. Memory CHAPTER OVERVIEW (I p IC it S C wh trits flat ‘Ci I p s h s r trC i IC H IC U C nors a a sx ttff that s ep,. 1 n oding refer ato iitothcrrcr on o it ) i hu )CS I r The Phenomenon of Memory irc x pas is Ia rta red I Ii C 15 CS 1 t to s IC to Ct 00 C I IS Is ci i a C C mit. tiC C How truC’ are Objcctive 1.D binc iii bulb m no ies mi c u rh cor cams If big X ii alusC md othCr trau wth fcc I of Fvf osm st dx t m ha ter rt ‘ no ii tid r tip di’ 1100’ 1, Ieamnim, I CX 2 tCi Mer thL r ‘I ‘i (111 ii l I )tId st p it re o’that Icc m r ornel )5F’ a ‘(sCm c 1 CCI I IC hi C ‘ ‘1 Ct si s r Ic’, a no, d a C IC IC 1 S IC c hC C t R REV W 1 1) r ‘5 (xci Obec CHAP cxnlai 0i I t ai C N rar f r w u a l S ruCtior C e 5) S uienoodin ness alt in - OI IC 3 0 (A sill I ji I rC’Cnted p 1 ssi ito m ition u to f r d app opriate ials tor 0 IC C xiptcr discus I t Os i uportant role Cf Ui I ig ra rCsolt froa failure C I ) C IC sin/a U mCI r IC Re iCf intor natio I is acocssed c Ii o rCtognition. ‘ 3 )m i\tyCr attindbu,d i)I ha r niharto C HC’C dC IC idC ICtk it fot s n v the x I in’ )far ° it C) tCX r i C cXfrtSsC , r pf ief rto a, thCs an ar r hC tc forame f uton: i ‘tJ 11/ Hia Hf I/H fl Iii I C mod aiiisfli cv n merxon 0 COi -1 CtCC r Cdsi mifac cx CI C di .1 d rr \ ‘(‘CU IC Cd, exa’ iatC Iti m hC ansv bC 0 t mi sit Ic Cit CC I Cl) ed I CI i a I e ks 2 9 Mcirory as nod 1 c I r iemory has been Atkinson n t t Give examples of material that is typically encodcd with little or no effort. model. i s mo 1 4, we first record informa Ii fro v hci which it is processed ic i formation is through rehearsal into memoS I t r ctrt al t new )t shi it term memory has been 4 1 1 c a ncept ot r I n f cuses more on the processing r I n d iifnrm ition this form of memw r th and y t in s h ch are cooidinated by a , proces itf the help c f the I us s o process images and words tI fc rnw that thc are acm e during complex ki i, whc cas aicas in the are i F n a iditors and s isual information is in s ii rr ri Objectir e 4: C ontrast effortfnl processing ii ith auto mahc processing, and discuss the next4n-line effect the spacing effect, md the seriat position effect. 2. l’ncoding that requires attention and effort is called 3. With nor el informahon, conscious repetition, or , boost’ memory 4. A pioneering researcher in verbal memory was In one experiment, he found that the longer he studied a list ol non sense syllables, the (fewer/greater) the number of repetitions he required to relearn it later. 5. Atter material has been learned, additional repe , usually tition, or will increase retention. 6. When people go around a circle reading is ords, their poorest memories are for the (least/most) recent informa hon heard. This phenomenon is called the Encoding’ Getting Information In - elfect. c ) t know the meaning of any of the i is rd asc s or expressions in the t i v i I th appear in the text refer ) ) i nvplanation. bo’st, flflfl r i1 nichtd stugc rro i t i until urn are blue I t onlec whil 1 aining t. 7. Memory studies also rereal that distributed rehearsal is more effecth e tor retention; this is called the 8. the tendency to reniember the first anu last nems in a list best is called the follow mg a delar first items arc rc memberc d (better less is clii than ast items. c 1 s v c i b I ic t cs of information we Objective 5: Comparc the benefits of visual, acoustic t di s is rc quire conscious atten- I rocessing rcquires 1 and t c uses c ffortless and semantic encoding in remembering verbal infor mation, and describe a memory-cnhancing strategy related to the self-reference effect 9. Fncoding the mcaning of words is re’crred t encoding cncoding by a 233 Storape’ Retaining Information encoding; ounu is aiied encoding the image ot wors is encoding. tO d FuR Crat t Is o asF - net rccc’cti Objective 7: Piscuss the use of chunking and hierar chies in efturtful proce—sing. 18. \lemurv max he aided by groupmg information g s study c )mparing snual, ut C idi c ig intc meat ingt d u xl owcd dat r c xamg Ic o this tech mclue ins oh Cs tornn ig Ic. is ii ords from tile first letters of to-he-remembered words: tile resulting 11, blur ewenunt retail nt infornration that relates to IU5el s called word called the is called an 19. tn addition material max he proccssed into ettect shich are c mposed of a w et cc din ima gc r aids Oh’ cli 6 F xplc ir cf mini F rocessing, and desuibc ome mcn )rx enhneng wrategies that ue \ suaI eflcuung. 12. \iemors that con’ists of mental pictures th e of i c r igh end t . based fcw broad u cepts d x ‘ded Because thes 14 for e( Mc n ise re tS to/ti cecuts /ute I/zr [‘nit: t;tirrav_i,tctgr ;t’riti’tp jigsaw pow Jr Luttdr’t cab/’ic; Sa-’critiy. ords. r not’ achitatcd r hen nd odcti ri epts, tf you do not know the meaning of anx of the foltow ing is ords, phr i es, or expressions in the context in is hich thm ippear in the text, refer to pages 257-258 Ic r an explanation: ltyhf;zing ‘las/irs: S/icr/ur/c f-dimes; :aoto’tco tucucru-r Wit!! tanyuc on/u part/ic Ic :/icr/r; /t rouse cu? scar err- Wetter tt.ss xx eli) than ansteect. lots -Imagery Lou Storage: Retaining Information (pp. 361—370) 13. Concrete, high-inxagerx woOs tend to he rentem here d n Ic set categories, and tacts. thes aid m mu abi t Objective 8’ Cc r trast tw o types of sensory memory. 1. Stimuli from the ens tronment arc first recorded 15. Our tci.uencs to recall the high points of pleasur able cx cuts such as tamiix acariun ilustrates mernorr in 2. George Sperling found that when people xx crc the phc romen in c t briefly shcm n three ro s s of ic’ttcrs they eould çsirtual v ill about rccall 16 ds, c her 1w. C 31:00 . halt of thcr x Whcn S )eri ng s undcd ssn is One wiel1 dci ice ill indicate which letters were ti be’ reea led, the hem ecu a tarnihar scow t locations and bc-:’ ;, —rnherc, wul Ow th; tecltnoue is titer a rc xx ot letters x a flashed to immediatel on cx fortr. ng associ suhieets ‘new nttit’ ailed imon less 0 mx icc mate abr ms sitogr F Ito) pu r I Fso gb. s thc to ie oat hcg’ns onc tcw tenths f 3. i ts that pm He or o hrs ta secord nie-rtorx h’r —i mud’- i5 railed memurt. this rnemorx tades F t tgra F’ 1cm inure,• les’- t rap i dh than tine f s Icing is 236 Chapter 9 Memory Objective 9: Describe the duration and working Lapacit\ ot short-term memory. 4 Peterson and Peterson found that hen was prevented by asking sufjccts to Lount backward, memorr for letters ii as gone after 1 2 seconds. Without rrocessrn, short-term memories have a limited ijtC. Objective Ii: l)iscus the “r imptic chncs that accompany memory tormat ion au ci iera cc. 12. Researchers heh c t it men strengthening ft c t i r e irhich oc urs a hc hetrs een neuroin 13. Kandel and Shu art, hai e mum learning occurs 3. Our short-term memory capacity is about chunks ot information, This capacity ras discovered by 6 Short-term memorr for random (digits letters) is slightly better than for random (digits/letters), and memory br information we hear is somewhat (better/worse) than that for ifl the sea naul in a-n. the neuro transmitter greater amounts naking n mug Objective 10: Describe the capacity and duration of Iong-ternr memory. needs ing to fire, and the rumhcr of stimulates mar inctease. iThis phenomenon. called - (do do not) pros ide reliable idence that our stored memories are precise and durable, 10. P’vchoiogkt attempted to locate memory hr cutting out pieces of rats’ atter ther had learned a tats He tound that no matter u here he cut, the rememhered forgot) s pirness is itf enet Rats given a drug ft ‘ enharnes it will learn -i inc/c ow 1 (tmter more s 15. Drugs that boost production of e 5 t it 1. roten or the neu o r ins’n i tter 9, Penfield’s electrically stimulated patients to. mcI hmi’ for ‘c’ a specific engineering that causc s thc to popular belief—the capacity of permanent maze. he the learning and menrc rs Blocking t 8. In contrast to short-term memorv—and contrart nemorr is essentially mom ethcic t 14. After learning has oem ted rum (how many?) seconds, u cleared - information we see. 7. Both children and adults have short-term recall for roughly as man’ words as they can speak in lien oYit 16. fter I IP has cccurr ‘d, n e ntp through the bran nih d x I not) disrupt old memories and In ilL xviii not Wipe ‘Ut remot xoern,u Objective 12: E)i-cus- onue can attert meniors at o ‘-t - 17. 1 fornrones rele s ci 11 It is 1 kcly that forgetting occurs because new experiences n ith our retrieval of old information, and the physical memorx trace ith the passapt’ ot time. stress often 1 learning impair 18. Tn 0 c n emotion-proccssing 10 system im reme m tis its forminp aea’ m-tc 15, the bra ‘i’ the e us bra n on erect - Retrieval: Getting Infor ration On 19. ) u s cir s S CV i r 3 orators animals s ith a damaged e ebc llnm ar incapable of simple block the effcct, of stress hoimones (Iacil’tate disrupti memo ti o ia cxc its ft css that is prolonged can an aria ci hi biain(thc rat is itat for lay ing of 3 r that this briir regic r ‘sin p 0 * sting s m xi Objcct’xc 13 i U Ut tur ex I cci it c c turc ass c ated is ‘th 3 ac i. xi ‘i cdlii bidn strut c nit at ab d tr i tai c c ni ircro to] Xf kit n pnit lit t t ‘s vs e t anrei IV dorct explain fin tie c lfosc ruth Hr damage to the 25 lire d has c explicit memorics of ui first t r c c 20. lb I ss f tier cr is callel S di s rIp c ito hixc lost if c rn emory ngg ccndit a tionof implicit and i 237 creof bccausetie (is isnot) ci st brain stru tures tc maturc s ge unifi ( s stcm of memory. 