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3.1 Hatshepsut
Expands Trade
At any grocery store,
you can find exotic fruits
from distant lands right alongside the
crunchy apples from a nearby orchard.
Like you, the ancient Egyptians had
access to food and other goods from
near and far.
Main idea
Under a great female pharaoh, Egypt grew
wealthy through conquest and trade.
egyPT’s gReaT FeMale RuleR
On the heels of the defeat of the Hyksos
came the New Kingdom, which spanned
nearly 500 years from 1550 b.c. to 1070 b.c.
This period of prosperity saw Egypt
grow more powerful than ever as it built
a mighty empire. Its large professional
army expanded the empire northeast into
Palestine and south into Nubia. Plunder
from war and taxes from conquered
lands made Egypt rich, but so did trade.
Under the rule of Hatshepsut (hahtSHEHP-soot), history’s earliest wellknown female ruler, trade flourished.
Hatshepsut came to power sometime
around 1470 b.c. After her husband the
pharaoh died, she ruled with her stepson,
Thutmose III (thoot-MOH-suh), who was
very young. Hatshepsut played a smart
political game and won enough support to
be crowned sole king. She performed all the
religious, military, and political functions of
the pharaoh, and she even dressed as a king.
TRade and exPansion
Like other pharaohs, Hatshepsut fought
wars to expand the empire. But she also
promoted trade in spite of the geographic
barriers Egypt faced, such as deserts to
the east and west and rapids on the Nile
River and the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt
had abundant resources to barter , or
exchange, for things the land couldn’t
produce—especially timber and exotic
luxuries. These goods traveled along routes
over land and sea as far as East Africa.
Egyptian merchants and traders bartered
Egyptian beer, wine, food, and manufactured
goods for myrrh trees, incense, ebony,
ivory, leopard skins, and monkeys.
The wealth generated through these
expeditions stimulated Egypt’s economy.
Back in Egypt, Hatshepsut moved the
capital city to Thebes and ordered
many great monuments constructed to
celebrate her rule. After 15 years in power,
she disappeared suspiciously, possibly
murdered by her stepson. Thutmose III
became a mighty pharaoh in his own
right and tried to erase Hatshepsut’s
name from all monuments and records.
Luckily, he did not entirely succeed, and
historians have been able to reconstruct
Hatshepsut’s remarkable reign.
ReView & assess
This statue shows Hatshepsut wearing
the false beard traditionally worn by
the male pharaohs.
1. Reading CheCk In
what ways did Egypt
prosper during the
reign of Hatshepsut?
2. dRaw ConClusions Why did
the pharaohs engage in trade
with other countries?
Ancient Egypt 107
106-113_SE66871_U02CH04S3.indd 106
STANDARDS NGSSS: SS.6.E.1.1 Identify the factors
(new resources, increased productivity,
education, technology, slave economy,
territorial expansion) that increase
economic growth; SS.6.E.1.3 Describe the
following economic concepts as they relate
to early civilization: scarcity, opportunity
cost, supply and demand, barter, trade,
productive resources (land, labor, capital,
entrepreneurship); SS.6.E.3.2 Categorize
products that were traded among
civilizations, and give examples of
barriers to trade of those products;
SS.6.E.3.3 Describe traditional economies
(Egypt, Greece, Rome, Kush) and elements
of those economies that led to the rise
of a merchant class and trading partners;
SS.6.E.3.4 Describe the relationship
among civilizations that engage in trade,
including the benefits and drawbacks of
voluntary trade; SS.6.W.2.6 Determine the
contributions of key figures from ancient
LAFS: LAFS.68.RH.3.8 Distinguish among
fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a
text; LAFS.68.WHST.2.4 Produce clear and
coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to
task, purpose, and audience.
3. FoRM and suPPoRT oPinions
What details support the opinion
that Hatshepsut was an ambitious
11:37 AM
Explain how Egypt grew wealthy through conquest
and trade under a female pharaoh.
How did ancient Egypt’s rulers use the land’s
resources and geography to found a civilization?
Egyptians continued to use their vast resources to
further develop their civilization. Lesson 3.1 discusses
how Egypt grew wealthy under the leadership of a
female pharaoh.
