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Transcript
Freshman English I
Clifford
3/25/14
 Purpose: To analyze sentences and see how the words
are working both dependently and independently
 Learn ACT test taking strategies
 Objective: I can manipulate phrases to fit my
purposes.
 Prepositional
 Appositive
 Verbals
 We already know that a preposition is a part of speech
(NAACP VIP)
 We know that a preposition is used in the phrase
construction.
 We know the noun at the end of the phrase is called
the object of the preposition.
 We know that it is good to isolate the prepositional
phrase from the rest of the sentence by using
parentheses.
What we have not studied thus far is how the entire
prepositional phrase can function like an adverb or an
adjective. Just like other nouns function as subjects,
objects and predicate nominatives.
 Adverb phrase
 Adjective phrase
 Identify the prepositional phrase and the object of the
preposition in the following sentence:
 1. “The Cape buffalo is the most dangerous of all big
game.”
 2. “Here in my preserve on this island,” he said...
 Which functions as an adjective and which functions
as an adverb?
 is a noun or pronoun that renames another noun or
pronoun in a sentence.
 We know that predicate nominatives can do this. This
is an extension of that idea. Using appositive phrases
allows writers to be concise in their language and helps
not to be “wordy.”
 Punctuation is important. The ACT loves to assess on
simple things like punctuation. This falls under the
“pick the BEST answer.”
 Essential
 Nonessential
 Essential appositive phases require NO punctuation.
 Nonessential appositive phrases REQUIRES
COMMAS.
 Examples:
 Essential: Football player Michael Wash scored the
winning touchdown.
 Nonessential: Quarterback, Michael Wash, scored the
winning touchdown.
 Identify each appositive phrase as nonessential and
essential.
 1. Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, over
came her disability.
 2. Rudolph was born with the disease Polio.
 There are three types of verbal phrases:
 participles,
 gerunds,
 and infinitives.
Verbals LOOK like verbs, but they FUNCTION as a
different part of speech. VERBALS will never act as the
VERB!
 They look like verbs, but they function as adjectives.
They end in -ed (past tense) or -ing (present tense).
 Example: The crying baby fell from the crib.
 Question: What is the verb?
 ALWAYS end in –ing. They function as NOUNS;
therefore, they can do anything a noun can do.
(subject, predicate nominative, indirect object, direct
object, and object of the preposition)
 Example: Swimming is my favorite summer activity.
 Question: What is the verb?
 These are “To + a verb” These can also function as
nouns, adjective, or adverb.
 Example: I love to ski.
 Question: What is the verb?
 Identify the following phrases as a participle, gerund,
or an infinitive.
 1. Declining interest has damaged football programs.
 2. It is a shame that so many sport stars are unwilling
to help those in need.
 3. Horseback riding is very dangerous if you do not
know what you are doing.
 To really understand how grammar works, we need to
understand phrases because the phrases show how all
the parts of speech work together.