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.
Memory
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
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The Phenomenon of Memory
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ed
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a
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e
ks
2
9 Mcirory
as
nod 1 c I r iemory has been Atkinson
n
t
t
Give examples of material that is typically encodcd
with little or no effort.
model.
i s mo 1 4, we first record informa
Ii
fro
v hci
which it is processed
ic i formation is
through rehearsal into
memoS
I t r ctrt al
t
new )t shi it term memory has been
4 1 1 c a ncept ot
r I n f cuses more on the processing
r
I
n d iifnrm ition this form of memw
r
th
and
y
t
in
s h ch are cooidinated by a
,
proces
itf the help c f the
I us
s o process images and words
tI
fc
rnw that thc
are acm e during complex
ki i, whc cas aicas in the
are
i F n a iditors and s isual information is in
s
ii
rr
ri
Objectir e 4: C ontrast effortfnl processing ii ith auto
mahc processing, and discuss the next4n-line effect
the spacing effect, md the seriat position effect.
2. l’ncoding that requires attention and effort is
called
3. With nor el informahon, conscious repetition, or
, boost’ memory
4. A pioneering researcher in verbal memory was
In one experiment, he
found that the longer he studied a list ol non
sense syllables, the
(fewer/greater) the number of repetitions he
required to relearn it later.
5. Atter material has been learned, additional repe
, usually
tition, or
will increase retention.
6. When people go around a circle reading is ords,
their poorest memories are for the
(least/most) recent informa
hon heard. This phenomenon is called the
Encoding’ Getting Information In
-
elfect.
c )
t know the meaning of any of the
i
is rd
asc s or expressions in the
t i v i I th
appear in the text refer
)
)
i
nvplanation. bo’st, flflfl
r
i1
nichtd stugc rro
i t
i until urn are blue
I t onlec whil 1 aining
t.
7. Memory studies also rereal that distributed
rehearsal is more effecth e tor retention; this is
called the
8. the tendency to reniember the first anu last nems
in a list best is called the
follow mg a delar first items arc rc memberc d
(better less is clii than ast
items.
c
1 s
v
c
i
b
I
ic
t cs of information we
Objective 5: Comparc the benefits of visual, acoustic
t di s is rc quire conscious atten-
I rocessing rcquires
1
and
t
c uses c ffortless
and semantic encoding in remembering verbal infor
mation, and describe a memory-cnhancing strategy
related to the self-reference effect
9. Fncoding the mcaning of words
is
re’crred t
encoding cncoding by
a
233
Storape’ Retaining Information
encoding;
ounu is aiied
encoding the image ot wors is
encoding.
tO
d FuR
Crat
t
Is
o
asF
-
net
rccc’cti
Objective 7: Piscuss the use of chunking and hierar
chies in efturtful proce—sing.
18. \lemurv max he aided by groupmg information
g s study c )mparing snual,
ut
C
idi
c
ig
intc meat ingt d u
xl owcd dat
r c xamg Ic o this tech
mclue ins oh Cs tornn ig
Ic.
is
ii
ords from tile first
letters of to-he-remembered words: tile resulting
11, blur ewenunt retail nt infornration that relates to
IU5el s
called
word
called the
is
called an
19. tn addition material max he proccssed into
ettect
shich are c mposed of a
w et cc din ima gc r aids
Oh’ cli 6 F xplc ir
cf mini F rocessing, and desuibc ome mcn )rx
enhneng wrategies that ue \ suaI eflcuung.
12. \iemors that con’ists of mental pictures
th
e of
i
c r igh
end t
.
based
fcw broad u cepts d x ‘ded
Because thes
14
for e(
Mc n
ise
re
tS
to/ti cecuts /ute I/zr [‘nit: t;tirrav_i,tctgr ;t’riti’tp
jigsaw pow Jr Luttdr’t cab/’ic; Sa-’critiy.
ords.
r
not’
achitatcd r hen
nd
odcti ri
epts,
tf you do not know the meaning of anx of the
foltow ing is ords, phr i es, or expressions in the
context in is hich thm ippear in the text, refer
to pages 257-258 Ic r an explanation: ltyhf;zing
‘las/irs: S/icr/ur/c f-dimes; :aoto’tco tucucru-r Wit!!
tanyuc on/u part/ic Ic :/icr/r; /t rouse cu? scar err-
Wetter tt.ss xx eli) than
ansteect. lots -Imagery
Lou
Storage: Retaining Information (pp. 361—370)
13. Concrete, high-inxagerx woOs tend to he rentem
here d
n Ic set
categories, and tacts.
thes aid
m mu abi
t
Objective 8’ Cc r trast tw o
types
of sensory memory.
