Download cell biology final study guide

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Primary transcript wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Polycomb Group Proteins and Cancer wikipedia, lookup

Mir-92 microRNA precursor family wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

NEDD9 wikipedia, lookup

Final Exam Preparation Guide
Complete each statement using your notebook. This study guide is not intended to serve as the ONLY study material that you
use to prepare for the final exam, but help stimulate your thinking of concepts that we have covered this semester. All
material in your notebook is likely to be on the final.
Topics for this exam include: Biochemistry, Viruses/Bacteria, Cell Structure, Cells and their Environment, Cell Growth and
Division(Mitosis), Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction, Mendel and Heredity, DNA, RNA and Proteins, Biotechnology
1. Lipids are non polar molecules because they have no negative and positive poles.
2. A(n) carbohydrate contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.
3. Most proteins consist of two or more chains that twist and fold around each other.
4. All living things require a source of energy to carry out their life activities.
5. The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called activation energy
6. A biochemical reaction can be speeded up by adding a(n) enzyme which lowers the amount of activation energy
required to start the reaction.
7. The portion of an enzyme molecule into which a specific substrate can fit is called the active site
8. All cells arise from pre existing cells (Cell Theory)
9. The basic unit of structure and function in an organism is the cell
10. The statement that “cells arise only from existing cells” is part of the cell theory.
11. The surface area-to-volume ratio limits a cell’s size
12. Eukaryotic cells contain specialized structures called organelles
13. A cell with a nucleus is a(n) eukaryotic cell.
14. All substances that enter or leave a cell must cross the cell membrane.
15. The nucleus houses a cell’s DNA, which contains genetic material.
16. The organelles where protein synthesis occurs in a cell are called ribosomes.
17. Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane.
18. Some prokaryotic cells have a capsule that surrounds the cell wall.
19. Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus.
20. The web of protein fibers (made of microtubules) that supports the shape of the cell is called the cytoskeleton.
21. A ribosome is made of RNA and many proteins.
22. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to its surface.
23. Smooth E. R. has no attached ribosomes, makes steriods and helps transport materials through the cell.
24. Vesicles help maintain homeostasis by storing and releasing various substances as the cell needs them.
25. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of plant cells.
26. Both plant cells and animal cells have cell membranes. In addition, plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall.
27. In multicellular organisms, similar cells group together to make tissues.
28. One way cells maintain homeostasis is by controlling the movement of substances across the cell membrane
29. A(n) phospholipid is a specialized lipid made of a phosphate head and two fatty acid tails.
30. Ions and most polar molecules are repelled by the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer.
31. Proteins that aid in moving substances into and out of cells are called channel/integral proteins.
32. Integral Proteins are proteins in the cell membrane that help with important biochemical reactions inside the cell.
33. To reach equilibrium, substances always flow from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
34. Diffusion of ions through ion channels is a form of passive transport, which uses no energy (ATP).
35. The diffusion of water through cell membranes is called osmosis.
36. If a cell is placed in a(n) hypertonic solution, water will flow out of the cell.
37. If a cell is placed in a(n) hypOtonic solution, water will flow into the cell.
38. Active transport, like the sodium-potassium pump, requires the use of ATP (energy) by a cell.
39. Refer to the illustration above. The process shown in figure B is called exocytosis.
40. Refer to the illustration above. The process shown in figure A is called endocytosis.
41. Growth occurs through cell enlargement and cell division.
42. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is packaged into structures called chromosomes.
43. A duplicated chromosome consists of two identical chromatids which are held together at the centromere.
44. The sequence of events that occurs in a cell from one cell division to the next is called the cell cycle.
45. Collectively, the time spent in G1 + S + G2 is called interphase.
46. A cell’s DNA is copied during the synthesis phase.
47. “Cables” made of microtubules that extend from the poles of a cell to the chromosomes’ centromeres during cell
division are called spindle fibers.
48. In most eukaryotic cells, cytokinesis takes place after the nucleus divides.
49. After a new nuclear membrane forms during telophase of mitosis, the cytoplasm divides, resulting in two cells.
50. The cell cycle is controlled in eukaryotes at three principal checkpoints.
51. Loss of control and regulation of the cell cycle can result in the development of cancer.
52. Only sex cells can produce gametes. (sex cells examples of gametes)
53. The X and Y chromosomes are called the sex chromosomes.
54. In humans, a zygote with XX chromosomes will result in a(n) girl. (XY boy)
