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Cell Division and Cancer Test Study Guide
Phases of Cell Division - Characteristics
● Interphase – the longest stage of the cell cycle; prepares a parent cell for mitosis
Cell growth, development and repairs occur while DNA duplicates
● Mitosis – contains 4 phases; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
o When the nucleus is divided
● Cytokinesis – completes the process of cell division
o Creates two identical daughter cells once completed
o Cell plate made of cellulose divides cells in plant cell division
Phases of Mitosis – Characteristics
1. Prophase
a. Spindle fibers begin to form to aid in cell division
b. Centrioles begin to move to opposite poles
c. Nuclear membrane dissolves
d. Chromatin thickens and condenses into chromosomes (46 pairs total)
2. Metaphase
a. Spindle fibers attach to the centromere
b. Chromosomes line up in the middle along the equator
3. Anaphase
a. Spindle fibers pull apart chromosome pairs and begin their journey to opposite ends (poles) of the cell
4. Telophase
a. Chromosomes finalize their journey to the ends of the cell
b. New nuclear membranes are formed around each set of chromatin
c. Cell membrane begins to pinch in
Nucleus – where a person’s genetic information is contained
Chromosomes – condensed rod of chromatin; made of DNA and protein; 23 pairs in the body, 46 total
Chromatids – identical strands of chromosomes
Centromere – joins the two chromatids together
Tumor – mass of cancer cells
Mutation – can be caused by the addition/deletion of a gene or a change in a cell’s DNA or DNA sequence
Chemotherapy – Drugs are put in the bloodstream to kill cancer cells/slow cancer cells’ growth
Radiation – use of beams of high-energy waves to treat cancer
Fission – the type of reproduction that bacteria complete
Cancer Facts
Heredity cancers make up only 5% of cancers.
The United States is a hot spot for breast cancer.
The highest percentage of cancer deaths in the US are from lung cancer.
The dramatic increase of lung cancer deaths are directly related to the amount of smoking during wartime.
If you have a late onset of puberty and late childbirth, your chance of getting breast cancer increases.
Potential cancer treatments
o Chemotherapy – drugs that circulate through the body and target cancer cells
o Radiation – rays that are used to target tumors
Cell Division and Cancer Test Study Guide