1. Stimuli from the ens tronment arc first recorded
15. Our tci.uencs to recall the high points of pleasur
able cx cuts such as tamiix
acariun ilustrates
mernorr
in
2. George Sperling found that when people xx crc
the phc romen in c t
briefly shcm n three ro s s of ic’ttcrs they eould
çsirtual v ill about
rccall
16
ds, c
her
1w. C
31:00
.
halt of thcr x Whcn S )eri ng s undcd
ssn is
One wiel1 dci ice
ill
indicate which letters were ti be’ reea led, the
hem ecu a tarnihar scow t locations and
bc-:’
;,
—rnherc, wul Ow th; tecltnoue
is
titer a rc xx ot letters x a flashed to
immediatel
on cx fortr. ng associ
suhieets ‘new nttit’
ailed
imon less
0
mx
icc mate
abr
ms sitogr
F Ito) pu
r
I
Fso
gb.
s thc
to ie
oat hcg’ns onc
tcw tenths f
3.
i
ts
that pm He
or
o
hrs
ta
secord
nie-rtorx h’r
—i
mud’-
i5
railed
memurt. this rnemorx tades
F t tgra F’
1cm
inure,• les’- t rap i dh than
tine f
s Icing is
236
Chapter 9 Memory
Objective 9: Describe the duration and working
Lapacit\ ot short-term memory.
4
Peterson and Peterson found that
hen
was prevented by asking
sufjccts to Lount backward, memorr for letters
ii as gone after 1 2 seconds. Without
rrocessrn, short-term memories have a limited
ijtC.
Objective Ii: l)iscus the “r imptic chncs that
accompany memory tormat ion au ci iera cc.
12. Researchers heh
c t it men
strengthening ft c t i r e
irhich oc urs a hc
hetrs een neuroin
13. Kandel and Shu art, hai e mum
learning occurs
3. Our short-term memory capacity is about
chunks ot information, This
capacity ras discovered by
6 Short-term memorr for random
(digits letters) is slightly better than for random
(digits/letters), and memory
br information we hear is somewhat
(better/worse) than that for
ifl
the sea naul in a-n. the neuro
transmitter
greater amounts naking n mug
Objective 10: Describe the capacity and duration of
Iong-ternr memory.
needs
ing to fire, and the rumhcr of
stimulates mar inctease. iThis phenomenon.
called
-
(do do not) pros ide reliable
idence that our stored memories are precise
and durable,
10. P’vchoiogkt
attempted to
locate memory hr cutting out pieces of rats’
atter ther had learned a
tats
He tound that no matter u here he cut, the
rememhered forgot)
s pirness
is
itf
enet
Rats given a drug ft
‘
enharnes
it
will learn
-i inc/c
ow
1
(tmter more s
15. Drugs that boost production
of
e
5
t
it 1.
roten
or the neu o r ins’n i tter
9, Penfield’s electrically stimulated patients
to.
mcI hmi’ for
‘c’
a specific
engineering that causc s thc
to popular belief—the capacity of permanent
maze.
he the
learning and menrc rs Blocking t
8. In contrast to short-term memorv—and contrart
nemorr is essentially
mom ethcic t
14. After learning has oem ted
rum
(how many?) seconds,
u cleared
-
information we see.
7. Both children and adults have short-term recall
for roughly as man’ words as they can speak in
lien
oYit
16. fter I IP has cccurr ‘d, n e
ntp
through the bran
nih
d
x I
not) disrupt old memories and
In
ilL xviii not Wipe
‘Ut remot xoern,u
Objective 12: E)i-cus- onue
can attert meniors
at
o
‘-t
-
17. 1 fornrones rele s ci
11 It is 1 kcly that forgetting occurs because new
experiences
n ith our retrieval of old information, and the
physical memorx trace
ith the passapt’ ot time.
stress often
1 learning
impair
18. Tn
0
c
n
emotion-proccssing
10
system im reme m tis its
forminp aea’
m-tc 15,
the bra
‘i’
the
e
us
bra
n
on
erect
-
Retrieval: Getting Infor ration On
19. ) u s
cir
s
S
CV
i
r
3
orators animals s ith a damaged e ebc llnm ar
incapable of simple
block the effcct, of stress hoimones
(Iacil’tate disrupti memo
ti
o ia cxc its ft css that is prolonged
can an aria ci hi biain(thc
rat is itat for lay ing
of
3
r
that this briir regic r ‘sin p
0
*
sting s m xi
Objcct’xc 13
i U Ut tur
ex I cci it c c
turc ass c ated is ‘th 3
ac i.
