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TEXTBOOK WORKSHEET: LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY Where was the Maya civilization located? Central America and Southern Mexico (near the Yucatan Peninsula) During what years did it exist? A.D. 300 - 900 What were some examples of how the Mayas were advanced in the use of mathematics and science? Mayas studied the movements of the planets and stars and developed an accurate calendar. They also created a number system using decimals and zero. What happened to the Maya civilization? What happened to the Maya is still a mystery, but possible reasons the civilization collapsed include famine, crop failure, drought, disease, and war. Where was Aztec civilization located? The Valley of Mexico in Central Mexico When did the Aztec Empire get started? In the 1100s. Their capital (Tenochtitlan) was built starting in A.D. 1325. Where was Inca civilization located? Up and down the Andes from Ecuador to Argentina. What evidence do we have that the Incas were excellent builders? Aqueducts for irrigation, stone walls built with shaped stones which held together without cement. What did the treaty of Tordesillas decide? This treaty established the line of longitude which would determine what territories in the New World would belong to Spain and what would belong to Portugal. The only part of South America which would end up in Portuguese territory was Brazil. Who were the conquistadors and why did they want to come to the Americas? They were conquerers who came in search of gold and other treasures. When did the Spanish arrive in the Aztec Empire? 1519 Who was their leader? Hernan Cortes Why did the Aztecs welcome the Spanish soldiers into the city? The Aztecs had never seen horses or modern armor so they thought that the spanish soldiers were gods. When did the Spanish arrive in the Inca Empire? 1531 Who was their leader? Francisco Pizarro Why was it so easy for small groups of Spanish soldiers to conquer these two powerful empires? The Spanish soldiers had many advantages in battle, such as steel weapons, guns, and horses. They also brought diseases to which the Native Americans had no immunity. Who are Mestizos? They are people whose ancestry is a mix of Native American and European backgrounds Which was the first colony in this region to break away from Europe? Haiti Who led this revolution in 1804? Toussaint LʼOuverture When did Mexicoʼs revolution begin? The revolution began in 1810, with Mexico finally defeating the Spanish in 1821. Who was the leader who helped to liberate Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama? Simon Bolivar Why was the Panama Canal built? The canal was built to shorten the trip from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans so ships did not have to sail all the way around the bottom of South America. What scientific innovations made the canal possible? In addition to overcoming construction problems, the builders of the canal had to discover ways to prevent the workers from developing tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. When did the Panamanians gain control of the Canal Zone? The U.S. government transferred control of the Canal Zone in 1978. How and when did Puerto Rico become U.S. territory? Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony until the U.S. defeated Spain in the SpanishAmerican War in 1898. How are the rights and duties of Puerto Ricans different from other American citizens? Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, it has its own constitution and government but its government is still connected to the U.S. federal government. Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens but do not vote in presidential elections or pay U.S. taxes. They do, however, pay Puerto Rico taxes and can vote for local government officials.