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Presentation Details:
Slides: 14
Duration: 00:07:20
Filename: C:\Users\jpage\Documents\NCVPS Learning Objects\American History II Isolationism to World Power Navigation to
PPT W\Module 3 Lesson 2 American Imperialism\AmHisII Mod 3 Les2 From Isolationism to World Power.ppt
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Slide 1
From Isolationism to World Power
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Slide 2
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Slide 3
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From Isolationism to World Power: US Foreign
Affairs and Imperialism
Imperialism. After temporarily resolving the
problems of Reconstruction and Industrialization,
Americans wanted to expand again. The Civil
War put on hold the original Manifest Destiny
that began in the 1840s. But now, as pioneers
settled the final remaining western frontiers,
expansionists looked yet farther to the west –toward Asia and the Pacific.
Imperialism continued. Leading expansionist
Captain Alfred T. Mahan cautioned that the
Pacific could “be entered and controlled only by
a vigorous contest.” As head of the Naval War
College, Mahan believed that America’s survival
depended upon a strong navy. He argued that
having a strong navy would require islands to
serve as naval bases. Mahan wrote that it was
time for Americans to turn their “eyes outward,
instead of inward only, to seek the welfare of the
Slide 4
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Slide 5
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Slide 6
Imperialism in Hawaii
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Matthew C. Perry, commander of the United
States naval forces in the China seas, was an
expansionist. In 1852 he had warned President
Fillmore that the British, who had already taken
control of Hong Kong and Singapore, would soon
control all trade in the area. Perry believed that
the U.S. should take “active measures to secure
a number of ports of refuge” in Japan. President
Fillmore agreed with Perry, and in 1853 he
ordered the Commodore to open negotiations
with the Emperor of Japan.
As ships crossed the ocean to trade in Asia,
islands in the Pacific became important stops for
provisions, coal, and repairs. In the South
Pacific, the American navy negotiated with
natives for the rights to build bases on the
islands of Midway and Samoa. The Hawaiian
Islands, which were closest to the American
mainland, had been an important stop for the
Pacific fleet for a long time. Pearl Harbor, on the
island of Oahu, provided one of the most
attractive bases in the Pacific.
Imperialism in Hawaii. The Kanaka people of
Hawaii had been happy living in their traditional,
idyllic ways, with simple shelters as their homes,
yet mainland Americans were busy building huge
plantations, warehouses, railroads, drydocks,
banks, hotels, and stores there. Americans soon
dominated the island’s economy, and they were
able to influence its government as well. They
created and controlled Hawaii’s legislature and
cabinet, and they limited the power of the native
Slide 7
Imperialism in Hawaii
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Slide 8
Imperialism in Hawaii
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As the 19th century drew to an end, disputes
arose between the Kanaka and those of foreign
descent. “Hawaii for Hawaiians” became the
slogan of people who sought to restore the
traditional ways of the kingdom. Others called
for the annexation of Hawaii by the US in order
for it to become a U.S. territory, for it would
eliminate the recent trade restrictions on sugar
and revive Hawaii’s faltering economy. Secret
organizations, such as the Annexation Club,
plotted revolution.
During this time of unrest in Hawaii, Queen
Liliuokalani assumed the throne when her
brother died. She had already governed the
islands during her brother’s long absences and
was absolutely capable of controlling the
government. Like some islanders, she was not
happy to have so much American influence there
and she sought to eliminate this influence in the
government and tried to create a new
constitution that would strengthen her traditional
monarchy. However, her cabinet refused to
cooperate. American residents were outraged;
they organized the Committee of Safety and
appointed members of the Annexation Club as
its leaders. On January 17, 1893, armed
members of the committee attacked and took
over the government office building, abolishing
the monarchy and establishing a temporary
government. Sanford B. Dole, an elderly judge,
became its president.
The queen’s supporters tried to resist the
government but were captured. She finally
renounced all claim to the throne.
Slide 9
Imperialism in Hawaii
Duration: 00:00:24
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Slide 10
Roosevelt Corollary
Duration: 00:00:42
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In 1896, the election of Republican William
McKinley as President of the United States
revived Hawaiian hopes for annexation.
McKinley, like many Republicans, favored
expansionism and welcomed the new annexation
treaty. A joint resolution of Congress annexing
Hawaii passed both houses, and the islands
became American possessions.
Now let’s look at the Roosevelt Corollary.
Remember the Monroe Doctrine? It was
intended to keep European nations out of Latin
America, but the Roosevelt Corollary (put forth
by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904) was
used as a justification for the U.S. to intervene in
Latin America. One of Teddy Roosevelt most
famous sayings, if not the most famous, was:
“Speak softly, and carry a big stick.” Latin
Americans reacted little to the doctrine at first,
but as the years passed and the U.S. routinely
intervened in the Caribbean and Central
America, attitudes changed and U.S. was viewed
with increased distrust — and often with outright
Slide 11
Seward’s Folly
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Slide 12
Open Door Policy
Duration: 00:00:10
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Now, on to Seward’s Folly. William H. Seward,
Secretary of State under Presidents Abraham
Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, believed in
expansionism. Russia had been interested in
selling Alaska for many years, for the territory (in
their opinion) seemed to have little value and
was remote and hard to defend. An agreement
was signed in March 1867 and transferred
Alaska to the US in return for a payment of $7.2
million -- about 2.5 cents per acre for an area
twice the size of Texas. The treaty was ratified
by the U.S. Senate by a single vote. The press
criticized, portraying the newly acquired
wasteland as “Seward’s Folly,” “Seward’s
Icebox” or Johnson’s “polar bear garden.” Only
in the1890s, when gold was discovered in
Alaska, did public attitudes begin to change.
And you can imagine just how quickly they
Open door policy. As with expansion, interest in
Pacific rim and Asian trade increased. The US
adopted an open door policy as a way into
Slide 13
Open Door Policy
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Slide 14
World Power
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The Open Door Policy: John Hay, Secretary of
State, sent letters to all foreign powers and
suggested an “Open Door” policy in China,
guaranteeing equal trading rights for all and
preventing one nation from discriminating against
another within its sphere. The nations replied
that they liked the concept but that they could not
support or enforce it. Hay’s plan had been
politely rejected, yet he announced that since all
of the powers had accepted the Open Door in
principle, the United States considered their
agreement “final and definitive.”
As you can see, by the turn of the 20 Century,
America was on its way to becoming a world
power. But, with power comes responsibility.
How will the United States handle its new role as
the major leader in the world?