21 Retrieval: Getting Information Out igf a r n s iar not I r,t their capacity for learning, memory, is called If y on do not know the meanir g of a irc are not) able to c thc r icmory suggtstn g a deficit in their context in xihich they appear n the text ole to page 258 for an explanation. ‘noc’ant lnsses’ in ml: cleft d oil rose colored 7 nzcod in o angels. ctims (pically i hx whi thc dcc r s’a patier ts vpicallt a air II i ive suffered damagc o their limbic system. o I t actore s impo tant in the process gi dscray cf H n i t re in ar s a ra memory, or tIe at t tructn (recall recognize) the names of II eir pr c xiscs s ems o rp rcc gniti i but were able to (recall recognize 90 ptrcent f ti nctior isa acne i i con its f thcir niro xi 3. 1 xci 1 run i e 0 labI c a i c d i t n c k 0 Ii ) gra r S i a c iccs t iacs a iancs irt pa’’ exg’ i’r 1 Ie sprtshtle Objective 15: 1 xplai ii i t C access stored r emc ries and des priming. 4. lhc prccess by retre 24 c it eltnf i LiVO earbook pr turos itrcuvi d I or ss r ites S rp rr c nd pie nere not able tc itmi y i , relearning measures of men o 2. Bahrick tound that 25 ycars af or gro (rat on gltsideinpairsmemrl for designs and locations, the i Objective 14: Contrast the ccal ti an not 1, Ihe ability to retries c niform 1 scions an areness is called an tf e left side ot this struc s Dar ra f the * * 22. c following xi ords, phrases, c r express ms in tf c memory systc ms 23 3 IItf i i o -In ‘ i b i 1 s Icd ich a s (a e i 55 s 238 Chapter 9 Memory 5. 1 he best retrieval cues come from the associations formed at the time we a memor Objectixe 16: Cite sonic u avs that context can affect retrje\ at. People who hax e recox ered from depression tvpi callv recall their parents about the same as do people who \ loods also influence hox we other people’s hehax ior. 6. Studie have shown that retention is best when learning and testing are done in (the same; different) contexts. summarize the text explanation of the deja x ence. ii experi Forgetting (pp. 375—381) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases. or expressions in the context in xx hich they appear in the text, refer to pages 258 25 tor an explanation: appliiisc tar Inemoril: maif lie pahed on the tiv at I/ic toilylIc’ mental attic: heepisizi:i: TJie z’ord edit a bioa’n out candle in the mind. Objective 18: Fxplain xxhy we should value our abili tv to forget, and distinguish three general ways our memory fails us, 1. Without the ability to we xx ould constantly be overwhelmed bx informa tion, Objective 17: Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval, 7, I he type of memory in xx hich emotions erx e as retriex al cues is referred to as • 2. Memory researcher Daniel Schaefer has identified the sex en sins of memory, dix ided into three cate gories that identify the ways in which our memo rv can fail: the three sins of the three sins of and the one sin of , memory. 8. Our tendency to recall experiences that are con ‘-istent with our current emotional state is called Objective 19: Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting. 3. The first t\pe of forgetting is caused hx failure. fl’wiriorv I )e’cribe the efleLb of mood on memorx. 4. This type of forgetting occurs because some of the information that xe sense never actualli 5. One reason for age-related rnemorx dedine xx that the brain area’- responsible fur new information are (more less) responsix e in older adults, 9, Pt y Ic xx ho are urrently depressed may recall t xx pirents as )ryos c Ol,c’ st cc )iceotofstorac an ) . I c 15. In’ct) ra at Memory Construction S cnat? I S S . I ti S a ii n o I c 1.44 1 1 ) ‘ ‘ €.“ itt c Mt plir 0¼ J t’iti’e 1 q caiauscrethc i a c. cli it di ) >s 1 v 10. it K si 1 CF led tat stvtd attiC 2 Icc u ‘Ft t I tI C .1 at . C cscifro p I a, c € sUit c dii a )t’xrC d’Ci t o xc 1 S at anC I tü lite C n t w I ski. € t a it cson, deroltrateitLi ,ex b c 4 1 f F hcs C S ess I 12 itt tat islic pe tilt arch uc 10 (XiS tIes islE I exçer Cr ic bin o nd tat ut,ec.ts Fr ar ra hirrino foa r c a v (fl wctshs tedsruttectfcttf a e or tc cc llnot al I c. xx ous1earm .or a1 n d r nt 2. i%hc wHile se oat a c.i cive li iuoimauot oout t tic a ax 5 Cit r c a umptio’ I’ Cr ui. tntctFe ce’c eitoncsiealsoloslasa ,whi histsptcnllv tiieousl earnsiiulai net 1 i ft t , I 1 Re°i c ha stow tta .aic i ete I oftcs ‘nfiue cdbi, ,tc w ic. esi d i’s 1 , ‘ 11 I f lii 1 c. a Objective2:1’co F miti)lcaldstc tw OW 11 w 1 as f a iin’ zrcr tcr t ss ti Ct C I cn a c I s I e ) tied t Cl 9 Ic tia v F ‘5. I$lc.knct f 2 ,cttir.une 6 8 a dt do C t ii uc c c o ad C v j he’ ur e amnesia” contribution )‘ r ,which an event to t 2 11, Memories of e ents that happened before age are unreliable, This phenom enon is called 12. Memory construction makes it clear that is best understood not only as a and biological event, but also as a 1 st scmc diffirenes and similarities r false n er ines. r r re m ioncs to memory phenomenon. improving Memory (pp 391 392) rotmg that people’s initial If you do not know the meaning of the tollon ing word in the context in n hich it appears in the text, refer to page 29 for an explanation’ Spi inkled, of er enb influence their r c rsi t es rr ra memory e) ix cal whether or not it dens es ctr al e per encc, I/v hereas real memo c gist memo ix i r c se’ confidei cc in their memories , Objective 28: Explain hon an understanding of mem or can contribute to etfective study techniques. 1. The SQ3R study technique identifies fis e strate gies for boosting memor: (is is not) related to the r )r )n truction explains nhy memories are often s 2(’ ‘ c ,and , , Discuss ses eral specific strategies for impros rug memory. x ar imcnts supporting and reject n ha s ry y ung children’s reports (1 di s t of children s eenithess recall r sag cstibie than older chil n hether a child r e r itn ss memory C. PROGRESS TEST i Multiple-Choice Questions s t rrhen it is a first inter person n ho asks e 27 1) s us rc lix C intros ersy over reports of c cc memories of childhood sex I C mfluc r cc of h 3 pnosis or (are are not) reliable, Circle our answers to the follon ing questions an d check them with the answers beginning on page 2 ) If your ansu er is incorrect, read the explanation for why it is incorrect and then consult the appropri te pages of the text (in parentheses follon ing the correct answer). 1, the three steps in memory information pr xcss ing ar: a input, processing output b input, storage output. c. input storage, retnie al ci, encoding, storage, retries al, Progress Test 1 2. \‘iaiial sensors-’ memo” ‘10 3 referred to as: is c. photonsenuerv. d. scm antic x onuory. a. canc mnenur:’s riots b. echo e nte Li ( (U C Ins’ d 4 Li eeL or me folloe, roe law to4seunds ret a measure ot reteru c. relearning d. retres di n n’1em Ur,m shc d. learned the 5\ ords and heen tested on thorn in the same context. 11. Ihe spacino eftect ire is that: a. d’stnbuted stud rids hr t etent on than rammu g tjOfl a. remil b. reeognion 241 an i. a roximatelv it us. b. r te tot is inupr s C I when e e du g and re tries al are 3 eparated by no mon han 1 hour. c. learning causes a reduction in the size of the synaptic gan hetis eon certain neurons. d. delas hug retries a I until rnenorr has consoh dated improves recalt. 12. Studk dc nonstrate nent neural chances sear ins. C d 6. Menrors niques auth as the method of loch acranr rn—, and thu oeg-u ord ‘a stenu are called: at learning causes perma tluc o uninuals a. myelrn c. b. rcli htudrcs d. all the ahos e ‘a uapsos 13. in sperlirg’s memory experrnsent. research par a. consolidation des ices. h. :rnagers techniques. C. encomeg strangles. d. nrnemo tic des ices, ticipants were shown three rows of three letters) foiloss ed mmediateh hr a low medium, or high tone. The participants ss’ere ahie to report: a. all three rows with pertect accuracy. b. only the top ross Li letters. ( no is c. c nc hisp iso a n o ,t o I hncr,ati in 1 r up i te argo famul ar units efern s s ( 3 e a. conso r t ng. h. organization. d. chunking. 8. handel and Sc hwartz has e found that when lcarr:ing oaenr, mere of the neurotransmitter s rulca—eo ‘i) ss’napses. ctop onl’ the n’iddl re” of Setter’ ns onc of the three rows of letters 14. Studies of amnesia s ictims suggest that’ r. encoding. a. .\ClL d. C seretonuu d uorad nahnc a. memors is a single unified system. b. there are two distinct tr pes of mernors. c. there are three distinct types of nsemorv. d. inemors losses following hrain trauma are unpredictable. 15. \tornory for skills is e ulled a. explicit monuory. 4 r Oc uost uct ii mrs ‘al that or ror hefore is an example of: he dicnlcaile nan—terred Lon’ one o”ga-n—nr t° Werner cr ‘1 “og ten nnms ieas si tOt’ about d. 1 u t lou Aer a. hex a’ all, t I s plc ord re ci te Jr rhc bcs r Jr ution learnea t e nerds an L,nd that i—. n. the n’inw cr’nte st, rtnuiricr b. I ,rned the C, hart’ 0 d dfhr ‘ ords riO icr.’ ait’r that is, U’1 tire rh and hen tested on them in. nte’hs, .t a a prime mcmor). d. nnphcrt memors. 