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Transcript
Music Lettering Test
Study Guide
Page 1
Notes & Rests
Name
Note
Rest
Counts in 4/4
Counts in 6/8
Counts in 2/2
Whole
4
8
2
Dotted Half
3
6
4
Half
2
4
1
Dotted Quarter
1&2
3
3/4
Quarter
1
2
2
Dotted Eighth
3/4
Eighth
2
Dotted Sixteenth
3/8
3/4
Sixteenth
1/4
2
1&2
3/8
1
1/4
3/16
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Dynamic Markings
-
The louds and softs of music
Marking
Definition
Meaning
ppp
Pianississimo
Extremely Soft (with Energy)
pp
Pianissimo
Very Soft
p
Piano
Soft
mp
Mezzo Piano
Medium Soft
mf
Mezzo Forte
Medium Loud
f
Forte
Loud
ff
Fortissimo
Very Loud
fff
Fortississimo
Extremely Loud (But not forced or strained)
sfz
Sforzando
Hit the note aggressively
Decrescendo
Gradually get Softer
Crescendo
Gradually get Louder
Diminuendo
To Soften
Morendo
Dying away
Accent
Stress by singing the note louder
Marcato
Marked, accented
Sforrzando
A sudden, strong accent on a single note
Messa di Voce
Becoming louder, then softer
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Page 2
1/8
Articulations - The way you perform the note
Word
Slur
Staccato
Tie
Legato
Marcato
Bell Accent
Short Accent
Definition
Connect the notes without a breath
To separate the notes
To tie one note to the next thus combining the value of both
Singing the notes smooth
Marked or semi-separated
The first part of the note is stressed more than the last
To lean on the note crisply
Marking
Notation - The way of writing music
Word
Definition
Marking
Flat
Double Flat
Sharp
Double Sharp
Natural
Lowers the note (or pitch) a half step
Lowers the note(or pitch) a whole step
Raises the note (or pitch) a half step
Raises the note (or pitch) a whole step
Removes the flat or sharp from a pitch that is
sharped or flatted.
Accidental
A Flat, Sharp, or Natural used in the music but not found in the key signature. An accidental lasts for the
entire measure.
Key Signature
Is located between the clef sign and the time signature and tells what notes are flat or sharped in a piece of
music.
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Tempo Markings - The speed at which music is performed
Very Slow
Slow
Medium
Fast
Very Fast
Grave Largo Lento Adagio Andante Andantino Moderato Allegretto Allegro Vivace Vivo Presto Prestissimo
Markings within the Music
Accelerando - ( accel.)
Gradually faster
Allargando - ( allarg.)
Growing Slower, broader
Rallentando - ( rall.)
Gradully Slower
Fermata
Hold the note ( for longer than it=s value)
Grand Pause
AA long pause, a complete break
Ritardando - ( rit. or ritard.) To gradually slow down
A Tempo Return to the Original Tempo
Rallentando A slowing of tempo
Rubato
Free; Irregular movement of the beat (Fluxuation of tempo with the director )
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Time Signatures - what meter the music is in and what defines the value of the notes
4
Top number tells the performer how many counts in a measure
4
Bottom number tells the performer what type of count (& rest) gets one count
Examples:
3 Three counts to a measure
4 A quarter note (REST) gets one count
2
2
Two counts to a measure
4 Four counts to a measure
A half note (REST) gets one count
8 An eighth note gets one count
Some of the most common used time signatures.
4/4
C
2/2
3/4
2/4
6/8
3/8
9/8
5/4
C
Page 3
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Musical Terms - definitions of music terms that are used most frequently
Solo - To perform a musical line alone.
Soli - To perform with a small group or section.
Tutti - entrance of the entire ensemble once a solo or small group has performed.
Unison- Everyone performs the same music line
Harmony - Two or more parts being performed at the same time
Beat - The stead pulse of music
Rhythm- A pattern of long & short note values in music
Syncopation - When the accent is on the weak beat or the weak
part of the beat.
Tonic - Is the foundation of a scale or key [email protected] in Major [email protected] in Minor
Leading Tone - Is a half step below the tonic
Interval - The distance between two notes
Fermata - Hold the note as long as the director indicates
Grand Pause - To rest of break as long as the director indicates
Ledger Lines - A line above or below the staff on which to put extra notes
Da Capo - Return to the beginning (Usually marked as [email protected])
Da Segno - Return to the Sign
Al Coda - To the Coda
Al Fine - To the end of the piece
Any of the above may be placed together to indicate what the performer needs to do
THUS two examples might be:
-Da Segno al coda (would mean) return to the sign and play to the coda sign then skip to the next coda sign to finish the piece.
