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```4.3: “Trends in the Periodic Table”
1. A ____________ is a ___________________ change in a particular direction.
a. Understanding a trend among ____________ lets you make ________________
b. These trends in ________________ can be explained in terms of
__________________ ______________________.
2. A ____________(or family) is a _________________ column in the periodic table.
a. A _______________ is a horizontal _____________ in the periodic table.
3. Ionization energy: the _______________ required to remove an
_________________ from an atom or ion.
4. Trend: Ionization energy __________________ as you move down a
_______________ and ______________ left to right across a ___________.
5. Why does ionization energy decrease as you move down a group?
a. Each element has more occupied energy ______________ than the element
__________ it has.
b. The ___________________ electrons are farthest from the ______________
in elements near the _____________ of a group and require ____________
energy to remove.
c. As you move down a group, each successive element contains more
_____________in the energy levels between the _______________ and the
__________________ electrons. This is called electron shielding.
d. Electron Shielding: the ___________________ of the attractive force between
a positively charged _______________ and its outermost ________________
due to the cancellation of some of the __________________ charge by the
__________________ charges of the inner electrons.
6. Why does ionization energy increase as you move left to right across a period?
a. From one element to the next in a _______________, the number of
_____________ and the number of ________________ increase by 1 each.
b. The additional ______________ increases the nuclear _______________
(more + charge in nucleus)
c. A _________________ nuclear charge more _________________ attracts the
outer electrons in the same energy level, but the electron-shielding effect from
inner-level electrons remains the _____________.
d. ______________ energy is required to remove an electron because the
___________________ force on them is _________________.
7. The exact size of an ____________ is hard to determine because the
_______________ cloud has no clear-cut ____________.
a. In addition, the physical and chemical state of an atom can __________ the size
of the _______________ _____________.
b. One method for calculating the __________ of an atom involves calculating the
_______________ ____________.
c. Bond Radius: ___________ the distance from center to ______________ of 2
like atoms that are ________________ together.
8. Trend: Atomic radius ____________ as you move down a _______________ and
decreases left to right across a _______________.
9. Why does atomic radius increase as you move down a group?
a. As you move from one ________________ down to the next in a
_____________, another principle ____________ level is filled with electrons.
b. The addition of another level of electrons _____________ the size, or atomic
c.
Because of _______________ _________________, the effective nuclear
charge acting on the outer electrons is almost constant as you move down a
_______________.
10. Why does atomic radius decrease as you move left to right across a period?
a. As you move from left to right across a _______________, each atom has one
more _____________ and one more ____________ than the atom before it has.
b. All additional electrons go into the ____________ principle energy levels – no
________________ are being added to the _____________ levels.
c. Electron shielding does ____________ play a role as you move ____________ a
period.
d. As the nuclear charge ___________ across a period, the effective nuclear charge
acting on the outer electrons also _______________, pulling the electrons closer
and closer to the ______________.
11. Why does the atomic radius level out after group _________?
a. As the outermost ______________ are pulled closer to the ____________,
they also get closer to one another and the _______________ between these
electrons gets stronger.
b. Finally, a point is reached where the electrons will _________ come closer to the
____________ because they would be too close to each other and the atomic
12. Atoms often _______________ to one another to form a _________________.
a. These bonds can involve ____________________ electrons, but not all atoms
___________ electrons _________________.
b. Electronegativity: a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to
attract ______________.
c. The atom with the __________________ electronegativity will _____________
the electrons more _____________ than the other atom will.
It will HOG the electron!
13. _______________ is the biggest electron ____________ of all.
a. It has the ___________ electronegativity value of ________ of all the elements
on the periodic table.
14. Trend: Electronegativity ____________as you move down a _____________ and
______________ left to right across a ________________.
15. Why does electronegativity decrease as you move down a group?
a. As you move down a ___________, another principle _____________ level is
_______________ with electrons.
b. The _______________ between the ______________ and the ____________
energy levels ________________.
c. The ________________ distance means that the ______________ cannot
attract ________________ electrons as strongly.
16. Why does electronegativity increase as you move across a period?
a. As you move across a _________________, each atom has one more
_____________ and one more ____________ - in the ______________
principle energy level – than the atom before it has.
b. Electron shielding does __________ change as you move across a ____________
because no _________________ are being added to the _____________ levels.
c. The effective nuclear charge _____________ across a period.
(more + charge in nucleus)
d. As this increases, ________________ are attracted much more
_______________, resulting in an increase in ___________________.
17. Electron affinity: the ____________ change that occurs when a ____________ atom
gains an _______________.
a. Electron affinity is different from _____________________ because
electronegativity is a measure of the atom’s attraction for an ____________
when the atom is ____________ to another atom.
18. Trend/Why: Electron affinity tends to_____________ as you move down a
___________ because of ___________ ___________.
a.
Electron affinity tends to ___________ as you move across a ___________
because of increasing ____________ ___________.
19. Trend: Melting and boiling points reach 2 different __________ as d and p
___________ fill with _________________.
20. Why do melting and boiling points reach 2 different peaks?
a. From left to right across period 6, the melting points and boiling points at first
_______________.
b. As the number of _______________ in each element increases,
______________ bonds between atoms can form.
c. Stronger bonds mean __________ energy is needed for melting and boiling to
occur.
d. Near the middle of the d-block of elements, the melting and boiling points reach a
_______________.
21. As more _________________ are added, they begin to form ____________ within the
d orbitals.
a. Because of the decrease in unpaired _________________, the bonds that the
atoms can form with each other become ______________.
b. As a result, these elements have ________________ melting and boiling points
22. As you move past mercury in period 6, the melting points and boiling points again begin to
____________ as electrons are now added to the ______________ and the same
_________ in _______________ and _______________ points are seen.
a. The ______________ gases have __________ bonding forces between atoms
because they have no ______________ electrons.
b. Their melting and boiling points are unusually _____________.
```
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