16. ‘Iho ccruo fooling of I sing heer somorshere as esaLt m s of e\porit c h. renect a gersen s bra—u ad as—urnut.ens. a. are ste n;ar b. de laratus e nuom r a. state dependency. b. encodng tailuoo. c. primiro. d. cleia 5 17. II lien Gerden Bess er p reenrud n ris grouped hs eatcg y or in rar d r order, ree was: a. tIn ‘ r mn’aH b. bettc for thee t’go a d s ds d n a’ ords. d. impr cd is hen p art’ ‘pants or i on n mnemonic dci ico, C. etter or the rut pod thcir Chapter 9 Memory 242 18. I he three-stage processing model of memory was propc’ed by: \tkinson and Shiffrin. 1,, Herman Fbhinghaus. Loftus and Palmer. c. d. George Sperling. a. 19. 1 h pnotically ‘refreshed” memories may prove mar curate—especial if the h pnotist asks lead ing Juestions because of: a. emoding failure. h. ta te-dependent memory c. proactix e interterence. d. niemorv construction. rtant in th 20. l\ hich area of the bra m i n’ot ii mcniurmc’ processing of implicIt c. h nctnaamus a. hippocampus d. h. cerebellum 21. V\ hich of thu fcllou ii ith the others? a. misattributio b. blocking ‘YlatHhing Items Match each definition or description priate teim Dcliii itions is ith the appro or Descriptions Terms 1. sensory memory that decays more slow a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11, 12. 13. lv than visual sensory memory the process by which information gets into the memory system mental pictures that aid memory the blocking of painful memories the phenomenon in which one’s mood can influence retries al memory for a list of words is affected h word order “one is a bun, two is a shoe” mnemonic dcx ice matching each of a series of locations with a visual representation of to-heremembered items new learning interferes with previous know ledge i measure o memory old knowledge interferes ii ith nen learning nxisattrihuting the origin of an ci ent the fading of unused information ci tmme 14. the lingering effect” of misinformation 15. a memorr sin of intrusion h. i. j. k. 1. m. n. o. repression relearning serial position etfed persistence peg is ord system method of loci proactmi e mnterterc transience retroactis e interfem cncc source amnesia suggestibility imagers’ mood-congruent mmmorm echoic memori encoding Progress Test 2 PROGRESS TEST 243 c. at the end of the list. d. at the beginning and the end of the list. 2 Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final chapter review. Answer the following questions after you thoroughly understand the correct answers for the section reviews and Progress Test 1. Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Which of the following best describes the typical torgvtnng curve: a. a steady, slow uecbne in retention over time b. a steady, raptd decline in retention over time c a rapid inftial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter d. a slow inihal decline in retenhon becoming rapid thereafter 2, Jenkins and Dallenhach found that memory was better in subjects who were: a. awake during the retention interval, presum abty because decay was reduced. b. asleep during the retention interval, presum abty because decay’ was reduced. c, awake during the retenhon interval, presumr ably because interference was reduced, d, asleep during the retention interval, presum ably because interference was reduced, 3, Which of the following measures of retention is Its w s \e 1 fl t ggc ‘—a retne u’ a. recall c. relearning b. rec ognitton d. They are equally’ sensitive. 4, Amnesia vichms typically have experienced dam age to the _of the brain, a, frontal lobes c, thalamus b, cerebellum d. hippocampus 5. According to the serial position effect, vrhen rvcalling a list of words von should have the a a- tea. at the beginning of the list. o c. at tbe end and in the middle of the bst, d, in the middle of the list, - 6, Experimenters gave people a list of words to he recalled. When the parhcipants were tested after a delay, the items that were best recalled were those: a. at the beginning ot the list. b. in the mind Ic of the list. 7, Craik and Tnlving had research parhcipants process words visually, acoustically, or senranh cally. In a subsequent recall test, which type of processing resulted in the greatest retention? a. visual b. acoustic’ C. semantic d. Acoustic and semantic processing were equal ly beneficial, 8. Lashley’s studies, in which rats teamed a maze and then had various parts of their brains surgi cally removed, showed that the memory’: a. was lost when surgery took place within I hour of learning. 1,. was lost when surgery took place within 24 hours of teaming. c. was lost when any region of the brain was removed. d. remained no matter which area of th,e brain was tampered with, 9. The disruphon of memory that occurs when foot ball players have been knocked out provides evi dence for the importance of: a. consolidation in the formation of new memo ries’. b. consolidahon in the retrieyal of long-term memories. c. nutrition in normal neural functioning. d. all of the above. 10. Long-ferm pofentiotion refers to: a. the disruphve influence of old memories on the formation of new memories. b. the disruptive influence of recent mern ones on the retrieval of old memories. c. our tendency to recall experience;s that are consistent with our current mood. d. the increased efficiency of synaptic transmt 5sion bebs’een certafn neure.ns following learn ing. 11. Repression is an example of: a. encoding failure. c. motivated forgetting. b. memory deem’. d. all of the above. 244 Chapter 9 Memory 12. Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in u hich people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that: a. when quizzed immediately, people can recall very little, due to the stress of witne’sing an accident b. sshcn questioned as little as one dax later their memory si as x cry inaccurate. c. most people had sery aixurate memories as much as 6 months later d. people’s recall mas easily he atferted by mis leading information. 13. t\ hich ot the fullon ing is as iwl recommended as a strateg for imp roving mentors a. achs e rehearsal b. distributed study c. speed reading ci. encoding meaningful associations 14. The process of getting information out of memory storage is called: c. rehearsal. a. encoding. d. storage. b. retrieval, 15. Amnesia patients typically experience disruption 19. It is easier to recall information that has just been presented when the information: a. consists of random letters rather than words. b. is seen rather than heard. c. is heard rather than seen. d. is experienced in an unusual context. 20. ‘Ihe micintormation effect pros ides es idence that memory a. is constructed during encoding. b. is unchanging once established, c. ma he reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed. d. is highly resistant to misleading information 21. According to memor researcher Daniel Schacter, blocking occurs when: a. our inattention to details produces encoding failure, b. ss e confuse the source of information. c. our beliefs influence our rtn ollections, d. information is on the tip of our tongue, hut is e can’t get it out. True—False Items Indicate whether each statement is true or false by placing T or F in the blank next to the item a. implicit memories. b. explicit memories. iconic memories. d. echoic memories, C. 16. Information is maintained in shortterm memory only briefly unless it is: c. iconic or echoic, a. encoded. d. retries ed. b. rehearsed. 17. iexthook chapters are often organized into in order to facilitate information a. mnemoni des ices b, chunks c. hierarchies d. recognizable units 18. Memory researchers an suspic bus of long repressed memories of traumatic ci ents that are ‘recos ered’ is ith the aid of drugs or hi pno’us a. such experiences usually are s is idly remenu hered, b. such memories arc unreliable and easily infli’ enced by misinformation, c. memories of events happening before about age 3 ire espe ially unreliable, d. of all of the ahos c reasons. 1. Studying that is distributed over time produces better retention than cram ming. 2. Generally speaking, memory for pie tures is better than memory for words. 3. Recall of childhood abuse through hvp nosis indicates that memory is perma nent, due to the reliability of such reports. 4, Most people do not have memories of es ents that occurred before the age of, 5. Studies bs Fbbinghaus shoss that most forgetting takes place soon after learning. 6. The persistence of a memors i a inoJ clue as to whether or not t de’iye’ from an actual experience. 7. Recall of ness lv acquired knowledge i no better after sleeping than after being awake for the same period of time, 8. lime spent in des eloping imagery chunking, and associating material with what y ou already knoss is more c ffcc tis e than time spent repeating infors i tion again and again. Ps)chology Applied lthou h repress o has no been con nec x x. Incnt 1k, nun ny ho sI’. e vc hoc c verhy i n g matc al Di tO I tuing to ..stud t bes ond ‘nasterv often di L4’t% recjll. PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED v tr uest stheda It wan iniasa SOUL 1 i.hecl’ I erstan I i , ot flit. hapter terms and tu-ttepts. %Iultipk-Clioice Quectivuc 3. Oar en was isked 13 iunorii a ‘1st 01 I tF% flat nduled i c ‘.1k. tc rt’aicd It Ute sas is niL i. cstr. I atth.t r Ic tshadb cnencode a. autrmaticaih. c. -cmi iticaih. b. i isualh. d. aoustica1h. ‘ 4. \ftet tindirg her old combinahon lo,.L, lonite Cc! ienie.a its c binaf ‘eta’ s it’ L ‘L. Ct itI’L b L’t 3 1 N.s Oti ) °‘q. itt ng: a. procathe iterfertnce b. retroactn e intertereu,s.e. C. encoding tailuic. d. %tfliagt railure. 