xi ‘i
cdlii bidn strut
c nit
at ab
d tr
i
tai
c c ni
ircro
to] Xf
kit n pnit
lit
t
t
‘s
vs e
t
anrei IV dorct
explain
fin tie c
lfosc ruth
Hr
damage to the
25 lire d
has c explicit memorics of ui first t r c c
20. lb I ss f tier cr is callel
S di s rIp
c ito hixc lost if c rn emory
ngg
ccndit a
tionof
implicit and
i
237
creof
bccausetie
(is isnot)
ci st
brain stru tures tc maturc
s ge unifi ( s stcm of memory.
21
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
igf a r n s
iar
not I r,t their capacity for learning,
memory,
is called
If y on do not know the meanir g of a
irc are not) able to
c thc r icmory suggtstn g a deficit in their
context in xihich they appear n the text ole
to page 258 for an explanation. ‘noc’ant
lnsses’ in ml: cleft d oil
rose colored 7
nzcod
in o angels.
ctims (pically
i
hx
whi
thc
dcc
r s’a patier ts vpicallt
a air
II
i ive suffered damagc
o their limbic system.
o I
t actore s impo tant in the process
gi dscray cf
H
n
i
t re in ar s
a ra
memory,
or tIe
at
t
tructn
(recall recognize) the names of II eir
pr c xiscs
s ems o
rp
rcc gniti
i
but were able to
(recall recognize 90 ptrcent f ti
nctior isa acne
i i con
its f
thcir
niro
xi
3. 1 xci 1
run
i e
0
labI c
a
i
c
d
i t n
c
k
0 Ii
) gra r
S
i
a
c
iccs
t
iacs
a
iancs irt
pa’’ exg’
i’r
1
Ie
sprtshtle
Objective 15: 1 xplai ii i t C
access stored r emc ries and des
priming.
4. lhc prccess by
retre
24
c
it
eltnf
i
LiVO
earbook pr turos
itrcuvi
d
I
or
ss r ites
S rp rr
c
nd
pie nere not able tc
itmi y
i
,
relearning measures of men o
2. Bahrick tound that 25 ycars af or gro (rat on
gltsideinpairsmemrl for
designs and locations, the
i
Objective 14: Contrast the ccal
ti an not
1, Ihe ability to retries c niform 1
scions an areness is called
an tf e left side ot this struc
s Dar ra
f the
*
*
22.
c
following xi ords, phrases, c r express ms in tf c
memory systc ms
23
3
IItf
i
i
o
-In
‘
i
b
i
1 s Icd
ich a s (a
e
i
55
s
238
Chapter 9 Memory
5. 1 he best retrieval cues come from the associations
formed at the time we
a
memor
Objectixe 16: Cite sonic u avs that context can affect
retrje\ at.
People who hax e recox ered from depression tvpi
callv recall their parents about the same as do
people who
\ loods
also influence hox we
other
people’s hehax ior.
6. Studie have shown that retention is best when
learning and testing are done in
(the same; different)
contexts.
summarize the text explanation of the deja x
ence.
ii
experi
Forgetting (pp. 375—381)
If you do not know the meaning of any of the
following words, phrases. or expressions in the
context in xx hich they appear in the text, refer
to pages 258 25 tor an explanation: appliiisc
tar Inemoril: maif lie pahed on the tiv at I/ic toilylIc’
mental attic: heepisizi:i: TJie z’ord edit a bioa’n
out candle in the mind.
Objective 18: Fxplain xxhy we should value our abili
tv to forget, and distinguish three general ways our
memory fails us,
1. Without the ability to
we
xx ould constantly be overwhelmed bx informa
tion,
Objective 17: Describe the effects of internal states on
retrieval,
7, I he type of memory in xx hich emotions erx e as
retriex al cues is referred to as
•
2. Memory researcher Daniel Schaefer has identified
the sex en sins of memory, dix ided into three cate
gories that identify the ways in which our memo
rv can fail: the three sins of
the three sins of
and the
one sin of
,
memory.
8. Our tendency to recall experiences that are con
‘-istent with our current emotional state is called
Objective 19: Discuss the role of encoding failure in
forgetting.
3. The first t\pe of forgetting is caused hx
failure.
fl’wiriorv
I )e’cribe the efleLb of mood on memorx.
