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Transcript
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Psychological
Disorders
Introduction to Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disorders
Schizophrenia
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Psychological
Disorders
(continued)
Personality Disorders
Childhood Disorders
Other Disorders
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Psychological Disorders > Introduction to Psychological Disorders
Introduction to Psychological Disorders
• Defining "Normal" and "Abnormal"
• Classifying Abnormal Behavior: The DSM
• Classifying Abnormal Behavior: The DSM
• Defining "Normal" and "Abnormal"
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Psychological Disorders > Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
• Introduction to Anxiety Disorders
• Introduction to Anxiety Disorders
• Specific Phobia
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder
• Panic Disorder and Panic Attacks
• Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
• Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
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Psychological Disorders > Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
• Somatic Symptom Disorders
• Dissociative Disorders
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Psychological Disorders > Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders
• Explaining Mood Disorders
• Depressive Disorders
• Bipolar Disorders
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Psychological Disorders > Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
• Etiology of Schizophrenia
• Introduction to Schizophrenia and Psychosis
• The Schizophrenia Spectrum
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Psychological Disorders > Personality Disorders
Personality Disorders
• Cluster A: Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal Personality Disorders
• Cluster B: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic
Personality Disorders
• Introduction to Personality Disorders
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Psychological Disorders > Childhood Disorders
Childhood Disorders
• Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
• Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Psychological Disorders > Other Disorders
Other Disorders
• Eating Disorders
• Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
• Neurocognitive Disorders
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Appendix
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Psychological Disorders
Key terms
• agoraphobia The fear of wide open spaces, crowds, or uncontrolled social conditions.
• agoraphobia The fear of wide open spaces, crowds, or uncontrolled social conditions.
• amenorrhea Absence of menstrual discharge in biological females.
• amnesia Loss of memory; forgetfulness.
• amygdala The region of the brain, located in the medial temporal lobe, believed to play a key role in emotions such as fear and
pleasure in both animals and humans.
• anhedonia The inability to experience pleasure from activities typically considered enjoyable.
• anxiety An unpleasant state of mental uneasiness, nervousness, apprehension, and concern about some event or situation.
• autism Bio-neurological disorder observable in early childhood with symptoms of abnormal self-absorption, characterized by
lack of response to other humans and limited ability or desire to communicate and socialize.
• benzodiazepine A psychoactive drug that is generally safe and effective in the short term, though cognitive impairments,
aggression, or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur.
• binge A rapid and excessive consumption of food.
• catatonia A severe psychiatric condition characterized by a tendency to remain in a rigid state of stupor for long periods of time,
punctuated by short periods of extreme agitation.
• cognition Any element of knowledge including attitude, emotion, belief, or behavior.
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Psychological Disorders
• cognitive therapy A type of therapy that seeks to help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional
thinking and emotional responses.
• cognitive-behavioral therapy A therapeutic approach that combines behavioral and cognitive therapies to address maladaptive
behaviors and thoughts in order to shift negative emotions.
• comorbidity The presence of one or more disorders or diseases in addition to a primary disorder or disease.
• comorbidity The presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disorder or disease.
• comorbidity The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disorder or disease.
• comorbidity The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder.
• conduct disorder A psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood that presents itself through a persistent pattern of behavior in
which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
• delusion A false belief that is resistant to confrontation with actual facts.
• delusion A belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary.
• dementia An obsolete term referring to a progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain
beyond what might be expected from normal aging; areas particularly affected include memory, attention, judgement, language,
and problem solving.
• dependence An irresistible physical or psychological need, especially for a chemical substance.
• dissociate To experience a wide array of conditions from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe
detachment from physical and emotional experience.
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Psychological Disorders
• dopamine A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain's pleasure-and-reward system.
• dopamine A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention, learning, and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
• dual diagnosis Also called co-occurring disorders; the condition of suffering from a mental illness and a simultaneously
occurring substance abuse problem.
• dysthymia A milder form of clinical depression, characterized by low-grade depression which lasts at least 2 years.
• dysthymia A milder form of clinical depression, characterized by low-grade depression which lasts at least 2 years.
• ego-syntonic A psychological term referring to behaviors, values, and feelings that align with an individual's ideal self-image.
• egocentrism The constant following of one's egotistical desires to an extreme.
• Egodystonic Thoughts and behaviors (dreams, impulses, compulsions, desires) that are in conflict, or dissonant, with a
person's ideal self-image.
• Egosyntonic Behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or
consistent with one's ideal self-image.
