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Ancient Egypt
Chapter 2
Lesson 3
Middle Kingdom
 2050 BC – 1670 BC
 The capital city
moved from
Memphis to Thebes
 Egypt starts to take
over more land,
including Nubia to
the south
 Force conquered
people to send
tribute, or forced
payments, to the
 Added waterways and canals
 Built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea
 Art, architecture and literature flourish during the Middle
 Painters covered walls of tombs and
temples of pharaohs’ daily life
 Huge wall carvings and statues of
 Poets wrote love songs to pharaohs
 Created a new form of architecture = Valley
of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
 Pharaoh stop building massive pyramids and
choose to be buried in hidden tombs cut into cliffs.
Hyksos Attack
 In1670 BC, the Hyksos, invaders from
Western Asia, attacked and conquered Egypt.
 Will rule for the next 120 years
New Kingdom
 It is during the New Kingdom that the Egyptians begin to call
the rulers pharaohs, as a sign of respect
 Egypt continues to grow and become a major world power
 Drove the Hyksos out of Egypt
 His reign started the New Kingdom
 One of the few women to
rule Egypt
 Became ruler after her
husband’s death and her
nephew was too young to
 She was suppose to be a
temporary ruler, but she
ruled for 20 years!
 More interested in trade
than military action
 Brought great wealth to
 She had a temple built in her honor with large obelisks
in front
Hatshepsut's Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri
Inside Hatshepsut’s
Hatshepsut’s Obelisks. The one on the right is partially walled off.
Hatshepsut’s mummy
 She was concerned with improving the HOME LIFE of
Egypt, not enlarging the empire
 She focused on peace
- Trade Expedition
(giving Egypt goods
such as ivory, gold,
ostrich feathers etc)
-Restored Temples
-Workers mined the
desert for ore
Iron ore
Ivory comb
Thutmose III
 Nephew of Hatshepsut and ruled after her death
 Was a very successful military leader
 His victories brought Egypt great wealth
 Many nations sent gifts to Egypt as a sign of friendship (and out of fear)
 Enslaved many prisoners of war
 Ordered carvings and statues of Hatshepsut to be destroyed (never proven)
Destroyed reliefs of Hatshepsut
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)
 Married to Nefertiti
 Introduced a new religion with one God, Aton
 Never a good idea to mess with peoples religion. This will cause many to hate
 People refused to accept this new religion
 Neglected his duties as pharaoh.
Tutankhamen (King Tut)
 Son-in-law of Akhenaton
 10 years old when he inherited
the throne
 Ruled for only 9 years
 Most famous of all the
pharaoh due to the mystery of
his death and the discovery of
his tomb
 Discovery by Howard Carter in
 Only intact pharaohs tomb ever
 Inside Tut's Tomb
Ramses II
Reigned for 66 years. Did more than any other pharaoh to be remembered forever.
Built several major temples. Not only used for religious ceremonies, but also as
Believed by Christians to be the pharaoh Moses confronts in Exodus.
Building projects were huge, had his name engraved on all of them.
Ordered four huge statues of himself placed in front of the temple built in his honor.
After Ramses II, Egypt’s power faded and it was conquered by many outside groups.
Colossus of
Ramses II at
Egyptian Achievements
 Art:
 1) Built great temples (showing their success in architecture &
 2) Created beautiful painting on temple walls (to honor and serve
the kings & gods)
 Science:
 1) invented a more accurate lunar (moon) calendar – better than
 2) Medicine – doctors wrote a scientific handbook for surgeons
Crush a hog's tooth and put it inside of four sugar cakes.
Eat for four days.