4. This type of forgetting occurs because some of the
information that xe sense never actualli
5. One reason for age-related rnemorx dedine xx
that the brain area’- responsible fur
new information are
(more less) responsix e in
older adults,
9, Pt y Ic xx ho are urrently depressed may recall
t xx pirents as
)ryos
c
Ol,c’
st cc )iceotofstorac an
)
.
I
c
15. In’ct)
ra
at
Memory Construction
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cnat?
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exçer Cr
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c a
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(fl
wctshs
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e or tc cc llnot al
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c. xx
ous1earm .or a1
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2. i%hc wHile se oat a c.i
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iuoimauot oout t tic
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Cit
r
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a umptio’ I’ Cr
ui. tntctFe ce’c
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tiieousl earnsiiulai net
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ft t
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oftcs ‘nfiue cdbi,
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11
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f lii
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c.
a
Objective2:1’co
F
miti)lcaldstc tw
OW
11
w
1
as
f
a iin’ zrcr tcr
t ss
ti
Ct
C
I
cn
a c
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s
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)
tied
t Cl
9 Ic
tia v
F ‘5.
I$lc.knct
f
2
,cttir.une
6
8
a dt
do
C
t
ii
uc
c c
o
ad
C
v
j
he’ ur e amnesia” contribution
)‘ r
,which
an event to
t
2
11, Memories of e ents that happened before age
are unreliable, This phenom
enon is called
12. Memory construction makes it clear that
is best understood not only as a
and biological event, but also as a
1 st scmc diffirenes and similarities
r false n er ines.
r
r
re m
ioncs to
memory
phenomenon.
improving Memory (pp
391 392)
rotmg that people’s initial
If you do not know the meaning of the tollon
ing word in the context in n hich it appears in
the text, refer to page 29 for an explanation’
Spi inkled,
of er enb influence their
r c
rsi t
es
rr
ra
memory
e) ix cal whether or not it dens es
ctr al e per encc, I/v hereas real memo
c
gist memo
ix i r c se’ confidei cc
in their memories
,
Objective 28: Explain hon an understanding of mem
or can contribute to etfective study techniques.
1. The SQ3R study technique identifies fis e strate
gies for boosting memor:
(is is not) related to the
r )r
)n truction explains nhy memories
are often
s 2(’
‘
c
,and
,
,
Discuss ses eral specific strategies for impros rug
memory.
x ar imcnts supporting and reject
n ha s ry y ung children’s reports
(1
di
s
t
of children s eenithess recall
r
sag cstibie than older chil
n hether a child
r
e
r itn ss memory
C.
PROGRESS TEST i
Multiple-Choice Questions
s
t
rrhen
it
is a first inter
person n ho asks
e 27 1) s us
rc
lix C intros ersy over reports of
c cc memories of childhood sex
I
C
mfluc r cc of h
3 pnosis or
(are are not) reliable,
Circle our answers to the follon ing questions an d
check them with the answers beginning on page 2 )
If your ansu er is incorrect, read the explanation for
why it is incorrect and then consult the appropri te
pages of the text (in parentheses follon ing the correct
answer).
1, the three steps in memory information pr xcss
ing ar:
a input, processing output
b input, storage output.
c. input storage, retnie al
ci, encoding, storage, retries al,
Progress Test 1
2. \‘iaiial sensors-’ memo”
‘10
3
referred to as:
is
c. photonsenuerv.
d. scm antic x onuory.
a. canc mnenur:’s
riots
b. echo e
nte
Li
(
(U
C
Ins’
d
4 Li eeL or me folloe, roe
law
to4seunds
ret a measure ot reteru
c. relearning
d. retres di
n n’1em
Ur,m shc
d. learned the 5\ ords and heen tested on thorn in
the same context.
11. Ihe spacino eftect ire is that:
a. d’stnbuted stud
rids hr t
etent on than
rammu g
tjOfl
a. remil
b. reeognion
241
an i. a roximatelv
it us.
b. r te tot is inupr s C I when e e du g and re
tries al are 3
eparated by no mon han 1 hour.
c. learning causes a reduction in the size of the
synaptic gan hetis eon certain neurons.
d. delas hug retries a I until rnenorr has consoh
dated improves recalt.
12. Studk
dc nonstrate
nent neural chances
sear ins.
C
d
6. Menrors
niques auth as the method of loch
acranr rn—, and thu oeg-u ord ‘a stenu are called:
at learning causes perma
tluc
o uninuals
a. myelrn
c.
b. rcli htudrcs
d. all the ahos e
‘a uapsos
13. in sperlirg’s memory experrnsent. research par
a. consolidation des ices.
h. :rnagers techniques.
