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Transcript
Biome Notes
term
ecological
succession
primary
succession
1
definition or information
normal, gradual changes that
occur in the types of species
that live in an area





secondary
succession



begins in a place without
soil. (takes longer)
starts with pioneer species
such as lichens that can
grow in rock
new soil forms as weather
and erosion break down
rock
volcanoes
decaying plants add
organic material to new
soil
begins in a place that has
soil and once had living
organisms
Example: after a fire or
removal of buildings
Occurs faster and has
different pioneer species
than primary succession
climax
community
stable stage of ecological
diversity and balance
biomes
large areas with similar
climates (temperature and
precipitation) and ecosystems
diagram or examples
Biome Notes
Climate Zones--- temperature and precipitation are key factors
tropical zone
 closest to equator
 warm to hot year-round
 receives direct sunlight
throughout year
polar zones
 farthest from equator
 least direct sunlight
throughout year
 cool to cold year-round
temperate
 between polar and tropical
zones
 angle at which the sun’s
rays strike these regions
changes greatly throughout
the year
 distinct seasons with very
different temperatures
Types of Biomes---biome
characteristics
Tundra
 treeless (cold desert or polar)
(arctic and  plants grow low to the ground
alpine)
with short growing season
 permanently frozen soil called
permafrost
 low biotic diversity
 energy and nutrients in the form
of dead organic material
 large population oscillations
 winter temp -34° C (-30° F)
 summer temp 3-12° C (37-54° F)
 precipitation 6-10 inches per year
Taiga
 cold forest with long winters
(Coniferous  world’s largest biome
Forest or
 soil thaws in the short summer
Boreal)
 precipitation is mostly snow,
35cm-100cm per year (12 to 33
inches)
 temp range -65° F to 70° F
Temperate  four distinct seasons
deciduous
 temperatures range from below
forest
freezing in winter to 30°C (86 ºF)
or more in summer
 precipitation year round 75cm150cm per year
2
plant/animal examples (flora/fauna)
 mosses, grasses, small shrubs, lichens
 insects, ducks, geese, other birds, mice, arctic
hares, reindeer, polar bears, caribou, snowy
owls



evergreen trees
cone-bearing (coniferous)
grizzly bears, wolves, caribou, lynx

populated mostly by trees that lose their leaves in
fall (deciduous trees)
oak, maple, beech, walnut, hickory, chestnut, elm
Mississippi


Biome Notes
Temperate  average temperature: 9°C to 12°C
rain forest
(48.2 ºF to 53.6 ºF)
 precipitation: 200cm-400cm per
year or about 100 inches per year
Tropical
rain forest







Desert





3



Tall trees with needlelike leaves
Mosses, ferns, Sitka Spruce, Douglas Fir, Western
Red Cedar, epiphytes,
black bear, cougar, bobcat, and endangered
northern spotted owl
the most biologically diverse of
all biomes
warm temperatures and wet
weather year-round
located near the equator
Average temperature: 25°C or
77° F
Precipitation: 200cm-600cm per
year
Four zones: forest floor,
understory, canopy, emergents
Human impact: habitats being
destroyed by farmers and loggers



lush plant life, large variety of animals
vines, lianas, rattan vine, strangler fig
toucans, sloth, howler monkey, spider monkey,
poison dart frog, anaconda
very hot; large temperature
variation
Plants that can store water or live
with little water; roots extend
great distances to reach water
driest biome; supports little plant
life; arid
Precipitation: less than 25cm per
year
thin, sandy or gravelly soil


cactus, short grasses, sagebrush
kangaroo rat, reptiles, Gila monster, iguana,
scorpion
Biome Notes
Grassland

(savanna,
plains,

steppes,
prairies)


Aquatic
Marine





Temperate or tropical regions that
get limited precipitation
dominated by grasses (provide
food for wildlife, livestock, and
humans)
Temperature: temperate or
tropical
Precipitation: 25cm-75cm per
year; have a dry season
characteristics or information
Saltwater---95% of Earth’s water
contains high concentration of salt
or high salinity
large variety organisms
coral reefs—diverse and fragile
ecosystems formed from coral
shells of calcium carbonate
intertidal zone—covered with
water at high tide and exposed to
air at low tide; drastic changes in
temperature, moisture, salinity,
and wave action
estuaries—where a river meets
and ocean (brackish)
a) rich in nutrients
b) mixture of salt water and
freshwater
c) ocean nurseries




