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Written Exam #4
Kinesiology Review
Erector Spinae Group
Erector Spinae Spinalis
Most medial portion of erectors –
attaches to spinous processes
Erector Spinae Spinalis
O.  Spinous processes of upper
lumbar and lower thoracic
vertebrae (thoracis)
Ligamentum nuchae, spinous
processes of C7 (cervicis)
Spinous processes of upper
thoracic (thoracis)
Spinous processes of
cervicals (except C1) (cervicis)
A. Extend and laterally flex
vertebrae to same side
Erector Spinae Longissimus
Intermediate member of erector
spinae – it is the longest. Attaches
to transverse processes of thoracic
and cervical vertebrae, as well as
ribs, and mastoid process
Erector Spinae Longissimus
O.  Common tendon (thoracis)
Transverse processes of upper
5 thoracic vertebrae (cervicis
and capitis)
Lower 9 ribs and transverse
processes of thoracic vertebrae
Transverse processes of
cervical vertebrae (cervicis)
Mastoid process of temporal
bone (capitiis)
Extend and laterally flex
vertebrae to same side
Erector Spinae Iliocostalis
Most lateral member of the erector
group – attaches to transverse
processes and to all 12 ribs
Erector Spinae Iliocostalis
O.  Common tendon (lumborum)
Posterior surface of ribs 1-12
Transverse processes of
lumbar vertebrae 1-3, posterior
surface of ribs 1-12, and
transverse processes of lower
A. Extend and laterally flex
vertebrae to same side
Muscles of the Back
Posterior view, deep layer
Quadratus Lumborum
Multifidi and Rotatores
Both muscles originate on
transverse processes and insert on
spinous processes, and have the
same actions. Multifidi are steeper
and longer than rotatores.
Sacrum and transverse
processes of lumbar
through cervical vertebrae
Spinous processes of lumbar
vertebrae through C2, inserting
2-4 vertebrae above origin
A.  Bilaterally – extend vertebral
Unilaterally – rotate vertebral
column to opposite side
O.  Transverse processes of
lumbar through cervical
Spinous processes of all
vertebrae, lumbar through C2
(spans 1-2 vertebrae).
A.  Bilaterally – extend vertebral
B.  Unilaterally – rotate vertebral
column to opposite side
Semispinalis Captits
O.  Transverse processes C4-T5
Between superior and inferior
nuchal lines of occiput
A.  Bilaterally – extend vertebral
column and head
Unilaterally – rotation to
opposite side
Hint – name includes the
insertion (capitis = head)
Muscles of Posterior
Posterior view, intermediate layer
Semispinalis capitis
All of the erector spinae laterally
flex or extend the spine
Multifidi, rotatores and semispinalis
capitis rotate or extend the spine.
All of the erector spinae laterally
flex or extend the spine
Multifidi, rotatores and semispinalis
capitis rotate or extend the spine.
Quadratus Lumborum
O.  Posterior iliac crest
12th rib and transverse
processes of L1-L4
A.  Bilaterally – fix 12th rib during
inhalation and exhalation
Unilaterally – laterally tilt the
pelvis, laterally flex vertebral
column to same side, assist to
extend vertebral column
Notice – yet another side-bending
Rectus Abdominis
O.  Pubic crest and pubic
Cartilages of ribs 5, 6, and 7,
and xyphoid process
A. Flex vertebral column, tilt pelvis
O.  Inner surface of lower 6 ribs,
upper two or three lumbar
vertebrae, inner part of
Central tendon
A. Draw down central tendon and
increases volume of thoracic
cavity during inhalation
O.  Inner surface of lower 6 ribs,
upper two or three lumbar
vertebrae, inner part of
Central tendon
A. Draw down central tendon and
increases volume of thoracic
cavity during inhalation
Pectoralis Minor
O.  Third, fourth and fifth ribs
Corocoid process of scapula
A. Depress, abduct and
downwardly rotate scapula
O.  Transverse processes of
cervical vertebrae
First and second ribs
A.  Unilaterally – laterally flex
head/neck to same side, rotate
to opposite side
Bilaterally - elevate ribs during
O.  Zygomatic arch
Angle and ramus of mandible
A. Elevate mandible
Cells of the body metabolize nutrients, producing wastes such as nitrogen,
ammonia , and urea which are toxic to the body.
