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Transcript
Name: ___________________________________________________________________ Date: _____________________ Period: ________
VOCABULARY TERMS
Topics: Earthquakes
#
1
Vocabulary Term
Modeling (scientific)
Definition
Scientific modeling is a scientific activity that aims to make a particular
part or feature of the real world easier to understand or simulate.
2
Earthquake
Vibrations caused by the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a plate
boundary or fault in Earth’s crust.
3
Model (scientific)
A “testable idea” created by the human mind that tells a story about what
happens in nature. All models have limitations — no model can possibly
explain every detail of a scientific phenomena.
4
Seismic
Scientists use seismic waves to measure how big an earthquake is. They
use a device called a seismograph to measure the size of the waves. The
size of the waves is called the magnitude.
5
Refraction
The bending of seismic or energy waves when they pass through one medium
(substance) to another.
6
Particle Motion
7
Types of Earthquake
Waves
The movements of particles of material as specific types of waves move
through a specific material.
Primary Wave: Known as a “p-wave”, is a type of seismic wave that causes
particles in the ground to move in a push-pull motion similar to a coiled spring.
Secondary Wave: Known as a “s-wave”, is a type of seismic wave that causes
particles to move in an up-down motion.
Rolling Wave: Known as a “r-wave”, is a type of surface seismic wave that on
the surface of the Earth moves in a rolling manner.
Lateral Wave: Known as a “l-wave”, is a type of surface seismic wave that on
the surface of the Earth moves in a side-to-side manner.
8
Epicenter
9
Focus
The location on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus.
A single location inside the Earth where seismic waves originate and rocks first
move along a fault.
(Hint: This is the starting point for an earthquake.)
10
Seismic Shock Wave
11
Aftershock
Energy that travels as vibrations on and in Earth. They move quickly at 20
times the speed of sound.
A smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake.
Name: ___________________________________________________________________ Date: _____________________ Period: ________
12
Trenches
A deep “ditch” in the ocean floor formed at subduction zone due to a
convergent plate boundary. It is here where earthquakes are common due to a
slab-pull motion generating a lot of friction between plates.
13
Friction
14
Richter Scale
15
Mercalli Scale
Friction is the resistance of motion when one object rubs against another.
Anytime two objects rub against each other, they cause friction.
A numerical scale for expressing the magnitude (strength) of an
earthquake based on seismograph readings. This scale ranges from 0 to 10,
where a 10 is the strongest reading.
A scale of earthquake intensity based on human observed effects. The
scale ranges from I (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing
almost total destruction). Scale is from 1-12.
(Hint: Roman numeral I = 1)
(Hint: Roman numeral XII = 12)
16
Seismometer
An instrument that measures and records ground motion and can be used to
determine the distance seismic waves travel.
(This picture below shows an image of a seismograph recording) YOU DO
NOT NEED TO DRAW THIS.
17
Triangulation
A method used to determine exactly where the earthquake’s epicenter is
located. It is called triangulation because a triangle has three sides, and it
takes three seismographs (devices that detect earthquakes) to locate an
earthquake.
Name: ___________________________________________________________________ Date: _____________________ Period: ________