C. encomeg strangles.
d. nrnemo tic des ices,
ticipants were shown three rows of three letters)
foiloss ed mmediateh hr a low medium, or high
tone. The participants ss’ere ahie to report:
a. all three rows with pertect accuracy.
b. only the top ross Li letters.
( no is
c.
c nc
hisp
iso a n o ,t o I hncr,ati in
1
r up i
te argo famul ar units
efern
s
s (
3
e
a. conso r t ng.
h. organization.
d. chunking.
8. handel and Sc hwartz has e found that when
lcarr:ing oaenr, mere of the neurotransmitter
s rulca—eo ‘i) ss’napses.
ctop
onl’ the n’iddl re” of Setter’
ns onc of the three rows of letters
14. Studies of amnesia s ictims suggest that’
r. encoding.
a. .\ClL
d.
C
seretonuu
d
uorad nahnc
a. memors is a single unified system.
b. there are two distinct tr pes of mernors.
c. there are three distinct types of nsemorv.
d. inemors
losses following hrain trauma are
unpredictable.
15. \tornory for skills is e ulled
a. explicit monuory.
4
r
Oc
uost uct
ii
mrs ‘al
that
or ror
hefore is an example of:
he dicnlcaile nan—terred Lon’ one
o”ga-n—nr t° Werner
cr ‘1 “og ten nnms ieas si tOt’ about
d.
1
u t
lou
Aer
a.
hex
a’
all, t
I
s
plc
ord
re
ci te Jr
rhc bcs r Jr ution
learnea t e nerds an L,nd that i—. n. the n’inw
cr’nte st,
rtnuiricr
b. I ,rned the
C,
hart’ 0
d
dfhr
‘
ords
riO
icr.’ ait’r that
is, U’1
tire
rh and hen tested on them in.
nte’hs,
.t a a
prime mcmor).
d. nnphcrt memors.
16. ‘Iho ccruo fooling of I sing heer somorshere
as esaLt m s of e\porit c
h. renect a gersen s bra—u ad as—urnut.ens.
a. are ste
n;ar
b. de laratus e nuom r
a. state dependency.
b. encodng tailuoo.
c. primiro.
d. cleia
5
17. II lien Gerden Bess er p reenrud n ris grouped
hs eatcg y or in rar d r order, ree
was:
a. tIn ‘ r
mn’aH
b. bettc for thee t’go a d s
ds
d n a’ ords.
d. impr cd is hen p art’ ‘pants or i
on n mnemonic dci ico,
C.
etter or the rut
pod thcir
Chapter 9 Memory
242
18. I he three-stage processing model of memory was
propc’ed by:
\tkinson and Shiffrin.
1,, Herman Fbhinghaus.
Loftus and Palmer.
c.
d. George Sperling.
a.
19. 1 h pnotically ‘refreshed” memories may prove
mar curate—especial if the h pnotist asks lead
ing Juestions because of:
a. emoding failure.
h. ta te-dependent memory
c. proactix e interterence.
d. niemorv construction.
rtant in th
20. l\ hich area of the bra m i n’ot ii
mcniurmc’
processing of implicIt
c. h nctnaamus
a. hippocampus
d.
h. cerebellum
21. V\ hich of thu fcllou
ii ith the others?
a. misattributio
b. blocking
‘YlatHhing Items
Match each definition or description
priate teim
Dcliii itions
is
ith the appro
or Descriptions
Terms
1. sensory memory that decays more slow
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11,
12.
13.
lv than visual sensory memory
the process by which information gets
into the memory system
mental pictures that aid memory
the blocking of painful memories
the phenomenon in which one’s mood
can influence retries al
memory for a list of words is affected h
word order
“one is a bun, two is a shoe” mnemonic
dcx ice
matching each of a series of locations
with a visual representation of to-heremembered items
new learning interferes with previous
know ledge
i measure o memory
old knowledge interferes ii ith nen
learning
nxisattrihuting the origin of an ci ent
the fading of unused information ci
tmme
14. the lingering effect” of misinformation
15. a memorr sin of intrusion
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.
m.
n.
o.
repression
relearning
serial position etfed
persistence
peg is ord system
method of loci
proactmi e mnterterc
transience
retroactis e interfem cncc
source amnesia
suggestibility
imagers’
mood-congruent mmmorm
echoic memori
encoding
Progress Test 2
PROGRESS TEST
243
c. at the end of the list.
d. at the beginning and the end of the list.