1 Conip’ctc this an lo rj. 1i11- r I c-blank let ques ur%tnn 1 fr null’nl c. nic r 1115 ‘ C 3 er d isfi torige. b. to as ‘s to t icodmg. c. rnJ.gn.tu’ Is to retail. d. recall is it’ recognition. 245 5. 16 1 1 of tic followi’ç’ °cuen css )Uld b It. blow c I ouwaitedtc terc crc nduced f r’etting in c der tc inipros iii recall on the psi chologt midterm. ••• a. studs’. eat test b. study. deep. test c. ,tud, listen to musk, test d. st idy, excr’ise, te I 100 6. Beinpm ibadmoodafc at ‘tidy Susan couk tF’nk ot icthng p tc in ft This is best explained as an e\ainFle of: a. C priming. b. mcniorv constna lion. c. ( 1 10 fosizo 20 filet ii ut 2. 1 he abe e figure dt pit I.. the retail of a list of isordc unck’r list) conditions. lVhti.li of the tol— lowing test distrihts the differente between the totiditit. “ c’andt t d 1 us’ I I c r.cstc d tea b. lit 1.’ it isord’. sen.. tud cJ a iii it newi.i in tht ‘ri. cOr’te’t. ffl the content ISCIt dt— tt I tnt. 1 h. ne’tn c. ten’ tVfl pre%tTttation ot the last ws ord xl the I of reca is a’ li na for A lIt r I s i ‘stntitn ftF list IbOt ii flit I tot rccui wi’, IC er for I Thai ..i mood-congruent memnv. d. Ii let a failure. 7. na Ct!) t rcmtr I yt’ IUC It cls ‘nat who s tehind & in tiltl ‘ade. ?s a na mentai1 reci’ed the names of’ o’ner classirate’. ho ..at near her. Martiiia’s effort to tetresh tier mc’non by actis ating “elated a%’odatirt. i. an ‘-‘ample of: a nut bd’s I ,i the i h.i.Ii soth attts rj.luation : om c e’ ‘-nted a i .‘J nt ‘lt niemoriec. lo’n’. e’ L,erls fl.’L ‘iot,ed t’ e 8.1 mcli si.an. tob-’ )t. a. itc-dcp C. d dtntmcr n. ‘tt9’L’t I t’t C. t. iii. -rr r s. C q, r- iiwt thini Karen did when she discovered dwt 4w had mwplaced her keys was to re-create a ae mind the dm ci ents. fhat she had little 1 w nit i in doind o illustrates: Y( (. 5511 eat memor 10. l’c h Ia it the tallow in is the best example of a uddenir emembering to buy bread while r the her kout line at the grocery nd muir c , th name of someone from high ‘a hile looking at his or her yearbook rcmemberng to make an important phone ‘nwmb ri ig ‘a hat you were doing on th pte rif r 11, 2 )0l when terrorists crashed I ir mt the \orId linde Center towers. ii X\ hen Caries was promoted, he moved nato a new ott ie with a new phone extension. Every ked for his phone number, Carios 5 time he is a i’rst thinks ‘i ha- old extension, illustrating the roar hi c r erterene, i oactivc interference 1 nunding failure c d. turnie talure. 12. 1 Iderd Mr. Flananan. a retired electrician, can iii teme 110cr how to ‘a ire a light switch, hut root r ‘tither the name of the president of ii d Ian tes. Lsmdently, Mr. Flanagan’s memory. m ror is hr tter than his a. mialmut splint C espiic:t: implicit m. denCratmi e: procedural 1 nejarative Ia. m na: 13 upl ( a I r c 11 the answer to a ques onv midterm you hai e a ige of the exthook page on which m at i encoding of 1 entir, r our I d as n a. -conant automatic a--ui; actumatil b odin] inn r it 14. At your high school reunion you cannot remem ber the last name of your homeroom teacher. Your failure to remember is most likeli the result of: a. encoding failure. b. storage failure c. retries al failure, d. state-dependent memory. 15. Brenda has trouble remembering her new fivedigit ZIP plus four-digit address code. What C the most likely explanation for the ditticulty Brenda is har ing? a. Nine digits are at or abos e the upper limit of most people’s short-term memory capacitr. b. Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of most people’s iconic memory capacity. c. The extra four digits cannot he organized into easily remembered chunks. d. Brenda evidently has an impaired implicit memory. 16. Lewis cannot remember the details of the torture he experienced as a prisoner of war. According to Freud, Lewis’s failure to remember these painful memories is an example of: a. repression. b. retrieval failure. c. state-dependent memory. d. flashbulb memor. 17. Which of the following illustrates the constructix e nature of memory? a. Janice keeps calling her new boyfriend by her old boyfriend’s name. h. After studying all afternoon and then getting drunk in the cx ening, Don can’t remember the material he studied. c. After getting some good new s, elated Kareem has a flood ot good memoriec from his younger I ears. d. Although elderly Mrs. Harvex.. siho has Alzheimer’s disease, has many gaps in lam memory. she invents set sible accc unts of her activities so that her family will not worr\ 18. fo help him remember the order of ingredientc in difficult recipes, niaster chef Giulio often as-.oci ates them with the route he walks to work each dal. c;iulio is rising xx hich mnemomc technique? c. the method ot luci a. peg-si ord system d. chunking b. acronyms Key Terms 19. During basketball practice Jan’s head was painfully elbowed. If the trauma to her brain dis rupts her memory, we would expect that Jan would be most likely to forget: a the n irnc ot her tL nun te b. her telephone number. c. the name of the play during which she was elbowed. d. the details of events that happened shortly after the incident, KEY TERMS Writing Definitions Using your own words, on a separate piece of paper n rite i hrRt dennition r exphn ition of L1h ot the following terms. 1. memory 2. flashbulb memory 3. encoding 20. After sufferina damage to the hippocampus, a person would probably: a lose rnLmorx for skills uh s hicxcle riding b h n iphle oi being Jissnalk onditioi Ld c. lose the ability to store new facts. d. experience all of the above changes. 21. hen he was 8 years old, Frank was questioned by the police about a summer camp counselor suspected of molesting children, Even though he was not, in fact, molested by the counselor, today 1 9-year-old Frank “remembers” the counselor touching him inappropriately. Frank’s false mem ory is an example of which sin of memory? a. blocking b. transience c. misattribution d. suggestibility Essay Question Discuss the points of agreement among experts regarding the validity of recovered memories of child. abuse. (Use the space below to jot down notes for your essay; then write the essay on a separate piece of paper.) 247 4. storace a 5 lctne\ 11 6 senor rnemor 7. shortterm memory 8. lonterm memory a 9. working memory 10 utonntic proc sm 11. effortful processing 12, rehearsal 13. spacing effect 14. serial position effect 15. visual encoding 16. acoustic encoding 17. semantic encoding 18. imagery 19. mnemonics 20. chunkmg 21. iconic memory 22, echoic memory 23. long-term potentiation (LTP) 24. amnesia 25. implicit memory 26. explicit memory 27. hippocampus 28. recall 29. recognition 30. relearning 31. priming 32. déjà vu 248 Chapter° Memory 36. cpa’ ng tnt wine: one: 33. in;iif.,rtnatio,a ,ftfect 37. i1 34. tnoacti% C inteiterenc’ 35 i1 it ‘t on 38 e:c ur a in tross-CI’ccle I r1J, ci ov rk e 1 ttt inatatil o e important to the learn in4 pwce. rtcr you ha C ii ritten nC lwnta isir lie 11W aek. ye: a inul cc his aj the cfl’sss oid puzfle iLl vibWe that you Cdfl wi enc the prvcc.ø reco iItC hetcrn,gi ‘nth Mit 5, It. 1 vin a 1 - I, -4 -- 110 - mc wit )tat Itor — - 1 ig. 4. Scnsn I — — ACROSS 1. Euimplt’ or rnotiva’ed f’rget:. - I fl .timu . 1 IL Fncnding LI information Sift LiIe tORu gt 7. ti Ingas x I xi nrdcr to retrci e a ‘pedfa 1’ ‘itCfliOfl. 11. MaiL lpicturs. he 14 3 ic4cdto no asis ic r irng irad i itmory I 15. Vi’.ual sen.on memon. 19. Organizing niateri ii ink’ farnilrw.at fuluuts 20. 1. iii’ ilk tidirenir )1r rnot mall imp’rtartt moment. 21. Los. ckt men .‘rv 21 lot 1 it titmr 31 II rma 9. Mar ails ot intnn i.th a into acme: y ac trdins. to ts ‘ound. enta inlesr’natio 12. Lne:ons.iou, er’coiing us 1e.i 4 tO. Encod ) DOWN -I. \mtosuie t.t rtter lion that tequires identiti irig resic .i I ine:dniat 3t tao r I 2 \n c’tett in v itith ci ti.itne”,e’, to an etent mzrjorc.’c £v%I.’ad1r1 iforr ation it their 4. . ir Iflit ii at tiat ui 4 .1 ii ri. that pi otes’es npli.it nwmorie. Icr jM( p ‘we: . cfegrre Brain .‘rea U If 8. ic 4$ $ 1 fJ a <ii r n r] is b 16. Mt rei c 18. I ne Lilt }‘CLflk r.t rtn.nr i. g r. tttett ,e: • ii it 31 C U A fl’l•flt’ fa’%.- c.t 01 ‘n in ajrea* itLiat n. ANSWERS 11w Phenomenon of Wnnong’ liii 2. wIt dk ti’ a 7. iii in Pt t ieatfl.iab. nile fnr :‘itt riere ifl mew- 1 13. hpc Qflht) 3 ng i.l.!ult -‘ t’. ‘tjitnted 24 3. information-processing; retriex al encoding; 4. three stage pa a ssmg; sensory memory term, encoded long-term storage’ 7. 