• etiology The establishment of a cause, origin, or reason for something.
• fast The act or practice of abstaining from food or of eating very little food
• flat affect Apparent lack of emotion.
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Psychological Disorders
• hallucination A sensory perception of something that does not exist, arising from disorder of the nervous system, as in delirium
tremens; a delusion.
• hypochondriasis A mental disorder characterized by excessive fear of or preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite
medical results and reassurance to the contrary.
• hypomania A mild form of mania, especially as a phase of several mood disorders, characterized by euphoria or hyperactivity.
• hysteria A obsolete mental disorder, historically characterized by emotional excitability and physical symptoms without organic
cause.
• lithium A naturally occurring substance used as medication in the treatment of bipolar disorders.
• mania A state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/or energy levels.
• negative symptom Any behavior seen in people without the disorder that is lacking in the person with the disorder; a disorder of
omission.
• neurodegenerative Of, pertaining to, or resulting in the progressive loss of nerve cells and of neurologic function.
• neurosis A mental disorder, less severe than psychosis, marked by anxiety or fear.
• neurotransmitter Any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse
between two neurons.
• panic Overpowering fright, often affecting groups of people or animals.
• panic attack A sudden period of intense anxiety, mounting physiological arousal, fear, stomach problems, and discomfort that
are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms.
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Psychological Disorders
• pathology Any deviation from a healthy or normal condition; abnormality.
• personality The set of enduring behavioral and mental traits that distinguish an individual from other people.
• personality disorder A state in which an individual displays patterns of cognition, behavior, and emotion that differ from cultural
norms, cause distress and impairment, apply across many contexts, and have been exhibited over a long duration of time.
• physical integrity The inviolability of the physical body; emphasises on the importance of personal autonomy and the selfdetermination of human beings over their own bodies.
• positive symptom Any behavior not seen in people without the disorder that correlates with a loss of contact with reality; a
disorder of commission.
• Projection In psychodynamic psychology, a defense mechanism in which an individual attributes their own unacceptable or
unwanted attributes, thoughts, or emotions to other people.
• psychodynamic Of an approach to psychology that emphasizes the systematic study of psychological forces that underlie
human behavior, feelings, and emotions, as well as how these might relate to early experience.
• psychosis A severe mental disorder characterized by impairment in thoughts and emotion and often involving a loss of contact
with external reality.
• psychosis A severe mental disorder, sometimes with physical damage to the brain, marked by a distorted view of reality.
• psychotherapy The treatment of people diagnosed with mental and emotional disorders using dialogue and a variety of
psychological techniques.
• psychotic Of, related to, or suffering from a severe mental disorder marked by impaired emotions and thoughts and loss of
contact with reality.
• psychotic Of, related to, or suffering from a severe mental disorder marked by a loss of contact with reality.
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Psychological Disorders
• purge An evacuation of the bowels or a vomiting.
• resilience The mental ability to recover quickly from depression, illness or misfortune.
• serotonin An indoleamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine) that is involved in depression and is crucial in maintaining a
sense of well-being and security.
• serotonin An indoleamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine) that is involved in depression and is crucial in maintaining a
sense of well-being and security.
• serotonin An indoleamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine) that is involved in depression and that is crucial in
maintaining a sense of well-being and security.
• social norms Group-held beliefs about how members of that group should behave in a given situation.
• SSRI A class of medications typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some
personality disorders.
• SSRI Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; a class of medications typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of
depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders.
• stigma The disapproval and judgment of a person or group of people because they do not fit their community's social norms.
• stigma The societal disapproval and judgment of a person or group of people because they do not fit their community's social
norms.
• stress inoculation training (SIT) A cognitive-behavioral treatment approach that provides people with added psychological
resilience against the effects of stress through a program of managed successful exposure to stressful situations.
• stressor An environmental condition or influence that causes distress for an organism.
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Psychological Disorders
• synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve
impulses pass.
• volition The mental power or ability of choosing; will.
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Psychological Disorders
Instability in Emotions and Relationships
A central feature of BPD is markedly unstable relationships and sense of self, as well as an intense fear of abandonment.
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annabrixthomsen.com. "Anna Brix Thomsen." CC BY http://media1.annabrixthomsen.com/2012/05/emotion_portrait_no_1_by_jella_bella.jpg View on
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Psychological Disorders
Alzheimer's and the brain
This PET scan shows the image of the brain of a person with Alzheimer's disease, indicating a loss of function in the temporal lobe.