3/9/16 11:37 AM
The time of her reign also included a number of large
building projects, including her memorial temple at Deir
el-Bahri. She was the widowed queen of the pharaoh
Thutmose II. She had been given power after his death
to rule for her young stepson, Thutmose III, until he
came of age. At first, Hatshepsut acted on her stepson’s
behalf. But before long, she proclaimed herself pharaoh,
the supreme power in Egypt. Her formal portraits
began to show Hatshepsut dressing in the traditional
male style with a crown and a false beard. By giving
the outward appearance of a male king, it appears that
Hatshepsut wanted to guarantee she would indeed be
recognized as a ruler in the same way a male ruler would.
Hatshepsut ruled for 21 years.
Hatshepsut’s rule was a time of prosperity and peace.
During this time, magnificent art was produced in Egypt.
Reading and
Section 3
106-113_IWE10785_U02CH04L3.indd 106
5/6/16 3:18 PM
Have students brainstorm ways in which the trading of goods is part of
today’s society. Have students think about various foods, clothing items,
and building materials that come from other parts of the country or
from other countries. ASK: How did trading food and other goods affect
Egyptian society during the New Kingdom? Tell students that, in this
lesson, they will learn about trade under the reign of Hatshepsut. 0:05 minutes
PREP Before Reading Have students use the PREP strategy to prepare for
reading. Write this acrostic on the board.
1. Summarize How did Egypt’s army contribute toward making Egypt
rich? (The army expanded the empire northeast into Palestine and south
into Nubia. Plunder from war and taxes from conquered lands made Egypt
2. Describe What were some of the resources that Egyptian traders
bartered? (Egyptians bartered Egyptian beer, wine, food, and manufactured
goods for myrrh trees, incense, ebony, ivory, leopard skins, and monkeys.)
Egypt’s Female Rulers Hatshepsut was not the only woman to hold
power in ancient Egypt. Several other women ruled either directly as
pharaoh or as a regent for a young son. Along with Hatshepsut, the two
most famous Egyptian women are probably Nefertiti and Cleopatra
VII. Nefertiti co-ruled with her husband, Akhenaten, and is best known
for establishing a religion based on the worship of the sun god, Aten.
Cleopatra VII was Egypt’s last pharaoh and is best known for her
relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.
Critical Viewing: NG Image Gallery Have students explore the entire NG
Image Gallery and choose two of the items to compare and contrast, either
in written form or verbally with a partner. Ask questions that will inspire
this process, such as: How are these images alike? How are they different?
Why did you select these two items? How do they relate in history? 0:15 minutes
On Your Feet: Present a Period of Egyptian History Organize students
into four groups and assign each group a period of Egyptian history on
which they will prepare a short presentation. In every group some students
should represent farmers, traders, and pharaohs from each period shown
Preview the title.
Read the Main Idea statement.
Examine visuals.
Predict what you will learn.
Have students write their prediction and share it with a partner.
After reading, ask students to write another sentence that begins
“I also learned . . .”
Write a Newspaper Article Have students prepare a front-page
newspaper article that compares the reigns of Hatshepsut and Ahmose.
Have students do research on the kings to ensure that their article includes
facts about each king and his or her rule. Ask students to write a headline
for their article. Encourage students to share their articles with the class.
Press in the Student eEdition for modified text.
See the Chapter Planner for more strategies for differentiation.
1. Hatshepsut traded items Egypt had in abundance, such as beer,
food, and wine, for goods from other lands. She forced Nubia to
make trades favorable to the Egyptians, and she gained riches from
a trading trip to the land of Punt.
2. They engaged in trade with other countries to obtain things their
land couldn’t produce—and, thereby, strengthened Egypt.
3. Hatshepsut ruled with her stepson, but she won enough political
support from high officials and priests to be crowned pharaoh and
perform all of the pharaoh’s functions. The expeditions to Punt
were difficult and dangerous; the fact that Hatshepsut was willing
to take those risks to bring more wealth to Egypt also suggests that
she was an ambitious leader.
• The early period of dynasties that began under the rule of Menes
• The Old Kingdom
• The Middle Kingdom
• The New Kingdom
0:15 minutes
LESSON 3.1 107
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5/6/16 3:18 PM