2 8. unlimited limtlcs’ short- 9. do not 10. Karl t ashIer tortcxcs 5. working auditory, x isual-spatial central execu tn e episodic simultaneously 11, inteiferc decaxs 6. frc ntal lobes parietal’ temporal lobes 12. sx napses Encoding: Getting Information In 1. autc matic protessing; practicc, experience Automata proccssing includes the encoding ot intor mation about space time and frequency It also includes the encoding of word meaning, a tx pe of encoding that appears to be learned, 2. effurtful plot essing 13. seroton n 14. less receptor s res enzyme, L I P; faster c r p 15. (RI B’ glutamate 16. will not’ will 17. facilitate 18. amvgdala, limbic 3. rehearsal 19. disrupt; hippocampus sI ru 4, I bbinghaus; fewer 20. amnesia; is not 5. ox erlearning 21. hax e not’ implicit’ arc not exy c 6. most; next-in-line 22. hippocampus. explicit r erb 7, ‘pacmg effect 9. semantic; acoustic i isual 10. semantic 24. implicit; ore blink, amx gd P 25. intantibe hippocanipus 1. recall 12. imagery, effortful processina 13. better 2. recall, recognize 3. relearn; more 14. semantically, visuallt iS. rosx retrospcc tion 16. mnemonic, method of bc i 17. peg xord 4. priming 5. encode 6. the same Ihe deja ru eApor1ntt a’ being in a context im I men in belore It uc ha e t c situ tion though v ni t r crrrentsitu,t nm c help us tc retriexe tic ea i - i c vii 19. 1 icrar lies Storage: Retaining Information 1. ens 2. about halt’ more’ V ma 3. echoic, less 3 or 4 seconds 4. rehcarsal’ actrre 5. 7;(ecr cM ‘ci 6. dc ea Retrieval: Getting Infonnation Oat 11, self reference B nks it. 23. temporarily; do slow ware Ii Lab 8. serial position effect, better 18, t c t beL 7. state-dependent 8. mood-congruent Ihen happy, for examplc xc u positise light and recall B ppy c tions and memorie in I r Pr Mo mds als nfl icr e i behax icr u ib ph 250 (hapter9 ‘cur n rd guilt-promoting c ectirg pur it’re rc sulk rd dep ess on, interpret 9. hart Iorgett rig I or’ut 2. c i ett’ n d sft ric i r ti sion cdiig 3 4 c ters hr mi nory sx stcm S ci c lug kss 6 5( 7 a ede 8 r 9 i iemo ‘ tw H ii teiterene Suggestions for improx ing memo include rehears ing material ox c r many separate and distributed study sessions xx ith the objc ctin e of ox ertearning material Studs ing should also mx oh e achn e rehc arsal rather than mindless repetition of informa tion Organizing information, relating material to xx hat is already knoxi n developing numerous rctric P cues, and using mnemonic den ice, that inc orporate x ivid imagerx are helpful too. Frequent actination of retrienal tues such as the context and mood in xx hich the original learning occurred, can also help strengthen memorn, as can recalling en ents whrlc they arc frc sh, before possible misinformation is c ntountered. Studvmg should also be arranged to minimize potential sources of interference, I inally self tests in the same format (recall or recognition) that will later bc uscd on the actual test are useful, 10. pr )actire mterferene retroactire interfercnce 11, better Progress Test i 12. p win C transter Multiple-Choice Questions 13 repres ion 1. d. is the answ er. Information must be encoded, or put into appropriate form’ stored, or retained ox t r tin it’; and i etrie ed, or located and gotten out when needed (p. 331) 14. Ic s 15 strc ss’ strengthen Memorri C onstruchon I construction 2. misinforn ation etfect’ can’ imagination inflation; xix id imaginations 14 icn people new ed i film of a traffic accident and we c uucd i weck later phrasing of qncstions affected answers, thc word ‘smashed,’ for instance, made x iexx ers mistakenly think they had seen broken glacs 3 5( ice a nnesia rnisattribute 4 pcrccpti us interprctat’o ‘is S de 6 ) icd 9, ne a lea peg word systen. ii,, 7. d. is the answer, (p 359) a. Ihere is no such process of ‘consolidating.” b. Organization d cs erthance mernorx but it does so through hierarchies not grouping. er o the pro essing of informa e. I ncodmg r 1 tor ‘ntthc xc sn t’m rent ‘ 12 nhnti c amne cgnfi c i I rd crc dire strategics art im but mnemonic x ‘cc is the eneral designation of techniqucs t at facilitate memory such as acronyms and thc ortant in ctonr g new n-en ones u’st 11 4. d. is the answ er Retries al refers to the process of remembering. (p 370) S. c. is the answer. (p 362) 6. d. is the answer pp 358 359) 1 as ‘ton ,eldation teLh a. I here is ‘e 3 a b tern b. & c. In- igcr S 10 3. d. is the ansxx er. Fchoic memories last 3 to 4 sec onds (p 362) n ques t i 1 du able i 2 a. is the answer. Iconic memory is our fleeting memor of n isual stimuli, (p. 362) b. Fchoic memory is auditory sensory memory. c I hr re is no such thing as photomemory d Semantic memo is memory for meaning, not a form ot sensory memo. ugh r i ii ultural y r Rfarsc 1 ix Answers 8. c. us the answer. Kandel and Schwartz found that when learning occurred in the sea snail :1iluIsm. serotomn n as released at certain synapses, which then became more efticient at signal transmission (p. 365) 9. b. 3. the ansu er. In essence, we construct our memories, bringing them into line ii ith our biases and assumptions as well as with our subsequent experiences. (pp. 382—383) a. It this were true, it would mean that memory ct nstruction does not occur. Through memory construction, memories may deviate significantly 17. from the original experiences. c. Phere is no evidence that such chemical trans fers occur. d. Many long-term memories are apparently unlimited in duration 10. d. is the answer. tn general, being in a context 18. irnilar to that in which cou experienced some thing will tend to help you recall the experience. (pp. 372—373) a. & b. The learning environment per se—and its familiarity or exoticness—did not atfect retention. 11. a. is the answer. (p. 354) b. & d. the text does not suggest that there is an optimal interx al between encoding and retries al. c. Learning increases the efficiency of synaptic transmission in certain neurons, hut not by alter ing the size of the synapse. 12. c. is the ansu er. (p. 365) 13. d. is the answer. When asked to recall all the let ters, participants could recall only about half; howe’. er, if immediately after the presentation the were signaled to recall a particular row, their recall was near perfect. This showed that they had a briet photographic memors —so brief that it faded in less time than it would have taken to say all nine letters. (p. 362) 14. b. is the answer. Because amnesia yictim’. lose theur fact (exphcih memories but not their skill ‘implicit naemnries or their capacits to learn, it appear’ tbat human memori can be dir ided into fir o dishnd hpes. (p. 36) d. As studies of amnesia sic tims show, memors losses follow ing damage to the hippocampus are quite prc dictable, 15. d. is the answcr. (p. 367) a. & b. Fxphcit mnemori’ (alsn called derlaratir e memory I is memory of facts and experiences that one ran consciousli know and declare. c. there is no suda thing a prime memors. ‘16. d. is the answer up. 373 19. 20. 251 a. State-u epend.ent naenaou y is the phenonienon un which information l best rc’tner ed when the per son is i a the same e r ational o physiological stati hi or she w s i a when thc uatehal was lear red b. I ncoduig faulurc c cais yhen a pcrson has not processed intormat a a wienth for it to enter the men c r si stern. c. Priming is the process hr rr hich a memorr is actix ated through rctrier al of an associated memoir h. is the ansr er. When the words were organized into cafe ,ories, rer all i as tw o to thrce times bet ter, indicating the benetits ot hitrarchical organi zation in nemor p 3(0) d. this study did not examine the use of mnemonic des ices. a. is the answer. (p. 351 b. Hernian Fhhinghaus conducted pioneering studies ot x erhal learning and memoir. c. t,oitus and Painaer conducted influential resean..h studies ot er ewitness memory. d. George Sperhng i’ know ir for his research studies of iconic memory d. is the answer. It is in both encoding and retries al that we construct ut riemories and as t.oftus studies shoy cd leading questions affect people’s memori constructon. tp. 85) a. The memory encoding occtmrred at the time of the cx out in question, not during c uestionirmg bx’ 1 the hr pnotist. b. State-dependent nsemor’. refer’. to the influ ence of one’s ow n emotional or phi siological state on encoding and rctrier al, and would not apply herc c. Proactn c tntettc ren i he interh ring effect of prior learning on thc rc a I of ne i info mation. b. is thc answer. ip, 69 a. The tnppocampos a innora r processing site for c5?”i( (liii?’ ,‘,s c. & d. These area in the brain are not directlx in’. nix ed in fbi memer Stt’fl(. 21. b. is the ins’.’. ci. B;o di example of retries al I i ore. f c other S i exainpic s n of a f dist c P Si r ‘mories aithougl iasc r e ue ct ci P3 p Matching Items (p. 3n2 2. O(}2. P31) 6. 3, 1 S 1. p (p S 4. a 5. m (p 3’ (p. (p. 3 kn 7. ep. Fr 1: 9. i (p 10 hIp P3’4( i 11. a (p. P391 12. up. P541 13. Ia p. p. PSI 14. j 15. p aP31 “2 ( Ffultiplt When misled he the phrasmgs cf en ste r 5 a cets mncorrectlx reeal ed details f cv ‘r “remembered” objects that r a tr 382—383) cc tt er t. c. Speed reading, which entamis 5 re 2 F ogress Tee eJzercn ( r c r’ Fe . (I I tnd Bahrick both ttt ‘c that is going to arring.fp. 3M’ c ens nit. ate” t c I h’ e .n ,enens m’on attc i - Horn r. pr 2. 2. 2 t a. & to ii:”, ctectt dir! not rind evidence that n th time. tj0e (demo 1 ,n 0’ P di on an ake. there are many ‘ncr: poten of ‘Vettit tt ‘nterfctence than tt ‘ten 3. . -\ t t( rt ans. cc. . trier :1 F et of recall pren n2 the ae and nsnalh proeiures tOe did) rer:’et ai H fond 4. d,istbeaimnenv3nN 3. d. P ;h. nr.c en dicerdina to the serial nontlon it: ms at the hepnnii’g aard end of a list nienh ‘t d est (p. die) n P ob tm t rt 6 anrn et a. tt r 1’. 2 5 s tie’ a r ,n’ddl of th t Ott c & d tie t m two form p i ‘ P ai b t m t d pa t 3 i’ rico c a. & b. I ishic r ‘ ‘‘n .i ante of hr t C. ‘ lesiooing t 9 a. . ‘ in :nn e’ di a t art h. ci’ mo,..’ ‘ tIM hem ire p. to :en ‘!Hate into hiM e. ;nf,rmatiot (mm. itm”tn’omme—. ii,,a.th ,: £ar a in ratbe .han cm, up: the tirmamioa, 3 H ‘ t dim head wipe— not F t’im tc nn’r ° F asP I y fcund that I di ts F p least a ore her tic. (p. 364j nrestigate the d r en iearntng and a e r ittri .s n ‘mu r tacihta hite 3 ‘do the nt e rsotits n ,r rdr I rg) prodomes nru’h m risual o I oustrc 1 t ‘ e t, the items in the shon Fe panes! reten t i ts ‘n in ref ft ,in 10. -it mme ‘m nt l ‘e it’t an—” m L a. & I h aam cc t Ic s 2 a” I cc e .‘ming di pr at r ni i-rend ne reote—s ‘roe .c.r self-concepts i . little a pal ehearsal, yields poor retention. (pp ‘ P 14. b. is the ao—wer. (p. 331) a. Fn. eadig iS the process ot getting inforntation amma tiie’aOt\ c. RehearsaI i5 the cinscions repetItion ot infor ruation in order to maintamn it in memory. d. Stora e ii- the maintenance ot encoded nrateriai c”. cc t,me. 13. B. is the ansn em Amnesia patients typically hare sO tiered dumage to tire hippocampns, a brain Prico”e mm 01mM in processing erplicit memo ries dir tact-. (po. 3e7, 308) a. Amnesia pattents do retain implicit nternories for di r to do things; these are processed itt thc rr p trts of the brain. in r e & d. F t ‘w patients generally do not experi r c n rpairn cnt in their iconic and echoic senso v ten rr’s. 16. B. stt’arwer.(p 354) a I r or atm ar mn short-term memory has alrm di. r rtcdd c. I ‘om an I echoic are types of sensory memory a is the process of gethng material d. Ret ef s o pm and into conscious, short-ternr r r r I h s al matermal in short term memorr cirel I been retriex ed or is about to be t s cit r Ic r ncr Br breaking concepts doun into 11 r h s i n ts di yet sma]ler divisions and show ir’g t r I tionships antong these, hierarchic ntm rination processing. Use of ntam faeilta heads and mhh,eads is an era ntpie ot the organt /an.3n “ cesloook chapters into hierarchies, (p. — a. dine n. ‘ncr dcx ice’ are the method ot loch er mentort S Jm”mqmme that tamP t and ot mmate metntm.’n irnittait the Jfeets ot %mmch mm:urmes .r’ mg. on ‘c ssed nienon’ ‘sts that then th time. tan t, c B. UI am to arm organirahoits of knott it dge rrtto familiar, ‘ii ‘nageahit’ unit—. d. Recogntion is a measure of retention. 18. d. i’ the a”' ,or np. 3SP—SsS( 19. e. is toe tswer, Short-ternt recall is —lighth better bee anse tor iniormation. cxc hear rather than see outlasts iotruc inontentarile remoir cch i , rt’ mnli, such as ,tords, are a easih than meaning I tters. Answers b. lconic memory does not last as long as echoic memory in short-term recall. d. Although context is a powerful retrieval cue. there is no general facilitation of memory in an unusual context. 20. c. is the answer. Loftus and Palmer found that e ewitness testimon could easily be altered when questions were phrased to imph mislead ing inFormation, (pp. 382—383) a. \ithough memories are constructed during encoding, the misinformation effect is a retries al, rather than an encoding phenomenon. b. & d. ln tact, just the opposite i true. 21. d. is the answer. (p. 376) a. This defines absent—mindedness. b. This is misattribution. c. This is bias. True—False items 1. 2. 3. 4. 5, ‘1 (p. 35) 1 (p. 363) F (p. 385) 1 (p. 388) 1’ (p. 377) 6. F (p. 7. F (p. 8. 1 (p. 9. F (p. 10. F (p. 385) 380) 392) 381) 354) Psychotogy App(ied Multiple-Choice Questions 1. d. is the answer. (p. 370) a. & b. In order to correctly answer either type of question. the knowledge must ha e been encoded and stored, c. With fill-in-the-blank questions, the answer must he recalled with no retrieval cues other than the question. With ni u I tip1 c-choice questions. the correct answer merely has to he recognized from among several alternatives. 2. d. is the answer. (p. 336) a. & b. A serial position effect w ou’d presumahl occur sshetht.r the studs and retriexal contexts were the same or different. c \s researchcrs found when reca I is de aved, onlr the tint items in a list an recalled more accurately than the others, With immediate recall, both the first and lact items are recalled more accurately. 3. d. is the ansis er. Phat all foLir mistakes are has’d on a sound confusion suggests that the letters were encoded acousticallx. (pp. 336—337) a. Memorizing a list of letters would in oh e efturtful, rather th in automatir, proc essing. b. I he mistakes do not mx olsc’ k tt rs that are similar in apprarance 253 c. Semantic encoding would have been suggested errors based on similarities in meaning. 4. b. is the answer. Retroactive interference is the disruption of something von once learned by Hen information. p. 370) a. Proactive interference occurs when old infor mation makes it difficult to correcth remember new information. c. & d. Irterference produces torgetting even w hen the forgotten material was err’ecns eiy encoded and stored, Janice s problem is at thc le el of retrie aL 5, B, is the answer. (pp. 379 380) a., c., & d. Involvement in other activities, es en just eating or listening to music, is more disrup tive than sleeping. 6. c. is the answer. Susan’s memories are affected h her had mood. (p. 374) a. Priming refers to the conscious or unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. B. Memory construction refers to changes in memory as new experiences occur. d. Although Susan’s difficulty in recalling the good could be considered retrieval failure, it is caused by the mood-congruent effect, w hich is therefore the best explanation. 7. a. is the answer. Priming is the conscious or un conscious activation of particular associations in memory. (p. 372) B. DOji vu is the false impression of hax ing previ ously experienced a current situation. c. That Martina is able to retrieve her former classmates’ names implies that thex alreath hax e been encoded. d. Relearning is a measure of retention based on how long it takes to relearn something alruadx mastered. \Tartina is recalling her former class mates’ names, not relearning them. 8. B. is the answ er Being bark in the ontext in which the original c xperiences occ urrcd trigger u memories of these experiences (p 373) a. The memories were triggered h arty r 1 not mood acc p c, Retroactu e interference would mx oh e ditfu Ui ties in retriex ing old memories. d. Lchoi memory rerers to momentarx memorx of auditory stimuli. 9. a. is the answer, Time and space- -and therefore sequences ot events—are often automaticallr processed. (p 33) b. ‘I hat she had /ttfle difi ii1t; indicate’, that the processing was autom itic rather than cffoitful c. & d. State-dependent memors and p i ni c 24 I)y ‘I 1 C iua aticçres’tg Lu ‘ bib xc nrcsarc.uiu,u nctot If signS c i s 0 en c C CI i0 t ff 1. 1 C ii I Lieu ibt 3 tt. U lx ccl. 111 cdedand s 3 sti r a (CC. Its ut C ht t ci VO 1 ci OfC flc can. 3 b 3’) ‘c..a thc nIse md atcs r is C Id aartic.aly. I stheioaionc’ar d La ncracn u vcr Lu 1)tth c.tu answer)on te’ctbxk i c. s utonaticaly tnt (Ilk s..15 Lswcr (J ‘b h a e of ‘ at iomcsoom tcacltr, atiato ccc ado ba j )i w s S KS proccssed into iremor c)aid ii arcdtharcforson Lint d r a 19 C S Cc I ct.cpe.r r tiLt 2.0. iforta ri t 1 ti° rc It 1 C cs silly 01 i L. i s iuscrc r rdb 1 tiet is 1’ uS hi r tici e ‘r ,ui i Oi apr so Li - c dcst o C it c. ‘c r ICC icr OS TCCC nt 1 i i a & b ‘cli C .3 rk n. ) C, c. Cfl ss d.c IC itn it tc r(Iru r C. ) c t I 14 L ci di lx b cr I ‘ tISS f 157 Ic ieddci rovais 1 . ‘3 iii C L Ii )3rS1 dnu ‘1 i 18.c. ,&d. C C a b. 1 ic c 1’ d. st c I i b prcbieir (C a I 1 it Ut ft. ‘. nkc d ercrc’ aid io 1 1 C• C.’ I b r ,Cci SC C I. ‘i.e 1 at 0 d. as )L i. i C in a t ichastiatr IL is a ‘r itt tic ied r C. ait a b., & d Studi sia is I SI iT C h shi last.. t in a i cured IrCi I ) I, icli K C tO Ct 1 t i’ fiat i p cr r 11 V 0 ‘. I heb r )itd It 21 d. p. stoi it s raicd i r ,ru akcdt i’ x37) ix tos ti e U c cc fFk ic a ci s t 1 c t r ci d i hetendcnci, o ii it or ibcs niesareamotkralor ‘, icni sa lemned I s s o’i ssoCatedlsih ike it a 1’r&estac mi r cathcrsnamc. is Sot ‘r nerorvcpa I e rcx r cverdjits. p.36! rC (yr at 7) )tC. Ia C. d gir i rcioz a 1 C C’ C 1 I I d C Id . dc •1 d 16 8 c IC. b rn X) Cu SCC pCS c cci at C )ue 5s C ii C 1 a rt• teoC ‘ .i IT car It5 at cci C tu 5) crc C i )i Cit 4. . U d ii ca S ott 1. drugs a ‘e unreliable, as are memories of eents betore ae 3 Finally, the\ agree that memories can be tram math whether real or false. 15. Visual encoding is toe use rriag information into menu r p. 336 16. Acoustic encoding N the pro tion into memors ace 31 din to ri to process ssin t iniolnui s mud (p IN 17. Semantic encoding i the proc-m’mg t otot tion iflto memor accordmng to meamunu, Key Terms p. Vt ritinc Dcf’initwns 1. Memory is the persictence of learning over time ia the sturape and retriei a) of information. (p. 2. A flashbulb memory is an unusuall vi id menu or of an emotionally important moment in one’s life. (p. 331) (p 3. Encoding is the first step in memori; information s translated into some form that enables it to enter our memory si stem. (p. 331) 4. Storage is the process b which encoded informa tion is maintained o er time, (p. 3l) 5. Retrieval is the process of bringing to conscious ness information from memor storage. 