4
Populated mostly by grasses and nonwoody plants
Animals---based on location in world
giraffe, zebra, African elephant, kangaroo, lion,
gazelle, bison, prairie dog, ostrich, rhinoceros
North American Prairie----prairie dog, bison
(buffalo), elk, deer, rabbits, Indian grass
diagrams
Biome Notes
Freshwater 






5
examples---streams, rivers,
springs, ponds, bayous and most
marshes and lakes
flowing or standing water; low or
no salt
large variety of organisms
nutrients washed into rivers and
streams from land
the faster the flow of water the
greater the oxygen content
wetlands---regions wet all or most
of the year
a. Between solid land and water
b. Very fertile
water pollution---a problem
caused by fertilizer-filled runoff
and sewage
Adaptations and Evolution—
term
definition or information
adaptation
---any characteristic of an
organism that helps it survive in a
certain environment
--- structural---body size, shape,
color
mimicry
resemblance of one organism to
another or to an object in its
surroundings for concealment and
protection from predators
hibernation
state of moderate to complete
inactivity during winter to escape
food shortage or colder weather
examples
 polar bear---fur and blubber
 reptiles---scales help keep water from escaping
through the skin
 birds---beaks with shapes that help get to food
 trees in rainforests---tolerate shade; wide flat leaves
to absorb sunlight
 Arctic hare---fur blends with landscape based on
season
 Ability to eat certain chemicals without being
poisoned
 protection-- hedgehogs and sea urchins---sharp spines
 cacti and roses---thorns
 turtles and snails---shells
 to sting predators or spray with foul-smelling
substance
 Eastern King snake is harmless but its scales are
colored like those of the dangerous coral snake
 Mimic octopus
 Viceroy butterfly mimics the Monarch’s wings so
that birds will leave it alone. Monarch butterflies
taste bad to birds.
 animal’s temp drops to near the temp of its
surroundings
 breathing and heart rate slow down
 needed energy comes from stored body fat
 ground squirrels, black bears, bats, lemurs,
marsupials
Biome Notes
migration
aestivation
(estivation)
predatorprey
behaviors
6
---animal’s movement to a new
location on a regular schedule such
as when seasons change
---mating
dormancy in response to very hot
or dry conditions
Safety in numbers
Natural Selection---term
definition or information
Charles
 visited Galapagos
Darwin
Islands
 studied diversity of
living things
 Theory of Evolution by
Natural Selection
natural
selection
 organisms that are
better adapted to an
environment survive
and reproduce at a
greater rate than
organisms that are not
 over time several
factors can act together
to result in a new
species
 adapted organisms are
selected naturally to
survive and increase in
number
 monarch butterflies, humpback whales, American
bison (buffalo)
 mammals and birds migrate to warm places in fall
and return in spring
 Arctic tern travels from the Arctic to the Antarctic
and back each year (approx. 35,000 km)
 Red Christmas Crab
 Worm, lungfish, garden snail
 Cane toad, lady beetles, desert tortoise
 Wolves hunt in packs
 Musk oxen live in herds and protect each other by
forming a circle with their horns pointing out
 Birds stay together in flocks as they migrate
 Baboons form troops for both defense and
cooperative living
diagram or example
Biome Notes
variations
geographic
isolation
extinction
7
 differences in traits
among members of a
species
 good for the overall
success of a species
 useful traits are likely to
live longer
 likely to have more
offspring and pass on
their helpful traits
 Through natural
selection, variations can
lead to the formation of
new species from
existing species.
 When a part of a
population of the same
species become
separated by a physical
barrier (body of water,
mountains, etc.) and
divide into two different
species.
 the permanent dying
out of an entire species
of organisms
 Sometimes, when
conditions change, a
species does not change.
Biome Notes
8