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Section 1: The Rise
of Islam
“Say O Muslims: We believe in
God and that which is revealed
unto us and that which was
revealed unto Abraham, and
Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and
the tribes, and that which Moses
and Jesus received, and that which
the Prophets received from their
Lord. We make no distinction
between any of them and unto Him
we have surrendered.”
The BIG Idea
Ideas, Beliefs and Values
In the 600s, the Arabian prophet
Muhammad created the religion of
Islam, which led to great changes
in the social and political system of
Southwest Asia.
• Western Asia has given birth to
some of the most powerful
civilizations in history.
• In the 7th Century, another
force—The Arabs—arose in
the Arabian Peninsula and
spread their influence
throughout Western Asia and
• Arabs organized themselves into
tribes to help one another survive
the harsh environmental
• Each tribe was ruled by a Sheikh
who was chosen from one of the
leading families by a council of
• Each tribe was independent, yet
loosely tied to one another.
• Arabs lived as farmers and
sheep herders on the
oases and rain-fed areas of
the desert.
• The camel was
domesticated in the 1st
Millennium B.C.
– Arabs populated more of the
– Trade increased.
– Towns on the trade route
began to develop.
Early Arab Religion
• Polytheistic
• Recognized a supreme god named
Allah, but also believed in other tribal
• Arabs traced their ancestors to
Abraham and his son Ishmael
–They were believed to have build a
house of worship called the Kabba
at Makkah.
Led to….
• Dangerous trade routes in Southwest
• Alternative trade travel through Makka
and then by ship across the Indian
• Towns prospering along this route
• Increased tension between wealthy
merchants and poorer clans of people
and slaves
Born in Makka to a merchant family
Orphaned by age 5
Grew up to become a caravan manager
Married a rich widow, Khadija
Overtime Muhammad became concerned
about the growing gap between the
generous Makkans and the greedy ones
• Deeply worried he began to visit the hills
to meditate
During one of these
visits, Muslims
believe, Muhammad
revelations from
According to
Islamic teachings,
the messages were
given by the angel
• Muhammad came to believe that Allah had
already revealed himself through Moses
and Jesus (and thus through the Hebrew
and Christian traditions).
• However the final revelations of Allah were
being given to him.
• These revelations were written down
and formed the Quran, the holy book
of Islam.
• The word Islam means “peace
through submission to the will of
• The Quran contains the ethical
guidelines and laws by which the
followers of Allah are to live.
• Those who practice the religion of
Islam are called Muslims.
• Islam has only one God, Allah, and
Muhammad is God’s prophet.
• Muhammad’s wife, Khadija, urged
him to follow Gabriel’s message. She
became the first convert to Islam.
• After 3 years, Muhammad had
become discouraged in his attempt to
spread his message.
• In 622, the year 1 of the Islamic
calendar, Muhammad and his
supporters left Makkah and moved
north to Yathrib, later named
•The journey to
Madinah is
known as the
began to win
support from
the people of
Madinah as
well as Arabs
in the desert
known as the
• Submission to
Allah also
submission to
his prophet, so
soon became
both a religious
and political
• Muhammad put together a
military force.
• In 630, Muhammad returned to
Makka with 10,000 men.
• After the city surrendered, and
most of the people converted to
Islam, Muhammad declared the
Kabba a sacred shrine of Islam.
• Monotheistic
• Emphasis on salvation and offers
the hope of an afterlife
• Those who desire to achieve life
after death must subject
themselves to the will of Allah.
• Islam does not believe that its
first preacher was divine.
Muhammad was a man like
other men.
• Belief
• Prayer
• Charity
• Fasting
• Pilgrimage
• Practical laws to regulate daily life
• Based on interpretations of Quran and
example set by Muhammad
• Regulates all aspects of Muslim life
– Family
– Business
– Government
– Moral Conduct
• must worship according to the Five
• must practice honesty and justice in
dealing with others.
• are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink
alcohol, or engage in dishonest behavior.
• must base their family lives on marriage.