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Memory Processes of Memory Storage Processes of Memory Encoding Term Explanation Encoding is the process of getting, or putting information into the memory system Automatic processing is the unconscious encoding of information such as space, time, and well-learned information Effortful processing is encoding through a conscious effort Semantic encoding is encoding with meaning Application/Example/Extension Encoding is similar to typing, or putting, information on a computer. You first have to put the information in before you can save it. If you were asked what you had for lunch earlier in the day you would be able to remember- you did not memorize the contents of your lunch, but since it was automatically encoded, without effort you remembered. Studying information for a test is an example of effortful processing- you have to make an effort to remember. Learning the meaning of words is an example of semantic encoding. For example- you are storing semantic encoding with meaning. In other words, the term has a definition (meaning) also encoded. For example, encoding means to put information in Encoding imagery involves using mental When you try to remember something, often you are trying to remember pictures in order to remember a picture, or an image, of the situation. For example, gazing up during a test you are trying to remember the situation when you learned the termthe imagery of the teacher covering the term. Rosy retrospection- is the tendency Some people who are contemplating getting back together with an old to remember pleasant images and not girlfriend/ boyfriend may only remember the positives about the the bad images relationship- however, once they get back together, they will be reminded quickly of the negatives Method of loci is a mnemonic device, Some people, when they go grocery shopping, mentally picture the or memory aid, which you associate location of items in their fridge in order to decide what to buy and what items with the imagery of places. they already have Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin developed the information processing model. They believed information is seen as passing through 3 types of memory stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory Sensory memory is a brief George Sperling Sensory memories have to be very brief as enormous initial encoding of sensory researched the duration amounts of sensory information are constantly around us- if information of sensory memory we take too much time to process certain stimuli we would miss other stimuli. Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Iconic memory is a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli Echoic memory is a momentary sensory memory of auditory memory Selective attention- paying attention to certain environmental sensory stimuli is necessary to move the information to short-term memory, where it will interpreted or thought about Our dominant sense is vision, called visual capture. There is much more to see, which is why iconic memory has to be very brief, about a few tenths of a second Echoic memories last about 3-4 seconds, which is why when you repeat terms you are able to retain the terms longer- lasts longer than just looking at a term. There is an enormous amount of sensory information that surrounds us. What we choose to pay attention to is what we are going to actually think about in short-term memory. For example, you hear a weird noise in your bedroom that gets your attention- now you are paying attention to it After the weird noise gets your attention, you start to think what the weird noise can be. This thinking occurs in shortterm memory- you are trying to make sense of the weird noise. Short-term memory is an active, temporary memory system where information is processed (making sense of) resulting in either being passed to the next memory system and stored permanently in long-term memory, or never reaching long-term memory and being forgotten George Miller’s “Magical number 7 plus or The technique of chunking, which is grouping items into minus 2- short-term memory’s capacity is meaningful chunks like acronyms, free up space in shortlimited to 7 items give or take 2 term memory/ TGIF is one item rather than 4 items Maintenance rehearsal is the mental or verbal repeating of The duration of the time you can work with a term, resulting in each time repeated increasing the information in short-term memory is 20 or 30 seconds, resulting in information being either duration of how long an item is held in short-term memory transferred to long-term memory or forgotten Working memory is the active part of short-term memory- the information which you are “working,” or thinking about Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Long-term memory is the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory. If you were to tell your friend of Elaborative rehearsal involves providing meaning the weird noise in your bedroom to information, which helps that occurred the night before, send, or encode, the than this is an indication that the information from short-term noise was stored in long-term to long-term memory. memory Flashbulb memories are vivid, clear memories Flashbulb memories are often remembered because they involve of an emotionally significant moments or events more parts of the brain in terms of forming the memory. that are processed in the amygdala, which often Images of 9/11 are flashbulb memories for many people who ties emotions to this information witnessed that event If you had a shed in the backyard and a snowstorm made it Long-term potentiation is an increase in a difficult to get to the shed, the more you walked back and forth neurons’s firing, which involves the from your house to the shed the easier it would be to get to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is linked to shed. You would have created a path, which you will now each learning and memory. time use you have to go to the shed. The is similar to the *When neurons continue to fire at the same time the dendrites of each neuron grow, causing process of learning (walking back and forth to the shed) and forming a memory (the path in the snow) the synapse, or gap between neurons, to decrease resulting in a memory trace, or path, produced in the brain. Each time that memory is activated, the memory trace is activated, resembling a path.