Other substances also accumulate as a result of metabolic activities: sodium
chloride, sodium sulfate, phosphate, hydrogen molecules, and ions.
All of these waste materials must be excreted from the body for homeostasis to be
maintained and for metabolism to function optimally.
Several systems contribute to waste elimination – respiratory, integumentary,
digestive, and urinary .
The kidneys within the urinary system filter the waste products from the blood
and produce urine. It travels through the ureters and down to the urinary
bladder, which contains it until expelling it out of the body through the
Urinary Bladder
Eliminates wastes and foreign substances
Regulates chemical composition of blood
Regulates blood pH
Regulates blood volume and fluid balance
Regulates blood pressure
Maintains homeostasis
Kidneys Principal organs of the urinary system located in the upper
lumbar region. They process blood and form urine to be excreted.
Renal cortex
Outer region of the kidney where the nephron's
glomerulus and Bowman's capsule are located.
Renal medulla
Inner region of the kidney where the
nephron's loop of Henle is located.
Nephron Kidney's filtering unit. Parts: glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, renal
tubule .
Glomerulus In the nephron, a small ball of fine capillaries within the Bowman's
Bowman's capsule Hollow cup-shaped
of a nephron.
Filtrate Resulting fluid filtered from the blood in the nephron of the kidney.
After processing it becomes urine.
Renal tubule Small tube within the nephron through which filtrate flows as it is
being processed. Subdivided into proximal and distal tubule and the loop of
Collecting duct Structure made up of the distal tubules of several nephrons.
Joins several larger ducts to become the renal papilla.
Renal papilla Structure made up of multiple collecting ducts that join together.
Calyx (pl. calyces) Cup-like structure protruding from the renal papilla in the
kidney. Minor calyces join to form a major calyx that leads to the renal
Renal pelvis Large urine collection reservoir within the kidney. Forms the upper
region of the ureter.
Bowman's capsule → Renal tubule → Collecting duct →
Renal papilla → Minor calyx → Major calyx → Renal pelvis → Ureter
Juxtaglomerular apparatus Structure within the kidney that assists in
maintaining blood pressure. Consists of juxtaglomerular cells and
macula densa.
Renal artery → Afferent arteriole → Glomerulus → Efferent arteriole →
Peritubular capillaries → Renal venule → Renal vein → Inferior vena cava
Step 1: Filtration Water and small solids in the blood pass through the filtration
membrane and enter the Bowman's capsule. Proteins and blood cells remain
in the bloodstream.
Step 2: Reabsorption
of the filtrate is reabsorbed back into the blood
Step 3: Tubular secretion Before filtrate leaves the body as urine, a final
adjustment to the blood composition is made. These tubular secretions rid
the body of toxic compounds to regulate blood pH .
Ureter Slender hollow tube transporting urine formed by the kidney to the
urinary bladder .
Urinary bladder Hollow, muscular organ that is a storage reservoir for urine.
Located in the pelvis behind the pubic symphysis.
Urethra Narrow tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder out
of the body during urination.
Urine Concentrated
dissolved wastes.
from the kidneys that is 96% water and 4%
Micturition (AKA: voiding) The act of urination.
Fluid balance Antidiuretic hormone (secreted by the pituitary) and aldosterone
(produced in the adrenal cortex) regulate the balance of water in the body.
Fluid imbalance Dehydration can occur when water is unavailable or with
severe diarrhea or vomiting and excessive sweating.
Turgor Skin
Edema Abnormal
, which decreases during dehydration.
of fluids in body tissue
YouTube Link
“Be careful about reading health
books. You may die of a misprint.”
–Mark Twain
People in high-stress or high-responsibility positions are more likely than others
to have problems with ulcers, heartburn, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome,
and constipation because of frequent disruption of the digestive process.
