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Where was the Maya civilization located? Central America and Southern Mexico
(near the Yucatan Peninsula)
During what years did it exist? A.D. 300 - 900
What were some examples of how the Mayas were advanced in the use of mathematics
and science?
Mayas studied the movements of the planets and stars and developed an
accurate calendar. They also created a number system using decimals and zero.
What happened to the Maya civilization?
What happened to the Maya is still a mystery, but possible reasons the
civilization collapsed include famine, crop failure, drought, disease, and war.
Where was Aztec civilization located? The Valley of Mexico in Central Mexico
When did the Aztec Empire get started?
In the 1100s. Their capital (Tenochtitlan) was built starting in A.D. 1325.
Where was Inca civilization located? Up and down the Andes from Ecuador to
What evidence do we have that the Incas were excellent builders?
Aqueducts for irrigation, stone walls built with shaped stones which held
together without cement.
What did the treaty of Tordesillas decide?
This treaty established the line of longitude which would determine what
territories in the New World would belong to Spain and what would belong to
Portugal. The only part of South America which would end up in Portuguese
territory was Brazil.
Who were the conquistadors and why did they want to come to the Americas?
They were conquerers who came in search of gold and other treasures.
When did the Spanish arrive in the Aztec Empire? 1519
Who was their leader? Hernan Cortes
Why did the Aztecs welcome the Spanish soldiers into the city?
The Aztecs had never seen horses or modern armor so they thought that the
spanish soldiers were gods.
When did the Spanish arrive in the Inca Empire? 1531
Who was their leader? Francisco Pizarro
Why was it so easy for small groups of Spanish soldiers to conquer these two powerful
The Spanish soldiers had many advantages in battle, such as steel weapons,
guns, and horses. They also brought diseases to which the Native Americans had
no immunity.
Who are Mestizos? They are people whose ancestry is a mix of Native American
and European backgrounds
Which was the first colony in this region to break away from Europe? Haiti
Who led this revolution in 1804? Toussaint L╩╝Ouverture
When did Mexico╩╝s revolution begin? The revolution began in 1810, with Mexico
finally defeating the Spanish in 1821.
Who was the leader who helped to liberate Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and
Simon Bolivar
Why was the Panama Canal built?
The canal was built to shorten the trip from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans so
ships did not have to sail all the way around the bottom of South America.
What scientific innovations made the canal possible?
In addition to overcoming construction problems, the builders of the canal had to
discover ways to prevent the workers from developing tropical diseases such as
malaria and yellow fever.
When did the Panamanians gain control of the Canal Zone? The U.S. government
transferred control of the Canal Zone in 1978.
How and when did Puerto Rico become U.S. territory?
Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony until the U.S. defeated Spain in the SpanishAmerican War in 1898.
How are the rights and duties of Puerto Ricans different from other American citizens?
Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, it has its own
constitution and government but its government is still connected to the U.S.
federal government. Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens but do not vote in
presidential elections or pay U.S. taxes. They do, however, pay Puerto Rico taxes
and can vote for local government officials.