* Types of Long term Memories Explicit memories are also called declarative Explicit memories have explicit answers, such as your memories, which involve personal experiences address, which you have to declare consciously, which (episodic information) AND general knowledge, like means you have to think in order to remember the facts (semantic information) Explicit memories have answer. to be consciously recalled, which means you have to put some thought into coming up with the answerthese memories are stored in the hippocampus Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Episodic information are events only you personally have experienced Semantic information is general knowledge and facts that everyone seems to know Implicit memories are nondeclarative memories, which involve procedural information containing motor skills and procedures that do not require active thinking in order perform- these memories are stored in the cerebellum Your life is full of “episodes,” which are personal memories of your life. This may include your phone number, birth date, mom’s name Semantic information involves common knowledge, or common sense information- like how many tires on a car, what color is a stop light Implicit memories If someone was to ask you how are “implied” to write, you would have a hard memories, which time explaining the process means “you just because the memory for writing know” how to do, is implicit- nondeclarativelike walk or ride a which means you don’t have to bike. declare or think about the memory. Each time you learned a motor skill, like tying your shoe, you learned it as a procedure- “loop and swoop.” Procedural information involves motor skills, actions, muscle memory The Brain and Memories Explicit memories are processed in the hippocampus, which is the area of the brain responsible for forming new memories People who have had damage to their cerebellum have to Implicit memories are processed in the cerebellum, which is the area of the brain relearn their implicit memories like walking, writing, riding a in charge of balance and movement bike. Organizing long-term memory Conceptual hierarchy- long-term A conceptual hierarchy is like a filling system- you create files based memories are organized into groups on their commonalities- all of your phone bills are in a file, tax bills in that share similar characteristics or another file. This is similar to memories- all of your memories about features school are in a file, all of your memories about food are in another file Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Process of Memory Retrieval Semantic network model states that long-term memories are organized through a network of associationsmemories are tied, or are linked together through a characteristic Priming is an unconscious (does not require thought- just happens) process that activates associations in the semantic network Retrieval cues are stimuli that help to recall information from long-term memory and bring back into short-term memory. Serial position effect is the tendency to recall the first (primacy) and last (recency) items of a list Encoding specificity principle- when you store something in memory, the memory is not just of the item but also the context in which the memory occurred, or was being formed If you think of the color red then you tend to also think of other items that are tied to red, like a fire truck, apple, stop sign- in other words, red is associated, or tied to, all of these items When you think of the color red you automatically (unconsciously, without thinking,) have the memory of a fire truck or apple. These memories just “pop-into” to your thinking because they are tied, or associated with, other memories that have a similar characteristic. Multiple-choice tests involve recognition of items from long-term memory- recognizing a term helps to retrieve the memory, or definition. Essay questions involve free-recall, which often do not provide any retrieval cues. This is why students do not particularly care for essay questions because there are limited retrieval cues to access information in long-term memories. Fill-in-the-blank questions involve cued recall because the questions by themselves can cue a memory People often forget the items in the middle of a list When you are studying, or trying to encode information into long-term memory, you are unaware but you are also encoding additional information, such as a song playing in the background, the color of your note book. This explains why when you later look at your notebook; you remember the song playing and what you were studying. When you were forming a memory of what you had to study, you also tied to this memory the color of your notebook and the song playing. That explains why each of these items serves as a retrieval cue for the other- notebook cues song/ song cues information being studied Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Examples of the encoding specificity principle Context-dependent memory is a memory that involves the context, or content