-Da Capo al fine (would mean) Return to the beginning of the piece and play the [email protected] sign.
Assai - Very
Con - With
Divisi - Divide; the part divides
Dolce - Sweetly and softly
Legato - Smoothly connected; may be indicated by a slur
Maestoso - Majestic
Meno - Less
Meno Mosso - Less speed
Molto - Much, very
Non Not
Piu More
Poco - Little
Sempre - Always
Simile - Like; in the same way
Sostenuto - Sustained
Subito - Suddenly
Tenuto - Sustained; hold note (s) for the full value
Troppo - Too much
Unison - Sing the same pitches at the same time with the rest of the group.
n.b. - No breath
Dipthong - Two vowel sounds ( Not Vowel letters) right next to each other. Always hold the first first vowel sound the longest.
Examples of dipthongs = Night
Joy
down
N ah ee t
J oh ee
d ah oo n
Page 4
Music History
Music Periods
Dates
Composers of that time period
Medieval Period
800- 1400
Leonin, Francesco, Landini
Renaissance Period
1400 - 1600
Oralando Di Lasso, Ludovico Victtoria, Giovanni Palestrina
Baroque Period
1600-1750
J.S. Bach, George F. Handel, Antonio Vivaldi
Classical Period
1750-1800
Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang A. Mozart, Ludwig VonBeethoven
Romantic Period
1800 - 1900
Johannes Brahms, Felix Mendelssohn, Peter Tchaikovsky
20th Century Period
1900- present
Aaron Copland, Willimeta Spencer, Carl Orff, Igor Stravinsky
Staff- Five lines on which music is written
Measure Repeat sign -
Different Clefs in Music:
Bass Clef - F Clef
Tenor, Alto - C Clef
Treble Clef - G Clef
Repeat sign ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Scales
Scales are the basis of almost all the music that is played or sung. They consist of eight notes using whole & half steps in a specific order.
Every time a different note is picked the order of whole and half steps has to change in order to maintain the same desired sound for either
a minor scale or a major scale. A few of the things that may help to determine whether the piece is in major or minor are the following:
1. What does the piece sound like? Is it major sounding or minor?
2. Are there a lot of accidentals in the piece? If there are this could be a good sign that it may be in minor.
3. What is the starting and the ending chord? Most music starts and end on the tonic chord. Do - Mi - Sol (or) La - Do - Mi
4. What is the key signature? (How many flats or sharps and again going back to number three)
MAJOR KEYS (always start on [email protected]
C
F
B flat
E flat
A flat
D flat
G flat
C flat
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
Minor keys (always start on La)
a
d
g
c
f
b flat minor
e flat minor
a flat minor
e minor
b minor
f # minor
c # minor
g # minor
d # minor
a # minor
Amount of flats or sharps
No flats or sharps
One Flat
Two Flats
Three Flats
Four Flats
Five Flats
Six Flats
Seven Flats
One Sharp
Two Sharps
Three Sharps
Four Sharps
Five Sharps
Six Sharps
Seven Sharps
There are three different types of minor scales. They are identified by the way they sound and the accidentals that are used in them.
- Natural Minor Scale
Has no accidentals uses the amount of flats or sharps that is given for its designation.
- Harmonic Minor Scale
Is a natural minor scale with the 7th degree of the scale raised a half step both on the way up and the way down
the scale.
- Melodic Minor Scale
Is a natural minor scale with the 6th & 7th degrees of the scale raised a half step on the way up and then
restored a regular natural minor scale on the way down the scale.
Page 5 cont.
scales cont.
Order of flats and sharps
FLATS
-
B E A D G C F
SHARPS
-
F C G D A E B
The relative minor is 3 half steps below the relative major
The relative major is 3 half steps above the relative minor
OTHER SCALES:
Not all scales have to have eight notes in them. There are various other scales that have a unique and different sound.
Chromatic Scale
Whole Tone Scale
Pentatonic Scale
Octatonic Scale
Blues Scale
All Half steps
Consists of thirteen notes
All Whole steps
Consists of seven notes
Various use of steps and skips
Consists of six notes
If you start on F# and play all the black keys up to F# that is a Pentatonic Scale
Alternation of Whole step and Half step (or vice versa) Consists of nine notes
Various use of steps and skips
Consists of seven notes
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Notation
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