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Wikiwand. "440px-PET_Alzheimer.jpg." Public domain http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Alzheimer's_disease View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Schizophrenia
This self-portrait of a person with schizophrenia represents their perception of a distorted experience of reality.
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Wikipedia. "Artistic_view_of_how_the_world_feels_like_with_schizophrenia_-_journal.pmed.0020146.g001.jpg." CC BY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Artistic_view_of_how_the_world_feels_like_with_schizophrenia_-_journal.pmed.0020146.g001.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Paranoid personality disorder
People with paranoid personality disorder are characterized by a pervasive, long-standing suspicion and general mistrust of others.
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Wikimedia commons. "723px-PF-paranoia.jpg." Public domain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PF-paranoia.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Poor Self-Image
Sufferers of eating disorders may also suffer from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a mental illness characterized by obsession with perceived body
defects that are unnoticeable to the public or do not exist at all, such as being overweight.
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Examiner. CC BY http://www.examiner.com/images/blog/replicate/EXID52140/images/bdd(1).jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Hypochondriac
This image "Hypochondriac" by graphic artist Jozsef Farago shows a man who has hypochondriasis. Hypochondriasis is characterized by a persistent
fear of illness.
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Wikimedia. "József Faragó (1866-1906) hungarian graphic artist Hypochondriac." CC BY-SA
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Psychological Disorders
Symptoms of depression
Individuals suffering from depression often have feelings of sadness or emptiness, but equally often, they don't feel anything at all.
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Myrko Thum. CC BY-SA http://www.myrkothum.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/depression_lost.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
The diversity of the autism spectrum
The rainbow-colored infinity symbol represents the diversity of the autism spectrum as well as the greater neurodiversity movement. The neurodiversity
movement suggests that diverse neurological conditions appear as a result of normal variations in the human genome. It challenges the idea that such
neurological differences are inherently pathological, instead asserting that differences should be recognized and respected as a social category on a par
with gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability status.
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Wikiwand. "440px-Autism_spectrum_infinity_awareness_symbol.svg.png." CC BY-SA 4.0 http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Autism_spectrum View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Embroidery by a schizophrenia sufferer
Art produced by patients with schizophrenia can provide insight into their subjective experience and how their minds work. This cloth was embroidered
by an individual with schizophrenia and demonstrates the disorganized cognition associated with the disease.
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Wikimedia. "Cloth embroidered by a schizophrenia sufferer." CC BY http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cloth_embroidered_by_a_schizophrenia_sufferer.jpg
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Psychological Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycles of depressive and manic episodes.
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Holy Hormones Journal. CC BY http://holyhormones.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Bipolar-Disorder-test.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Brain composition and bipolar disorder
MRI studies indicate many compositional differences between brains of individuals with bipolar disorder and individuals without. This supports the idea
that bipolar disorder is a confluence of both environmental and biological factors.
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Bipolar Lives. CC BY http://www.bipolar-lives.com/images/innerviews.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Conduct Disorder
Features of conduct disorder (CD) are necessary for a diagnosis of ASPD. CD is childhood behavior disorder characterized by aggressive and
destructive activities that violate social norms and the rights of others.
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Mind Disorders. CC BY-SA http://www.minddisorders.com/photos/conduct-disorder-834.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder is characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that recurrently
control a person's behavior, and is accompanied by memory impairment for important information not explained by ordinary forgetfulness. Each of the
distinct identities or personalities has its own way of perceiving, thinking about, and relating to itself and the environment.
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Wikimedia. "Dissociative identity disorder." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dissociative_identity_disorder.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Compulsion
Excessive hand-washing is a common compulsion found in individuals with OCD.
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Setengah Baya. CC BY http://setengahbaya.info/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Akibat-Tidak-Cuci-Tangan-Setelah-Mengunakan-Kamar-Mandi-300x225.jpg View on
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Psychological Disorders
Substance Use, Addiction, and Effects
Individuals suffering from substance use disorder and addiction may engage in the use of many substances. This can lead to personal problems such as
failing health and unemployment, and interpersonal problems such as broken families and alienation.
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Drug Addition. "Drug Addiction." CC BY-SA http://www.drugaddiction.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/bigstock_Drug_Addiction_694183.jpg View on
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Psychological Disorders
Anxiety and stress
Anxiety disorders can arise in response to life stresses such as financial worries or chronic physical illness.