present, during the time learning took place. Forgetting State-dependent memory is a memory that is aided or affected by a person’s internal or mental state. Mood-congruent memory occurs when a person’s mood serves as a retrieval cue Encoding failure occurs when information does not go from short-term to long-term memory. Retrieval cue failure, also referred to as tip-ofthe-tongue, occurs when a retrieval cue is not strong enough to retrieve, or trigger the memory stored in long-term memory. Decay theory is the gradual disappearance of a memory because the memory has not been thought about, or retrieved, from long-term memory into short-term memory You run out of toothpaste as you are getting ready in the morning, so you remind yourself to buy some on the way home from school. Throughout the day you forget about the toothpaste until you walk back into the bathroom. The reason why you remember the moment you walked into the bathroom is that the bathroom is a retrieval cue because it is part of the memory to purchase the toothpaste. If someone were to drink alcohol while having a conversation, then alcohol will be part of the memory encoding process. Next time that person drinks alcohol; the alcohol will serve as a retrieval cue for the conversation. When people are happy they often remember other happy memories. When people fight they often remember other times they fought, which is why arguments often get worse- past memories of fighting often arise, or are retrieved. When you don’t use elaborative rehearsal, or provide enough meaning, to a term or event, then more than likely it will never be encoded into long-term memory- you never learned the term. If you don’t care about something or it does not mean anything to you, then you probably are not going to remember it When you are having a conversation and someone asks you about the time you went to the store, and you can’t remember going to the store, then that person’s question was not a good enough retrieval cue to recall the memory of going to the store. If the person then adds more detail to the question and you are now able to remember going to the store then the person has strengthened the retrieval cue If a person does not dial their childhood phone number for a few years, then the memory of that number will start to decay, or fade away. However, years can go by where when that person has not thought about that phone number, when someone suddenly shows it to them, they instantly recognize it, supporting the fact that long-term memories are permanent. Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Hermann Ebbinghaus developed the After your psychology class is dismissed, the information that you forgetting curve. He believed information that remember as you walk out of class has been encoded into long-term will be forgotten is forgotten right away, memory. The information you cannot remember was probably information that that is not forgotten right forgotten as soon as it was presented or taught. away will be encoded into long-term memory Interference theory is the process through which either the storage or retrieval of a memory impairs other information and memories Proactive interference occurs when previous, An example of proactive interference is when you try and can’t old information affects, or interferes, with remember your NEW locker combination because you keep on trying to remember new information. dialing your old locker combination. Retroactive interference occurs when recently An example of retroactive interference is when you can’t remember learned new information affects, or interferes, your OLD class schedule because your new class schedule is with remembering old information. interfering, or causing you to forget your old class schedule. Sigmund Repression occurs when traumatic or Repression keeps memories in long-term memories without your Freud painful events are automatically effort or desire. If someone was to ask you about an event that was (without your effort) placed in the repressed then no matter how hard you try you will not be able to unconscious. remember. Suppression occurs when you If someone was to ask you about your ex-boy/girlfriend and you consciously choose not to remember choose not to think or talk about it, then you are suppressing the something, or think about something memory, or keeping the memory in long-term memory and not allowing it to enter short-term memory. Amnesia is the loss of memory Retrograde amnesia is the inability to recall Retrograde amnesia tends to be temporary. As the brain starts past memories due to an injury to the head to heal from an injury, the memories start to come back. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form “50 First-dates” is an example of anterograde amnesia- she new memories due to damage to the could not form any new memories. hippocampus Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only. Memory Construction Memory Elizabeth Loftus researched how memories are formed and affected by new and different information Misinformation effect is when new information that is presented affects, or changes, previous or formed memories The process of accommodation incorporates new information, which often changes established schemas, the mental organizations of information, or what we know and how we organize the information. Lawyers could affect people’s memories through the types of questions they ask. When people are asked a question that they have not thought about or considered, then this new information could change their schema or what they know about an event or thought they knew. Submitted by Mike McLane, Sterling Heights High School, Michigan: Permission to use for face-to-face instruction with students only.