Freshman English I Clifford 3/25/14 Purpose: To analyze sentences and see how the words are working both dependently and independently Learn ACT test taking strategies Objective: I can manipulate phrases to fit my purposes. Prepositional Appositive Verbals We already know that a preposition is a part of speech (NAACP VIP) We know that a preposition is used in the phrase construction. We know the noun at the end of the phrase is called the object of the preposition. We know that it is good to isolate the prepositional phrase from the rest of the sentence by using parentheses. What we have not studied thus far is how the entire prepositional phrase can function like an adverb or an adjective. Just like other nouns function as subjects, objects and predicate nominatives. Adverb phrase Adjective phrase Identify the prepositional phrase and the object of the preposition in the following sentence: 1. “The Cape buffalo is the most dangerous of all big game.” 2. “Here in my preserve on this island,” he said... Which functions as an adjective and which functions as an adverb? is a noun or pronoun that renames another noun or pronoun in a sentence. We know that predicate nominatives can do this. This is an extension of that idea. Using appositive phrases allows writers to be concise in their language and helps not to be “wordy.” Punctuation is important. The ACT loves to assess on simple things like punctuation. This falls under the “pick the BEST answer.” Essential Nonessential Essential appositive phases require NO punctuation. Nonessential appositive phrases REQUIRES COMMAS. Examples: Essential: Football player Michael Wash scored the winning touchdown. Nonessential: Quarterback, Michael Wash, scored the winning touchdown. Identify each appositive phrase as nonessential and essential. 1. Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, over came her disability. 2. Rudolph was born with the disease Polio. There are three types of verbal phrases: participles, gerunds, and infinitives. Verbals LOOK like verbs, but they FUNCTION as a different part of speech. VERBALS will never act as the VERB! They look like verbs, but they function as adjectives. They end in -ed (past tense) or -ing (present tense). Example: The crying baby fell from the crib. Question: What is the verb? ALWAYS end in –ing. They function as NOUNS; therefore, they can do anything a noun can do. (subject, predicate nominative, indirect object, direct object, and object of the preposition) Example: Swimming is my favorite summer activity. Question: What is the verb? These are “To + a verb” These can also function as nouns, adjective, or adverb. Example: I love to ski. Question: What is the verb? Identify the following phrases as a participle, gerund, or an infinitive. 1. Declining interest has damaged football programs. 2. It is a shame that so many sport stars are unwilling to help those in need. 3. Horseback riding is very dangerous if you do not know what you are doing. To really understand how grammar works, we need to understand phrases because the phrases show how all the parts of speech work together.