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Ancient Egypt Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Middle Kingdom 2050 BC – 1670 BC The capital city moved from Memphis to Thebes Egypt starts to take over more land, including Nubia to the south Force conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments, to the pharaoh. Added waterways and canals Built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea Art, architecture and literature flourish during the Middle Kingdom. Painters covered walls of tombs and temples of pharaohs’ daily life Huge wall carvings and statues of pharaohs Poets wrote love songs to pharaohs Created a new form of architecture = Valley of the Kings Valley of the Kings Pharaoh stop building massive pyramids and choose to be buried in hidden tombs cut into cliffs. Hyksos Attack In1670 BC, the Hyksos, invaders from Western Asia, attacked and conquered Egypt. Will rule for the next 120 years New Kingdom It is during the New Kingdom that the Egyptians begin to call the rulers pharaohs, as a sign of respect Egypt continues to grow and become a major world power Ahmose Drove the Hyksos out of Egypt His reign started the New Kingdom Hatshepsut One of the few women to rule Egypt Became ruler after her husband’s death and her nephew was too young to rule. She was suppose to be a temporary ruler, but she ruled for 20 years! More interested in trade than military action Brought great wealth to Egypt She had a temple built in her honor with large obelisks in front Hatshepsut's Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri Inside Hatshepsut’s Temple Hatshepsut’s Obelisks. The one on the right is partially walled off. Hatshepsut’s mummy She was concerned with improving the HOME LIFE of Egypt, not enlarging the empire She focused on peace Achievements - Trade Expedition (giving Egypt goods such as ivory, gold, ostrich feathers etc) -Restored Temples -Workers mined the desert for ore Iron ore Ivory comb Thutmose III Nephew of Hatshepsut and ruled after her death Was a very successful military leader His victories brought Egypt great wealth Many nations sent gifts to Egypt as a sign of friendship (and out of fear) Enslaved many prisoners of war Ordered carvings and statues of Hatshepsut to be destroyed (never proven) Destroyed reliefs of Hatshepsut Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) Married to Nefertiti Introduced a new religion with one God, Aton Never a good idea to mess with peoples religion. This will cause many to hate him. People refused to accept this new religion Neglected his duties as pharaoh. Nefertiti Tutankhamen (King Tut) Son-in-law of Akhenaton 10 years old when he inherited the throne Ruled for only 9 years Most famous of all the pharaoh due to the mystery of his death and the discovery of his tomb Discovery by Howard Carter in 1922 Only intact pharaohs tomb ever found Inside Tut's Tomb Ramses II Reigned for 66 years. Did more than any other pharaoh to be remembered forever. Built several major temples. Not only used for religious ceremonies, but also as BANKS Believed by Christians to be the pharaoh Moses confronts in Exodus. Building projects were huge, had his name engraved on all of them. Ordered four huge statues of himself placed in front of the temple built in his honor. After Ramses II, Egypt’s power faded and it was conquered by many outside groups. Colossus of Ramses II at Karnak Egyptian Achievements Art: 1) Built great temples (showing their success in architecture & engineering 2) Created beautiful painting on temple walls (to honor and serve the kings & gods) Science: 1) invented a more accurate lunar (moon) calendar – better than Babylonian 2) Medicine – doctors wrote a scientific handbook for surgeons Indigestion: Crush a hog's tooth and put it inside of four sugar cakes. Eat for four days.