351) 6. Sensory memory is the immediate, very brief recording of sensor Information in the memor’ sstem. (p 31) 7. Short-term memory is conscious memory uhich can hold about 5cr en items for a short time. (p. 8. Long-term memory is the relativeh permanent and unlimited capacit memory sstem into rr hich information from short-term memory ma pass. (p. 3311 9. Working memory is the newer was of conceptu alizing short-term memory as a ii ork site for the active processing of incoming auditorx and visual-spatial information, and of information re trieved from long-term memors. (p. 32) 10. Automatic processing refers to our unconscious eluoding of incidental information such as space. time, and fretiencr and of well-learned intcmrrna tion. (p. 33) 11. Effortful processing is encoding that reatlire.. attentIon and conscinu- effort. 1 p- 54i 12. Rehearsal is the con’,cious, eftnrttui repetition of intormaton that t ou arc’ trying either n to maintain or to encode for storage (p. ‘4; iS. Imagery refer to mental pictures and can be important aid to effcirttul rut e5s1i3 P 19. Mnemonics are memory aids (the methou of ioci, acronyms, peg-word.., etc. I. o imicim itCii me i Imagert and organIzatIonal de it-u 20. Chunking is the memo”x technoue 22. Echoic memory is the mome ta ry of auditors stimul I in onds (p. 362) 23. Long-term potentiation (F I P) s i crease fol ov synapse s firing potentia ‘net. rt stimulation I IF is bdies d t)l c t i tiC Uflil has for learning and meinor (a 36) 24. Amnesia is the loss of memor p 3o7) 25. Implicit memories 26. Explicit memories ing called declaratis e y retained th i th s in tie r iddle ( art— n1enmorie of fat-f.. mnclctd f i’s oX cuts are memorot- p 27. 1 he hippocampus i a nets a c mts i lotthe linshc sistem tna N mpmitt fl ‘1m’ : ..p ing of e\pliUt memormos 28. Recall P a measure Of tc-teta;’ must remenis’er, information iearnc m’ son 30. Relearning ‘s a norc cc i skills prefer mae. and names, 14. The serial position effect the tcndencs for are me rorics of ences, and dispositions Ihesc memormec .ire cvi dentli processed, not by the hippocainpus, hut hr a more priniitis e part of the hratn, the curehel or :.?mir lum. They are also called pus cia [hi’ mcmnnra’c. p. 3o 29. Recognition is organizmna images 13. The spacing effect i the tendency for distributed ctudy oi practice to yield better long-term reten tion than massed study or practice. (p. 355) tcms it the beginning a id u d )f a F t P b t 1 meannoful ii1it5 p 3m 21. Iconic memory is the r uual wnom iiie’flor\ consisting of a perfect photographic numorr which lasts no more than a terv tenths of a etond, (p. 362) or ‘i’epesent i Menioru aid I ci I me ins irs ‘i tion.” iconic memory r ot bidet risual st material into familiar uitim ‘,..hc!t- to’ r it-. a n’ easure ot 1 fc c t 1 t-c in uo t-5is i’ Fir ton Pm ,n ii need ohs id nt f rathet than idOl miush learned inforn ati ti c tO .c cm iCr, one the less more tF fr i’m c I I itt’ I 1101 pit in i’sar nauSlli, F S I thdt tIn, 256 Chapter 9 Memory 31. Priming i, the activation often unconscions ot a web o t associations in mtmorv in oider to retriei c a specif memory, p. 372) 32. Déjà vu is the false sense that you have aireads experienced a current situation. p. 373 33. Mood-congruent memory is the tendenot to recall txporiences that are consistent with our current mood. i’ 374) 34. Proactix e interference m the disruptit e etfect ot s mcthing ron airtady have learned on your sfforts tt Icarn or recall new mformation (p. 379) 3S Retroactive interference is the disruptn e effect of somethinp ret er t s learned on old know ledge 1 D)) (p, Mu or zzd’ Rctro means ‘backward” Ret; oactive interference is “backward-acting” interference. 36. Repression is an example ot motivated forgetting in that paintul and unacceptaBle memories are pret ented troni entering consciousness, In p5w Lnoanal\ tic theors it ts the basic defense nrecha nisnr ‘p 3S1 1 O( US ON VOGABUIARYANI) LANGUAGE 11w Phcnonzenon of Memory 343. Yr ur mensory is your mind’s storehoase 3 Pa the r sri alt ot sour accumulated learning. Myers is usmg ar analogi to help r on understand the gener al toncept of memors. Both teeelionses and rescroezrs are used to keep materials (water, tood. etc.) until ‘a e need thcm. Liken ise, your memors systeni re tains most of the things r ott experienced (acm (inlittOt ot imi’:o;;:, and itenw tan he reca Bed or retrieved as reqo ire) I’D’ I S mc i ‘ii Sonic tn’lit s has xplored the earls a I r us loss th r it csc rchers has r cxar i s ot men try s I s and ansrs c notcd tt c bencfmts (ha; s) 0 not t r fc t m n or for s try thing that hap 3 t 5 information about the event into their memories. (p. 353) 38. At the heart ot many false memories, source amnesia reters to naisattnihutmg an event to the is rong ource (p. 354? Cross-Check DOWN ACROSS 1. repression 4. erhcio 1. recognition 2. sensory 3. misinformation effect 6. semantic 7. priming 4. 5. 8. 9. 10. 12. 13. 16. 17. 18. 11. imagery 14. LII’ 15. 19. 20. 21, 22. conit chunking flashbulb amnesia rehearsal ettortfut hippocampus nnpticit mnemonics acoustic automatic proactive long term usual deja vu Page 3 iv. Do h s memory feats make y our own mem orv seem feeble? Myers is poinhng out that although S may have demonstrated spectacular abilities in remembering all sorts of things (memory fi’ats), nor mal memor in the average person is no less astounding in many is as s (pi’ett;j staggrring). Despite our occasional failures, our ordinary memory accomplishments, it hich we tend to take for grant ed, are quite remarkable their are Dr front being feeb/e). Pap’s PlO 52: instead we mIlle the flashlight bean; 0 oar sPent/a’; not el or ‘a certain important intoming stimulioften stimuli. One model of memory suggests that s e onh fat us on (shin the flashlt”l, /‘ea’a f r ‘I I ; a;;) and p occss one part or aspect of t ic tt tal scnsory input, particularli new in cr ‘mportant stimuli. We can also locate and bring bark stored infoi m ation from long tcrm mem on tLrM) into short-term memory (STM). I’d’ a; ‘dat ,ei;;a; c ‘a a nary Olinat Irs. ew optional tnt nrc ries art’ heing likened or compared to the top athletes in the Olympic Lames. S for example. would cleans receive the top prize ‘dm tct :;;a: “; m am competition in mvhith People 37. l’he misinformation effect is the tendency of eve ‘a itnesses ta an et cut to h’ttorporate nnsleading Encoding: Getting hforina tion In itO rerne;nhcra g x ast brine t’-rc’cl ta:aic,:’a amounts (.51,’;’;/ 0. of nfarmaton ‘a as Page .354: One ivax to improx e and lea-f increase the power at our meniors is to use rehearsal. Ehus, attis dr repeating some new infor mation (such is a stranger’s name or nest torrninolo gi ) still help —trengtiIen (‘‘at oor abilits to reinein . , , . . Focus on ocabu1ary and language her this material. As Myers notes it is important for effective retention to space out or distribute rehear’.als over time (tIle spaez;i effect) rather than doinn the repetitions all at once niassed practice or cramming). Pac’c 356. Gordon l3ower and Daniel Morrow (1990) liken our minds to theater directors who, ii’ell a ran’ script, imagine a tmshed stage production. This sug— pest’- that what we remember is not an exact replica of reality. We construct some mental representation or model t’inisiicd stage production) from the basic ensori information (rare script) available to us, and so, when we recall something, it is our own version (mental model) that comes to mind and not the real thing. Page 318: Thanks to the durability of our most vix id Images, we sometimes recall our experiences with mental snapshots of their best or xx orst moments. The use of imagery or mental pictures (snapshots) is one wa’ to enhance recall. We hax e exceptional1 good memorx for pictures and ideas that are encoded using visual imagery. As Myers notes, “imagery is at the heart of many memory aids” (e.g.. method of loci, peg-word, etc.). Pave $38 (caption; ...“ (elF until iiou are blue in the face”,,. Ihis refers to the situation in xs hich some one says the same thing (e.g., a reciuest, a plea. a xx a ruing) over and over, but sax ing it does not appear to hax e am effect on the listener, You can xx am people repeatedly about the dangers (icalth • ha ; d of sum tanning and smoking (tier an t i I m in thc fa e) with little or no change I w i a ix the target audiences behaxior visual images of • the consequences of tanning and smoking haxe a greater impact. 