rates move to ensure that.
Implications of Purchasing-Power Parity
If the purchasing power of the dollar is
always the same at home and abroad,
then the exchange rate cannot change.
The nominal exchange rate between the
currencies of two countries must reflect
the different price levels in those countries.
Implications of Purchasing-Power Parity
When the central bank prints large
quantities of money, the money loses
value both in terms of the goods and
services it can buy and in terms of the
amount of other currencies it can buy.
Figure 3 Money, Prices, and the Nominal Exchange Rate
During the German Hyperinflation
Indexes
(Jan. 1921 5 100)
1,000,000,000,000,000
Money supply
10,000,000,000
Price level
100,000
1
Exchange rate
.00001
.0000000001
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
Copyright © 2004 South-Western
Limitations of Purchasing-Power Parity
Many goods are not easily traded or
shipped from one country to another.
Tradable goods are not always perfect
substitutes when they are produced in
different countries.
Summary
Net exports are the value of domestic
goods and services sold abroad minus the
value of foreign goods and services sold
domestically.
Net capital outflow is the acquisition of
foreign assets by domestic residents
minus the acquisition of domestic assets
by foreigners.
Summary
An economy’s net capital outflow always
equals its net exports.
An economy’s saving can be used to
either finance investment at home or to
buy assets abroad.
Summary
The nominal exchange rate is the relative
price of the currency of two countries.
The real exchange rate is the relative price
of the goods and services of two countries.
Summary
When the nominal exchange rate changes
so that each dollar buys more foreign
currency, the dollar is said to appreciate or
strengthen.
When the nominal exchange rate changes
so that each dollar buys less foreign
currency, the dollar is said to depreciate or
weaken.
Summary
According to the theory of purchasingpower parity, a unit of currency should buy
the same quantity of goods in all countries.
The nominal exchange rate between the
currencies of two countries should reflect
the countries’ price levels in those
countries.
International Financial Market: introductory
remarks
PLAYERS IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS (IFM)
COMPANIES
MULTINATIONAL
FOREIGN
EXCHANGE
EXPOSURE
INSTITUTIONAL
INVESTORS
GLOBAL
FINANCING
PRIVATE
INVESTORS
GLOBAL
INVESTMENTS
FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS
Governement, Central Banks
International Institutions
INTERNATIONAL
FINANCIAL
MARKETS
FOREX MARKET
EUROCURRENCY MARKET
DERIVATIVE
PRODUCTS
Options, Futures
Forward Contracts
Options, Futures
FRAs
EUROCURRENCY DEPOSITS
EUROCREDITS
EURONOTES
Eurocommercial paper
RUFs, NIFs
BOND MARKET
Options, Futures,
Swaps, Caps,
Floors, Swaptions
DOMESTIC
FOREIGN
Yankees, Samurais, Bulldogs,
Rembrandts, Matadors,…
EUROBOND
Straight, Dual currency,
Convertibles, Floating rates
EQUITY MARKETS
Euroequity, ADR’s, Mutual
Funds, …
Options, Futures
Eurocurrency markets
 Eurocurrency - any currency held in time-deposit outside its country of
origin.
 Eurodollars - dollar denominated deposits held in a bank outside the U.S..
Structure of Foreign Exchange Markets
Customer buys $
with euro
Foreign
Exchange
Broker
Local bank
Stockbroker
Major banks
Interbank
market
IMM
LIFFE
PSE
Local bank
Stockbroker
Customer buys
euro with $
Organization and Characteristics of FOREX Markets
 Spot and forward markets
 Many buyers and sellers, so no buyer or seller dominates
 Transactions are quick, buy/sell decisions have to be made very quickly
 Low transactions costs
 Open virtually 24/7.
Reasons to Use FOREX Markets






Export and Import Transactions
Triangular arbitrage in the Spot Market
Hedging on foreign investment
Forward speculation
Interest arbitrage
Engage in a speculative attack on a foreign currency
Nature of Foreign Exchange Market
 Efficient
 Large number of diverse buyers and sellers (breadth).
 Significant market activity (buy/sell) with any change in value (depth).
 Market returns to normal price quickly after any significant price swing
(resiliency).
 Worldwide over-the-counter trading
.
Nature of Foreign Exchange Market (continued)
 Major participants
 large multinational banks.
 Central Banks.
 Transfer process is through interbank clearing systems.
 Spot vs. Forward Transactions
 Delivery in the spot market takes place within 2 business days.
 Forward contracts are typically written for delivery in 30, 60, 90, or 180
days.