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Section 1: The Rise of Islam “Say O Muslims: We believe in God and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the Prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them and unto Him we have surrendered.” The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs and Values In the 600s, the Arabian prophet Muhammad created the religion of Islam, which led to great changes in the social and political system of Southwest Asia. • Western Asia has given birth to some of the most powerful civilizations in history. • In the 7th Century, another force—The Arabs—arose in the Arabian Peninsula and spread their influence throughout Western Asia and beyond. • Arabs organized themselves into tribes to help one another survive the harsh environmental conditions. • Each tribe was ruled by a Sheikh who was chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders. • Each tribe was independent, yet loosely tied to one another. • Arabs lived as farmers and sheep herders on the oases and rain-fed areas of the desert. • The camel was domesticated in the 1st Millennium B.C. – Arabs populated more of the desert. – Trade increased. – Towns on the trade route began to develop. Early Arab Religion • Polytheistic • Recognized a supreme god named Allah, but also believed in other tribal gods • Arabs traced their ancestors to Abraham and his son Ishmael –They were believed to have build a house of worship called the Kabba at Makkah. Led to…. • Dangerous trade routes in Southwest Asia • Alternative trade travel through Makka and then by ship across the Indian Ocean • Towns prospering along this route • Increased tension between wealthy merchants and poorer clans of people and slaves • • • • • Born in Makka to a merchant family Orphaned by age 5 Grew up to become a caravan manager Married a rich widow, Khadija Overtime Muhammad became concerned about the growing gap between the generous Makkans and the greedy ones • Deeply worried he began to visit the hills to meditate During one of these visits, Muslims believe, Muhammad received revelations from God. According to Islamic teachings, the messages were given by the angel Gabriel. • Muhammad came to believe that Allah had already revealed himself through Moses and Jesus (and thus through the Hebrew and Christian traditions). • However the final revelations of Allah were being given to him. • These revelations were written down and formed the Quran, the holy book of Islam. • The word Islam means “peace through submission to the will of Allah.” • The Quran contains the ethical guidelines and laws by which the followers of Allah are to live. • Those who practice the religion of Islam are called Muslims. • Islam has only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is God’s prophet. • Muhammad’s wife, Khadija, urged him to follow Gabriel’s message. She became the first convert to Islam. • After 3 years, Muhammad had become discouraged in his attempt to spread his message. • In 622, the year 1 of the Islamic calendar, Muhammad and his supporters left Makkah and moved north to Yathrib, later named Madihah. •The journey to Madinah is known as the Hijrah. •Muhammad began to win support from the people of Madinah as well as Arabs in the desert known as the bedouin. • Submission to Allah also meant submission to his prophet, so Muhammad soon became both a religious and political leader. • Muhammad put together a military force. • In 630, Muhammad returned to Makka with 10,000 men. • After the city surrendered, and most of the people converted to Islam, Muhammad declared the Kabba a sacred shrine of Islam. • Monotheistic • Emphasis on salvation and offers the hope of an afterlife • Those who desire to achieve life after death must subject themselves to the will of Allah. • Islam does not believe that its first preacher was divine. Muhammad was a man like other men. • Belief • Prayer • Charity • Fasting • Pilgrimage • Practical laws to regulate daily life • Based on interpretations of Quran and example set by Muhammad • Regulates all aspects of Muslim life – Family – Business – Government – Moral Conduct • must worship according to the Five Pillars. • must practice honesty and justice in dealing with others. • are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcohol, or engage in dishonest behavior. • must base their family lives on marriage.