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Relieve Anxiety Now. "What is Anxiety Disorder?." CC BY http://relieveanxietynow.com/what-is-anxiety-disorder/ View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Cultural Ideal of Perfection
The common practice of editing photos before publishing leads many women of all ages to strive towards an unrealistic ideal.
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Wordpress. CC BY http://i1.wp.com/mamamia-cdn.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/gallery/celebs-without-the-shop/Nicki%20Webster.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Causes of schizophrenia
A variety of factors have been associated with schizophrenia, including genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and neurotransmitter imbalances.
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Wikimedia. "Schizophrenia flowchart." GNU FDL http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Schizophrenia_flowchart.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Symptoms of Panic Attacks
One of the main symptoms of panic attacks is hyperventilation, a tight chest, and difficulty breathing.
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Emory University. CC BY http://www.psychiatry.emory.edu/PROGRAMS/Emoryclinicaltrials/images/panic.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy
Münchausen syndrome by proxy is when an individual will go to great lengths to make another individual ill (usually, their own children) in order to
benefit from the attention. They may induce symptoms in the proxy using drugs or other means. It is an obsessive want to create symptoms for the victim
in order to obtain repeated medication or even operations.
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She Knows. CC BY http://cdn.sheknows.com/articles/2010/03/Numbers/child-in-hospital-with-doll.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
The physical symptoms of a panic attack
Some of the physical manifestations of a panic attack can include dizziness, shortness of breath, sweating, trembling, feelings of faintness, chest pain, or
a fear of losing control.
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OpenStax CNX. "CNX Psychology, Psychology. August 12, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:92/AnxietyDisorders View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Instability in Emotions and Relationships
A central feature of BPD is markedly unstable relationships and sense of self, as well as an unreasonable fear of abandonment.
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Anna Brix Thomsen. CC BY http://media1.annabrixthomsen.com/2012/05/emotion_portrait_no_1_by_jella_bella.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
NAMI logo
The National Alliance on Mental Illness aims to reduce societal stigma and shaming of various mental illnesses.
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Wikimedia. "NAMI_logo.gif." Public domain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NAMI_logo.gif View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
SSRIs as treatment for GAD
SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are a type of drug frequently used to treat disorders with symptoms of depression (e.g., major depressive
disorder) and anxiety.
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Human Illnesses. CC BY-SA http://www.humanillnesses.com/images/hdc_0000_0001_0_img0054.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder
One of the main characteristics of GAD is excessive, constant, often irrational worry that impedes the individual's normal daily functioning.
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Static Flckr. CC BY http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5069/5561412422_7d09e1b02f_o.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Spider phobia
Specific phobias can produce a wide variety of physical symptoms, such as nausea, increased heartbeat, dizziness, and sweaty palms. (Hope you don't
have a phobia of spiders!)
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Wiki commons. "Spider-phobia.jpg." Public domain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spider-phobia.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
Social Phobia
Social phobia is the fear of being in any situation that carries with it the possibility of being criticized, including eating with others and public speaking.
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Paradigm Malibu. CC BY http://paradigmmalibu.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Social-Phobia-and-Anxiety.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
PTSD and Combat Exposure
Many veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have faced significant physical, emotional, and relational disruptions. Veterans are at a higher risk
than the normal male population for developing PTSD.
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St.Jude's Miracle Oil. CC BY-SA http://stjudesmiracleoil.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/ptsd.jpg View on Boundless.com
Psychological Disorders
DSM-5
The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the DSM-5, published in 2013.
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Wikimedia. "Dsm-5-released-big-changes-dsm5.jpg." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dsm-5-released-big-changes-dsm5.jpg View on
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Psychological Disorders
DSM changes over time
This figure demonstrates how one diagnosis, the diagnosis currently known as autism spectrum disorder, has changed with each version since the
creation of the DSM in 1952. In the earliest versions of the DSM, this condition was known as schizophrenic reaction, childhood type, and only children
could be diagnosed. In 1987, the diagnosis became known as autism, and was extended to adults. Today, autism is considered to be a wide spectrum of
disorders.
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Psychological Disorders
ADHD and academic performance
Many children with ADHD are unable to pay attention at school, leading to poor academic performance and sometimes isolation from peers.
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Psychological Disorders
Stigmatization and shame
A label of "abnormal" associated with mental illness may lead to stigmatization and subsequent feelings of shame and worthlessness, compounding the
struggles associated with the illness itself.
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Psychological Disorders
Attribution
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Psychological Disorders
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Psychological Disorders
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Psychological Disorders
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