* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download PPT Presentation - Regional Policy Briefings
Document related concepts
ACP-EU_CTA REGIONAL POLICY BRIEFING No. 7 Building Resilience in Small Island Economies: from Vulnerabilities to Opportunities ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ON SMALL ISLAND ECONOMIES Hotel Victoria, Pointe aux Piments Mauritius; 23rd ~ 24th April 2012 STRENGTHENING NATIONAL RESILIENCE THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE LAND PLANNING Mr Tarakabu Tofinga Snr Land Planning Officer Land Management Division Ministry of Environment, Lands & Agriculture Dev. Presentation Overview • • • • • Kiribati ~ A Brief Introduction Kiribati ~ Environment & Development Context Climate Change & Kiribati Land Planning & Climate Change Strengthening Resilience through Sustainable Land Planning • Land Planning, Sustainability & Food Security – Agricultural Land Uses & Practices – Agricultural Activities at Urban & Rural Settings • Summary & Conclusion Kiribati ~ A Brief Introduction • The Republic of Kiribati (Kiribati) is an island nation lies astride the equator in the mid Pacific Ocean • Consists of 33 low-lying coral atoll islands (total land area of 800 sq. km) spread across an oceanic EEZ of 3.5 million square kilometers • Part of former British colony (Gilbert & Ellice Islands) gained independence in 1979 • Population of 103,000 (2010 pop. Census) • 50,402 (48%) lives in S.Tarawa – Capital & Main Urban Centre of 684 hectare in area Kiribati ~ Environment & Development Context • The islands have diverse marine environ for food, transport, traditional practice & recreation • The atoll terrestrial environment is more limited but essential for water, food & shelter • The people have relied on natural resources for livelihood & enjoyed relative high standard of living owing generally to favorable resources for subsistence living • Poverty, starvation & severe malnutrition are generally non-existent with basic food & shelter readily available for modest efforts Environment & Dev. Context – cont’d • Dominant transition from traditional subsistence lifestyle to contemporary market-based economy has posed key challenges • Development performance has been poor with ‘stagnating & low economic growth rate’ – Low productivity of investments, inefficient public enterprises, low return from resource exploitation & public expenditure forms the bulk of all expenses • Constraints to sustainable economic growth; – Isolation & vulnerability, high reservation prices of labor, land & capital, low standard of workforce skills…etc. Land tenure is often an issue... Climate Change • C/Change is complicated by tremendous no. of variables linked with climate and complex interaction of atmosphere, ecosystems, ocean & land forms. • There’s always level of uncertainty associated with C/Change predictions • Often anticipated C/Change impacts on the natural & built environments includes; Droughts, flooding, thawing permafrost, storm surge, sea-level rise, heat waves and other • IPCC however states that impacts will mostly manifest themselves in regional/land variables Kiribati & Climate Change • The fragile physical environment of Kiribati makes it one of the most vulnerable to the adverse impacts of C/Change • The atolls rise 3-4 meters above mean sea level & a few hundred meters wide • Inundation, storm surge & erosion will destroy land areas of the already small islands & contaminates fresh groundwater lens vital for all living organisms/farm land – Challenges!!! • Addressing the predictable impacts dominate the national environment and development agenda. Kiribati & Climate Change • Government has embarked in process of mainstreaming C/Change adaptation & disaster risk reduction in its development plan by implementing series of initiatives such as: – launch of the Kiribati Adaptation Program (KAP) in 2003 and ongoing phases – Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Policy Note – Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (‘05) – Consultation process and consequent adoption of a National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA-’07) – Adoption of a 10 years National Integrated Environment Policy (NIEP: 2012 ~ 2022) Land Planning & Climate Change • Planning can play an important role in influencing societal actions that can ‘mitigate’ effects that do occur & allow ‘adaptation’ to impacts. • Planner’s role is significant as it deals with basic issues as community design, land use and development guidelines • Planners can play a key role in enhancing resilience through improved adaptive land uses, efficient use of climate-sensitive resources ~ (water), promote sustainable land activities …etc. Strengthening Resilience through Sustainable Land Planning • Regulate land uses through zoning considerate of mitigate/adaptive measures – Open/Green Space, Environmental Significance Sites, Sanctuary, Protected Areas & Reserves • Promote land uses that support sustainability – Mixed/Compact Uses (commercial/residential/civic), Agricultural/Farm Land Uses • Encourage Green Development Standards – Urban Land Development Guideline & Policies (solar powers, gardening, natural lights/ventilations & setbacks from hazard areas…etc.) Land Use, Sustainability & Food Security ~ Agricultural Land Uses & Practices • Agriculture is mainstay of most Pacific Is. including Kiribati & subsistence farming continues to be significant/efficient component of subsistence living & income earning • Designating land for agricultural initiatives is a testimony to the efficiency of subsistence production & improve opportunity for cash earning in domestic & outside markets • Agricultural land uses support local food production & stimulate agro-market system Land Use & Sustainable Agriculture Dev. ~ Urban Setting • High population density & competitive demand for land thus promoting ‘Mixed Land Uses’ – Water Reserve + (Organic) Farming Area – Urban Development Project & Temaiku Subdivision • Well established farmers’ associations with formal setups/nursery, products markets & readily available land – Eita Community Farmers Coop, KOFA, Eco-farm… • Easy access to collaborative technical support with favorable number of customers – Agriculture Division & Taiwan Technical Mission Land Use & Sustainable Agriculture Dev. ~ Rural Setting • Less population density = non competitive land use thus easy access to agricultural land • Informal setups vs. urban but higher yields • ‘Growth Center Concept’ that will stimulate more productive agricultural activities & market system & also aims to decentralize urban center & promote utilization of idle rural lands & boost productivity • Establishment of public services & infrastructures + easier access to technical assistances Summary • Land use planning offers significant C/Change mitigation & adaptation opportunity • Land planning has a significant role in the attainment of sustainability through initiation of land uses that are conductive to land productivity especially one that considers food security & economic development. • Through commitment & well implemented plans is realization of opportunities & attainment of sustainability Conclusion • Kiribati being a Least developed country (LDC) & Small Island Developing State (SIDS) it’s among countries most vulnerable to C/C • Their special circumstances being LDCs make them unable to meet costs of adaptation & SIDS physical susceptibility to effects of C/C. • Always welcome assistances (technical & financial) from interested development partners to effectively/efficiently formulate & implement relevant programs THANK YOU!! Reference & sources: • Land Management Division, 2011, Urban Planning & Development Policy, MELAD-Government of Kiribati, Kiribati • Environment & Conservation Division, 2011, National Integrated Environment Policy, Draft Report, MELAD-Government of Kiribati, Kiribati • Asian Development Bank, 1995, Strategy for the Pacific; Policies & Program for Sustainable Growth, Manila, Philippines.