353, is based on me ix riz r g a short 10- item poem c ;gle that can he wsoLiated xx ith a new list of I 0 item through x isual iniageri rim flexi items are hung on. or pegged to, th familiar items. \lc’timnec a’!uie ‘rat ii m91’ ;llimi’cr, .;l;ec. He .c’!:;ya’; ca tn :‘ ,‘ilhl’c. I hfc n’;:I IH b’cf an’::, en hb ‘i;iger. ‘,;t,,b f:i t,i ‘n tr,a, hx chunking (orga and ran 1 I anits) we can nizing material into meaning increase the an ount of inforr ian x we can iemem her, l)onatdli x s able to r cal u o 0( numbers read to Fun onix on e, en elicit per second, by using chunkin; aid H mar h es c ustcrs of chunks, Page $n; 1: Pac $4: Hb, [Ehhinghaus’] solution was to form a list of all possible 11 nsensc suliat’les created by rand a’iclu;iç a i owel hetu cen tu o consonants. in order to a oid using meaningful nords with prior associa tions Hermann Ilhbinghaus mx ented three-letter n ords that made no sense and had no meaning (in. nsi nse siiUabks). lie did this bx putting a xowel (sandG ‘iclung it) betu een two consonants. I us non sense (‘in anrngless) syllables were consonant (C), von ci (\) consonant (C), or CA’Cs. Pace n’ord” method 257 For exiniple, the ‘pegncord’ si stem requires that you first memorize a iiiiclc. A inn,de is an easili remembered succession of ivorcis that ring or resound against each other due to alliteration or rhyme and are often used in radio or TV commer ciìR. Pie mflemunic (mernuri aid) ca lied the ‘pe Donatelli then organized from small to big 1k xx as quiet xx bile lis tening to the list but became mcix a fix c and agif at ed Pu’ cp;ang I a ) a he used his nnemonic tech niq ue Storage: Re to in ing Intorm at ion Page $o2’ It was harder than reading by I;gi:tni;ig flashes. In his mx estigation of sensori storage, George Speilrng showed hic suhiect’- .an array of nine letters for a x cry brief period lor about the length of a hid’ t liglit;iing;. lie’ demonstrated that this was sufficient time for then to hrietl\ mien fli;;ps I all nine letters and that an in’age remained for less than halt a second before fading away; he called this brief f7e t r g) memory f m icual stimuli iconic memory 5Pm ek Holijic’Mx sterx writer Sir Page P3’ Ic’s ular character was a most ros Arthur C ona x Dox ate phi detectix e named very intelligent and logical as mani did Holmes, heliex ed Holmes Sherlock xx limited, much others. that our memorx capacity a’as a small empti room or attic can hold onix so much furniture before it ox erflows. Contempirars psvchologicts noi’. heliex e that ‘or ability to store limit. x iti: eat 1 long-terlu memories ;s haucal xx any Among amn s me’ contender Page lb I 1’ ‘ xxould e I it’db”air for dxamp xu mker is kr the Cl k t x t a pH Sr Il b n small bird xx t nomenal netro 1 i te a period where it u cx i s c 3. It mx )nths a000 e Cr t ocations of of more than hidden foe’l Pap’- •PP i’’ ,.itJi ‘aa” e,’ a; ‘P 1;; make, a -tttemc’xt tint is not meant to he’ taken se’riuusl’, ‘a, ‘m’tc’ that it xx as said H hey ‘m’m ,’,’ 1 bec s’att xl that fell u’ reality,” than ‘-ixal dual more a a ‘i are of Li ‘ries X\ hen someone • ;‘ ‘ c’sean 258 chaptet Niemon tint r wit tc ac \ or sent i;tO 0 tim a rsen s ntc the 4 e s or cerhan norTnones. Tnese in turn Lc’ do tOt [e cigna: rh m i: that soniethin irnpurtant [mc hap penad nd the ox enb tim r triggered the arousal macic r deihl piemi r the b H much a F tim a’.re’ e • I Of LO :e o itt’ a nnesial can he Jas n athni’ecl.. Intl ran learn to read iOtfiu” o: do ;cic.. thex can he [a’s ci ettdidn red PeaLe it ho hat e io t the 5 ihiiittx ‘memb r ten intc ration ii LsciD) ma to •g throF acsrcia xc hc in im i in i dofla’nnftoshrc orohlc e. ,}lrrl s yen if thc arc not ao hex inn done —o. \h er notes that thesr final inm -nggest teat nxernor’ is not a single. unified —x stc n’ \nuiesles win [earn kin’, to ia somethrng implicit memo ‘ithoot xcv knott iedge of this harni phcit declarative, memory d (‘1 oIler , a ci [‘r’ri (7(l)J Ir ab drivers are iften F o work ir Lon For oe iebici face an enormous chal to cne monze the complicated lanout ntx teets: the longer thex ixork there the a e :ear area or the hppocamnus nt’hich spw niotx) F iair/c ptia’ ne. 0 re)rir’x pr r 1 t c rni i’d ‘1 H x oar ,onx gdaia. ReNt ing and reliching ine’ro’x iCe Paso ccssfulpc x a s coLa a phaizi a id Her that ‘ci p ‘H fr m x ariouc cortical storage citec Lw then with the emotional associations vi, H 5 c of pact nix alcnt ‘vi no’ acconxpiishznentc in orcne an tza’c dir i 0 • no’-’ ci’ - , ciii,•c,rax,ddh,the.wirgciaia , , Ph’.’ ‘ , as um c d (hula p H rrcsc] souic ma north). Memory of cv m at pa ‘ci s influanc r d by the particular r ulaicia V x od we a cur •L’ ci’ ‘a I iwi” hrr ‘, , in u’’. N . ‘ P zge thi: An d all tire applause for nu’zuen/ hare a i x oices hr i heard ii praise of forgetting? ‘iF e t ‘n focu )t tF e unportance of remembering and re alh ig info, nation ft zero is touch applause for mono . ci ul I Ioweyc • i re to [iL I Ni ct t i’eoirr’ in a’d ii’ r let t u total . if xve could not forget, we would he like the Russian memory expert izziezzii’rii told:) S who xx as or erwhelmed hr the aniount of useless information ira had stored thanzztcd ha his juoir heap of mcrzoricp. Fh is many people, from William James tear ‘-at 1 cogni’h a psychologists, 0 cknoxx H edg I c 1 npo tanc e of forgetting. ‘5: A tame ot p i po/sed on the f/p o the f t,’zzc;,e. xi aihng to he retrieved. The expression an the Li;’ of cci’ r”o oh’ reters to the teeling r on get rvhen n on are trying to remember something (a name, place ett., hut can’t, even though r on feel thou n or 0 r say it f,f’s on It to o ‘r i r7 r ai propr’ itc retries a ( ue F is tIc ettc cf re nar r comethin d rhyri ‘5 mdi c ) ace r ften rrn emher the tcm. ‘fl’c 0 F— ron collect nnore and moe intermation, “t’,l oh it net er hilt. hot it ccrtainlr gets edit ruod, OF e mar h,a’e an onihuited amount of space in 0’ r s”5)rn m t , r our :‘ 0 • / Forgetting Pa,. P, H i no F (ick’ng fnlornzwztzon Ozzt r whether it is good or had, and we tc id to remember the excnts accordingly. Pap: L4: Limo teenagers are daci’zi, their parents —cern inhuman: a thetr mood hdghtcn. their parents H ‘ii Hr 7’ acLa aaocl’. Because our nremorie te id to he mood-congruent. xx e are likely to explain on n ‘cc t c i tion ii state hr remembering cx ents ar d c is ng c insistent (canyrurat) nith hon ste ow tee n one studs xx hen young adolescents werc mi a had mood H a), titer x iexx ed their par ent— a true, and nncarhig (inhuman). hut later lieu ther were in a much better (lit is/itcH mood their parents acre descrihed in much nicer terms. It sci i’d as t tough thcir parents had undergone an ‘mfng char pa i i cimraLcr (morphu;zg fret;, deazlc to I zg I ) hut tF in ‘e x as simply in the teenagers’ mood Ac \Iyc notes pasciazzs [or cmafzansl exag (5 J ) 1 rod h )et cia a i t\v ut —ad nd uniarpx. r ‘‘ ear i use si stem or i r t 1 rtti to (a oom at the top ith a rnstant flow of ncn infor r t in g , ii c storage can become disorga d (Hoff I lie neix in tormation may get in the xx ax of recaling old material (retroactive inter— ferencei, or old material mar’ block or disrupt ret all of mar ,ntormetien (proactive interference; r t) situa(ion ‘mon nici Focus on Vocabulary and Language r Page 380: We sheepi$ilii accepted responsibility tar 89 cookies. Still, we had not come close; there had been 160. 1he Myers family obviously loves chocolate chip cookies, and the stor of how all toO were cn, ate. c ncunzed) within 1 de\ oured uczrtcd, au/ted do 24 hours wet a creed’ ices 1t1t is quite funny but makes an important point. Embarrassed, guilty, and feelin° a little foolish (sheepish). they could onh account for and remember eating 89. This illustrates the se1t-ser ing nature of memory and how, un knon inglv, we change and revise our own histories. Pepc $81: I he words re/it a b/ou’n-eitt candle in the mind Just a an extinguished dilewii out) candle can he reignited (re/it) with a match, the presentation of a retrieval cue ma help someone recall or retrieve a long forgotten memory ‘\ithough Freud proposed that we repress memories of painful expe riences in the unconscious mind in order to protect our self-concepts and minimize anxiety, Myers notes that most contemporary memory researchers beliexe repression rarely, if ever, happens. Memory Construction Page 384: Because memory is reconstruction as well as reproduction, u e can’t be sure whether a memory is real by how real it feels, It is difficult to determine if a memory is real simply by noting how real it feels or how confident we are about its accuracy. We not only recall and retrie e real memories (reproduction) but we also manufacture false memories (reconstruL 259 Page $85: Memory construction helps explain wh\ “hipiiotical1u rebuIued memories of crimes so easilx incorporate errors, some of which originate with the hypnotist’s leading questions. Because of the ten dencv to manufacture events u ithout being con sciously aware of doing so (;nenoro colNtruction a people are likely to be influenced by suggestions and biased questions uhile under hxpnosis. 1her subsequent recollections ( IluEp not kill/il rctreued ma\ therefore he a mixture of fact and fiction, Pae 38o: If memories can he silken’, xet sO sillcerc;if uu’rolig, might children’s recollections of sesual abuse he prone to err The evidence suggests that under appropriate conditions children’s memories can he reliable and accurate (sincere), but that they are also prone to the misinformation effect and can he mis led by biased questions and suggestions; later, the children are not able to reliably separate real from ta I se (sincerely wrong) memories, Improving Memory Page 391: Sprinkled throughout this chapter and sum mariied here for easy reference are conc reP’ sugges hans for improx ing memory, This chapter on mem ory has many good ideas for memory improx ement scattered or interspersed (sprinkled) throughout it and Myers has pulled them together in an easy to understand format—the SQ3R (Surx cx, Question, Read, Rehearse, Rex iew) method, Ihese are real and tangible (concrete) ways that will help you improx e your memory. Use them!!!