Oceanography Mid-term Review 1. A _________ is an explanation based on observation 2. The ________ variable is always graphed on the x-axis. 3. A __________ is a rule that describes the behavior of something in nature, but doesn’t explain why the behavior occurs. 4. The ____________ variable is the one that is measured in an experiment 5. ______ of Earth’s surface is covered in water. 6. Earth’s __________ period is just right to evenly heat Earth, and make liquid water possible. 7. Oceanography is customarily divided into four categories, which are _______. 8. In 450 B.C., __________ compiled a map in which Libya, Europe, and Asia surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. 9. In 1487 and 1488, what Portuguese sailor rounded the Cape of Good Hope (tip of Africa)? 10. In 1498, _________ sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and continued to India. 11. In 1519, __________ began a voyage in which his ships sailed around the world. 12. Who charted much of the coast of New Zealand, and demonstrated that it was not a part of Terra Australis? 13. Who is known as the "father of physical oceanography"? 14. Density is usually expressed as _______. 15. The deepest drill hole on Earth has a depth of about _______. 16. The outermost shell of the Earth is called the _______. 17. Bathymetry refers to submarine _______. 18. The bathymetry of the oceans can be broadly subdivided into __________ large physiographic provinces. 19. The drowned edges of the continents are referred to as the continental _______. 20. The flattest areas on Earth are the _______. 21. Guyots were once active volcanoes whose tops were flattened and leveled by _______. 22. are the _______. 23. The system of mid-ocean ridges forms a continuous mountain range that extends for over ________ km of the Earth’s surface. 24. The two basic rock types that characterize the Earth’s crust are _______. 25. The boundary between the crust and the mantle of the Earth is termed the _______. 26. The Earth’s crust “floats” on the mantle through the principle of _______. 27. The physical properties of all materials (such as hardness or melting temperature) are a direct result of______. 28. What is the region of Earth’s upper mantle that deforms in a plastic like manner? 29. In 1915, ___________ proposed the hypothesis of continental drift. 30. Mid-ocean ridges show _______. 31. Folded rocks are produced by _______. 32. Variations in magnetic fields are termed magnetic _______. 33. The global plate tectonics theory was formulated in the _______. 34. Tectonic plates are thought to be moved around by _______. True/False Mark A for true, B for false 35. Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift was instantly accepted by his peers. 36. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is characterized by a prominent valley that runs along its crest. 37. As we move away from an ocean ridge, seismic refraction shows thicker and thicker sediment layers. 38. One reason Wegener thought the continents were connected in the past is because of fossils that seemed to be in the wrong climate zone. 39. The processes which break rock and minerals into smaller particles are collectively termed _______. 40. Mud is made of silt and __________-sized materials. 41. The average particle size of a deposit is proportional to the __________ level present at the time of deposition. 42. Under high-energy conditions, which of the following would be most likely to be deposited? 43. On the basis of water depth, the two major areas where sedimentation occurs are the _______. 44. Energy on the seafloor produced by surface waves _________ with distance offshore. 45. Currently, mean sea level is _______. 46. During the last major ice age, sea level dropped to _______ below where it is today. 47. A major component of sediments in tropical seas is _______. 48. Unsorted glacial deposits of boulders, gravel, sand and mud are termed _______. 49. Carbonate reef environments are found _______. 50. Which of the following is a carbonate rock? 51. The two most abundant elements dissolved in seawater are _______. 52. Atoms with more electrons than protons have a net __________ charge. 53. A charged atom is called a/an _______. 54. Isotopes differ in the number of __________ they contain. 55. The weak chemical bond that forms between dipolar molecules is called a/an __________ bond. 56. Since water dissolves all substances to some degree, it can be termed a/an _______. 57. The average salinity of seawater is __________ ppt. 58. The ‘Principle of Constant Proportion’ allows us to determine the salinity of a sample of seawater by measuring the concentration of __________ . 59. The total dissolved material in seawater is termed _______. 60. The average length of time an ion remains in solution in the ocean is termed _______. 61. Increasing the salinity of water ____________ its freezing point. True/False 62. The concentrations of the major constituents in seawater vary greatly with time. 63. Nutrients are considered non-conservative properties of seawater.