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I. Ottoman Empire forced
European traders to look
for all water routes to
India and China.
1. Portugal and Spain take
the lead
II. Spain: ruled by King
Ferdinand of Aragon and
Queen Isabella of Castile
1. Isabella and Ferdinand
financed Christopher
Columbus’s legendary
journey to the America’s.
Dear Christopher Columbus,
I think your idea is
very good. The voyage may
be tricky, but you'll
probably be able to sail to
the Indies and back in a
shorter time than the rest of
the paths. Although, it
might not work.
I hope you have fun.
Queen Isabella
2. Reconquista—campaign
began by Christians to
recapture Spain from the
Moors (Spanish
3. Inquisition—Isabella and
Ferdinand organized court to
seek out heresy.
A. Results:
a. Muslims and Jews
were questioned and
tortured into
admitting heresy
b.Those who refused to
convert to Christianity
were tortured, burned at
the stake, or exiled
(about 150,000 people)
Impact of Technology on
1. Printing Press—made books
on the world and geography
more available
2. gunpowder—brought to Europe
by Arab traders in 1200’s
A. European trading ships were
now equipped with cannons
3. Naval Technology:
A. cartographers—mapmakers
made more accurate maps
B. compass—Europeans learned to
use to tell direction at sea
C. astrolabe—developed by Arabs
to help figure out latitude at
Make a trading card for each of the following explorers:
♦Bartolomeu Dias (Pages 464-465)
♦Vasco da Gama (Page 466)
♦Christopher Columbus (Page 483-484 and 489)
♦Hernando Cortez (Pages 485-486)
♦Francisco Pizarro (Page 486-487)
For each explorer, include the following information of the lined side of
your index cards:
♦The years they sailed
♦The country they sailed for
♦Their goal
♦Their discovery/achievement
♦Their treatment towards the natives (Columbus, Cortez,
Pizarro ONLY!)
On the blank side of the index card, draw a picture depicting the explorer’s
discovery and achievement. DO NOT write the explorer’s name on the
picture side!
Using a different color for each explorer, plot
the voyages of each of the following
explorers on the blank map:
♦Bartolomeu Dias (Pgs 467)
♦Vasco da Gama (Pg 467)
♦Christopher Columbus in 1492 (Pg 484)
♦Hernando Cortez (Pgs 484)
♦Francisco Pizarro (Pg 484)
On the back side of your map, list each
explorer and describe:
♦Their discovery/achievement