55. Somatic cells containing two sets of 23 chromosomes each are always diploid.
56. The process called meiosis guarantees that the number of chromosomes in gametes is half the number of
chromosomes in body cells.
57. A reciprocal exchange of corresponding segments of DNA is called crossing over which leads to genetic
58. The cells resulting from meiosis in either males or females are called gametes.
59. The process in which sperm and egg cells join is called fertilization.
60. The patterns that Mendel discovered form the basis of genetics the branch of biology that deals with heredity.
61. Mendel observed a 3:1 ratio of contrasting traits in the F2 generation for all seven of the pea-plant characters he
62. In Mendel’s experiments, a trait that disappeared in the F1 generation but reappeared in the F2 generation was
always a(n) recessive trait.
63. Different forms of a particular gene are called alleles.
64. The statement that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed is known as the law of
65. An organism’s genotype refers to the set of alleles it has inherited.
66. The detectable trait of an organism as determined by what alleles are present is the phenotype.
67. An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is called homozygous.
68. The principle that states that alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete
formation is the law of independent assortment.
In pea plants, tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t). Crosses between plants with these traits can be analyzed
using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.
69. Refer to the illustration above. The parents shown in the Punnett square could have offspring with a genotypic
ratio of 1:2:1
70. Refer to the illustration above. Box 2 and box 3 in the Punnett square represent plants that would be heterozygous
for the trait for tallness.
71. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the plant that would be represented in box 4 of the Punnett
square would be short.
72. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype of both parents shown in the Punnett square above is Tt.
73. If some of the offspring of a test cross have the recessive trait, then the genotype of the individual being tested is
74. The likelihood that a specific event will occur is called probability.
75. A trait that is determined by a gene that is only found on the X chromosome is said to be sex-linked.
76. Inheritance in which two dominant alleles are expressed at the same time is called codominance.
77. A character for which there are three or more alleles is said to have multiple alleles. An example is blood typing
78. A phenomenon in which a heterozygous individual has a phenotype that is intermediate between the phenotypes
of its two homozygous parents is called incomplete dominance.
79. Griffith’s experiment showed that live bacteria without capsules acquired the ability to make capsules from dead
bacteria with capsules in a process Griffith called transformation.
80. A DNA subunit composed of a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base is called a(n)
81. The name of the five-carbon sugar that makes up a part of the backbone of molecules of DNA is deoxyribose.
82. Watson and Crick determined that DNA molecules have the shape of a(n) double helix.
83. Transcription and translation are stages in the process of gene expression.
84. The second stage of gene expression is called translation.
85. The nitrogen-containing base that is found only in RNA is uracil.
86. The form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes is mRNA.
87. Messenger RNA is produced during the process of transcription.
88. The sequence of three nucleotides that code for specific amino acids or stop signals in the synthesis of protein is
called a(n) codon.
89. The information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA is used to make protein during the process of
90. The form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes is mRNA.
91. The genetic code is considered to be a universal code because it applies to almost all living organisms.
92. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is caused by using antibiotics so often that the bacterial genome is changed.
93. A round-shaped bacterium is called a(n) coccus.
94. A rod-shaped bacterium is called a(n) bacillus.
95. Structurally, bacteria have one of two types of cell walls that can be distinguished by the Gram stain.
96. The procedure used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall structures is called Gram staining.
97. The cell walls of bacteria are composed of peptidoglycan, a protein-carbohydrate compound.
98. Bacteria that get both energy and nutrients from other organisms are heterotrophs.
99. Protective structures that some bacteria may form under harsh conditions are endospores.
100. Segments of nucleic acids contained in a protein coat are called viruses.
101. The protein coat of a virus is called a(n) capsid.
102. All viruses reproduce by taking over the machinery of a(n) cell.
103. A viral reproductive cycle in which the host cell is not killed is a(n) lysogenic cycle.
104. Infectious single strands of RNA that have no capsid are called viroids.
105. A disease-causing agent is a(n) pathogen.
106. A(n) antibiotic is a substance that inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms and can be used as a drug to fight
pathogenic bacteria.
107. The human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS.
108. The process by which a dead or disabled pathogen (or proteins from that pathogen) is introduced into the body so
that an immune response results without an actual infection is called vaccination.