The digestive system is primarily a long
and glands.
with accessory organs
Gastrointenstinal tract (AKA: G.I. tract or alimentary canal) Muscular
passageway of the digestive system. Leads from the mouth to the
Gastrointestinal Tract:
Oral cavity
Small intestine
Large intestine
Accessory Organs:
Salivary glands
Mechanical digestion
Chemical digestion
Ingestion Process of orally taking materials into the body (eating and drinking).
Digestion Series of mechanical and chemical processes that occur as food is
broken down into simple molecules.
Mechanical digestion Digestive process that includes chewing, churning
in the stomach, and peristalsis.
Mechanical digestion
Peristalsis Wave-like contractions that mix and propel materials in
the gastrointestinal tract.
Chemical digestion More significant of the two digestive processes.
Includes the effects of acids, bases, and enzymes that are released
the digestive tract in response to food.
Absorption Process by which simple molecules from the digestive tract are
moved into the bloodstream or lymph vessels and then into the body's cells.
Defecation Process of eliminating
material from the body.
indigestible or unabsorbed
Peritoneum Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity that surrounds the organs
within it.
Oral Cavity
Oral cavity (AKA: mouth)
First portion of the gastrointestinal
tract where food is masticated, chemically broken down, and mixed with saliva.
Oral Cavity
Mastication Chewing.
Saliva Fluid secreted by salivary and mucous glands in the mouth. Contains
digestive enzymes that break down lipids and carbohydrates.
Oral Cavity
Bolus Soft ball of
Oral Cavity
Tongue Large, strong muscle that mixes food particles with
and directs the bolus towards the back of the throat.
saliva .
Teeth Accessory structures used to bite off and mechanically break up larger
pieces of food into smaller ones that can be swallowed.
Oral Cavity
Salivary glands Three paired glands that secrete saliva into the oral cavity.
Examples: submandibular, sublingual, and parotid.
Enzyme A catalyst that
chemical reactions.
Esophagus Muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the
Sphincter Ring of muscle that remains contracted or
closed until
it is triggered to relax and open. Examples: upper esophageal,
lower esophageal, pyloric, iliocecal, and anal.
Stomach Organ that is an enlargement of the gastrointestinal tract,
bound at both ends by sphincters. Breaks bolus of food down into
chyme. Secretes the digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins.
Chyme Semi-liquid substance created by churning bolus and gastric juices in the
Gastrin Hormone secreted by the stomach that initiates the production and
secretion of gastric juices and stimulates bile and pancreatic enzyme
emissions into the small intestines.
Gastric juices Fluid secreted by the walls of the stomach. Hydrochloric acid,
enzymes, mucus, and water.
Small Intestine
Small intestine (AKA: small bowel)
Longest section of the G.I.
tract. Situated in the central abdomen. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and
ileum. 90% of nutrient absorption occurs here.
Small Intestine
Small intestine (AKA: small bowel)
Plicae circulares
Small Intestine
Plicae circulares Circular folds on the inside walls of the small intestine.
Small Intestine
Finger -like projections on the plicae circulares of the small
intestine that house blood and lymph capillaries.
Small Intestine
Microvilli Microscopic protrusions from cellular membrane of villi.
Small Intestine
Lacteals Lymph capillaries within villi of the small intestine that assist in the
absorption of fat .
Small Intestine
Duodenum First portion of the small intestine.
Jejunum Intermediate portion of the small intestine.
Ileum Final portion of the small intestine.
Small Intestine
Mesentery Section of the peritoneum. Consists of lesser and greater omenta.
Large Intestine
Large intestine (AKA: colon) Final section of the gastrointestinal tract
through which undigested and unabsorbed food moves before the
body eliminates it. Also forms and stores feces until defecation.
Consists of: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending
colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum.
Large Intestine
Cecum Small, sac-like structure that is the first section of the large intestine.
Large Intestine
Ascending colon The portion of the large intestine that extends from the cecum
to the hepatic flexure.
Large Intestine
Transverse colon The horizontal portion of the large intestine
between the hepatic flexure and splenic flexure.
