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Physical Science
4th Grade Review
States of Matter
Matter – Anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass – the amount of matter something contains
Solid – matter that has a definite shape and takes up a
definite amount of space
Liquid – matter that takes the shape of its container and
takes up a definite amount of space
Gas – matter that has no definite shape and takes up no
definite amount of space
Measuring Matter
Mass – measure on a pan balance (doesn’t rely
on gravity)
Volume – the amount of space something takes
– Measuring cups
– Length x width x height (box)
– Displacement method (#59)
Density – Compares the amount of matter to the
space that it takes up (mass ÷ volume)
How Water Interacts With Other
Solution – a mixtures in which atoms and molecules of
different kinds of matter are mixed evenly with each
Dissolves – when one material forms a solution with
another material
Solubility – a measure of the amount of a material that
will dissolve in another material.
Buoyancy – the ability of matter to float
– Solid denser than water will sink
– Liquids and gases can sink or float (maple syrup; helium rises)
Static Electricity
Charge – measure of the extra positive or negative
Static electricity – charge that stays on an object
Only negative charges move
Electric Force – push or pull between two objects (#14)
– negative and positive charges attract;
– positive-positive charges repel;
– negative-negative charges repel
Electric Field – the space where electric forces occur
around an object
Electric Field
Electric Currents
Electric Current – flow of electric charges (electrons)
Circuit – path made for an electric current (electrons)
Electric cell – (battery) supplies energy to move charges through a
Conductor – material that current can pass through easily
Insulator – material that current cannot pass through easily
Resistor – material that resists but doesn’t stop the flow of current
Series Circuit – a circuit that has only one path for the current
Parallel Circuit – a circuit that has more than one path for a current to
travel (#12)
Series and Parallel Circuits
Series Circuit
Parallel Circuit
Magnet – an object that attracts certain materials (iron or
Magnetic poles – ends of a magnet (north- or southseeking pole)
Magnetic field – space all around a magnet where the
force of the magnet can act (strongest at the poles)
– North and south poles attract (field strongest #15)
– North-north poles repel;
– South-south poles repel
Compasses – compass needle points along an
imaginary line connecting the North and South poles
Magnetic Poles & Fields
A current in a wire produces a magnetic field around the
Electromagnet – an arrangement of wire wrapped
around a core (the more coils wrapped around the core
produces a stronger magnet (#13)
An electromagnet and a magnet have one main
difference – you can turn “off” an electromagnet
A magnetic field can produce electricity
– If you move a coil of wire near a magnet, current flows in the wire
– A coil of wire, a magnet and electricity can cause motion (electric
motor) (#17)