Large Intestine
Descending colon The portion of the colon that extends from the splenic flexure
to the sigmoid flexure.
Large Intestine
Sigmoid colon The S-shaped part of the colon in between the sigmoid flexure
and the rectum.
Large Intestine
Rectum Section of the large intestine between the sigmoid colon and the anal
Large Intestine
Defecation Process of eliminating indigestible or unabsorbed material from the
Accessory Organs
Liver Organ located in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity.
Largest and most complex internal organ. Filters toxins, produces
bile, metabolizes nutrients, and produces plasma proteins.
Accessory Organs
Bile Emulsifies fat. Produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Accessory Organs
Gallbladder Hollow organ located on the inferior surface of the liver.
Stores bile.
Accessory Organs
Pancreas Organ located inferior to the stomach. Both an endocrine gland
that secretes insulin and glucagon, and an exocrine gland that
secretes enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Digestive and Urinary Pathology
Celiac Disease
Celiac disease Inflammatory response to the consumption of gluten.
o  Destroys intestinal villi and limits absorption of ingested nutrients.
Dermatitis herpetiformis Painful, itchy rash due to celiac disease.
Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer Growth of malignant cells in the esophagus.
Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the G.I. tract, specifically the stomach or
small intestine.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (AKA: GERD) Chronic splashing of
acidic stomach secretions into the unprotected esophagus.
Peptic Ulcers
Peptic ulcer Sores of the inner surfaces of the esophagus, stomach, or
duodenum that do not heal normally and remain open and
vulnerable to infection.
Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer Growth of malignant tumors in the stomach that may
metastasize directly to other abdominal organs, or through lymph or
blood flow to distant places in the body.
Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer Development of malignant tumors in the colon or
rectum that can block the bowel and/or metastasize to other organs.
Diverticular Disease
Diverticular disease Combination of diverticulosis and diverticulitis.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (AKA: IBS) Collection of signs and
symptoms that indicate a problem with colon function, and are
aggravated by stress and diet.
Cirrhosis Disorganization and dysfunction of liver cells that results in
many of them being replaced or crowded out by scar tissue. Often
the final stage of chronic or acute liver disease.
Gallstones Crystallized formations of cholesterol or bile pigments in the
gallbladder. Size ranges from as small as a grain of sand to as large
as a golf ball.
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, but not always due to viral infection.
Hepatitis A Short, acute infection of the liver that usually causes
no long-lasting damage. One exposure creates lifelong
Hepatitis B Liver infection spread through exposure to intimate
fluids such as blood, semen, breast milk, or vaginal
secretions. Communicable through indirect blood-to-blood
contact with a contaminated surface.
Hepatitis C Called a “silent epidemic”, this contagious infection
damages the liver so slowly that symptoms may not
develop until decades after exposure.
Liver Cancer
Liver cancer Growth of malignant cells in the liver.
Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer Growth of malignant cells in the pancreas that is
aggressive, painful, and terminal.
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas.
Candidiasis Higher than normal levels of the fungus C. albicans in the G.I.
tract resulting in the disruption of normal function of the digestive
system and other systems in the body.
Urinary Pathology!
Kidney Stones
Kidney stones (AKA: renal calculi or nephrolithiasis) Solid deposits of
crystalline substances in the kidney, usually due to inadequate fluid
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic kidney disease Genetic disorder leading to the formation of
multiple cysts in the kidney and other organs. These cysts interfere
with normal organ function and often lead to renal failure and the
need for kidney transplant.
Pyelonephritis Infection of the nephrons and/or renal pelvis of the kidney.
Renal Cancer
Renal cancer Growth of malignant cells in the kidney.
Renal Failure
Renal Failure Inability of the kidneys to function at a normal level.
Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer Growth of malignant cells in the urinary bladder.
Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystitis Chronic inflammation of the bladder, involving pain,
scar tissue, stiffening, decreased capacity, pinpoint hemorrhage, and
sometimes ulcers in the bladder walls.
Urinary tract infection Infection caused by bacteria that live harmlessly in
the digestive tract finding their way into the urinary tract.