2
Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final
chapter review. Answer the following questions after
you thoroughly understand the correct answers for
the section reviews and Progress Test 1.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Which of the following best describes the typical
torgvtnng curve:
a. a steady, slow uecbne in retention over time
b. a steady, raptd decline in retention over time
c a rapid inftial decline in retention becoming
stable thereafter
d. a slow inihal decline in retenhon becoming
rapid thereafter
2, Jenkins and Dallenhach found that memory was
better in subjects who were:
a. awake during the retention interval, presum
abty because decay was reduced.
b. asleep during the retention interval, presum
abty because decay’ was reduced.
c, awake during the retenhon interval, presumr
ably because interference was reduced,
d, asleep during the retention interval, presum
ably because interference was reduced,
3, Which of the following measures of retention is
Its
w s \e 1
fl t
ggc ‘—a retne u’
a. recall
c. relearning
b. rec ognitton
d. They are equally’ sensitive.
4, Amnesia vichms typically have experienced dam
age to the
_of the brain,
a, frontal lobes
c, thalamus
b, cerebellum
d. hippocampus
5. According to the serial position effect, vrhen
rvcalling a list of words von should have the
a
a- tea. at the beginning of the list.
o
c. at tbe end and in the middle of the bst,
d, in the middle of the list,
-
6, Experimenters gave people a list of words to he
recalled. When the parhcipants were tested after
a delay, the items that were best recalled were
those:
a. at the beginning ot the list.
b. in the mind Ic of the list.
7, Craik and Tnlving had research parhcipants
process words visually, acoustically, or senranh
cally. In a subsequent recall test, which type of
processing resulted in the greatest retention?
a. visual
b. acoustic’
C. semantic
d. Acoustic and semantic processing were equal
ly beneficial,
8. Lashley’s studies, in which rats teamed a maze
and then had various parts of their brains surgi
cally removed, showed that the memory’:
a. was lost when surgery took place within I
hour of learning.
1,. was lost when surgery took place within 24
hours of teaming.
c. was lost when any region of the brain was
removed.
d. remained no matter which area of th,e brain
was tampered with,
9. The disruphon of memory that occurs when foot
ball players have been knocked out provides evi
dence for the importance of:
a. consolidation in the formation of new memo
ries’.
b. consolidahon in the retrieyal of long-term
memories.
c. nutrition in normal neural functioning.
d. all of the above.
10. Long-ferm pofentiotion refers to:
a. the disruphve influence of old memories on
the formation of new memories.
b. the disruptive influence of recent mern ones
on the retrieval of old memories.
c. our tendency to recall experience;s that are
consistent with our current mood.
d. the increased efficiency of synaptic transmt 5sion bebs’een certafn neure.ns following learn
ing.
11. Repression is an example of:
a. encoding failure.
c. motivated forgetting.
b. memory deem’.
d. all of the above.
244
Chapter 9 Memory
12. Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in u hich people
were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate
that:
a. when quizzed immediately, people can recall
very little, due to the stress of witne’sing an
accident
b. sshcn questioned as little as one dax later
their memory si as x cry inaccurate.
c. most people had sery aixurate memories as
much as 6 months later
d. people’s recall mas easily he atferted by mis
leading information.
13. t\ hich ot the fullon ing is as iwl recommended as
a strateg for imp roving mentors
a. achs e rehearsal
b. distributed study
c. speed reading
ci. encoding meaningful associations
14. The process of getting information out of memory
storage is called:
c. rehearsal.
a. encoding.
d. storage.
b. retrieval,
15. Amnesia patients typically experience disruption
19. It is easier to recall information that has just been
presented when the information:
a. consists of random letters rather than words.
b. is seen rather than heard.
c.
is heard rather than seen.
d. is experienced in an unusual context.
20. ‘Ihe micintormation effect pros ides es idence that
memory
a. is constructed during encoding.
b. is unchanging once established,
c. ma he reconstructed during recall according
to how questions are framed.
d. is highly resistant to misleading information
21. According to memor researcher Daniel Schacter,
blocking occurs when:
a. our inattention to details produces encoding
failure,
b. ss e confuse the source of information.
c. our beliefs influence our rtn ollections,
d. information is on the tip of our tongue, hut is e
can’t get it out.
True—False Items
Indicate whether each statement is true or false by
placing T or F in the blank next to the item
a. implicit memories.
b. explicit memories.
iconic memories.
d. echoic memories,
C.
16. Information is maintained in shortterm memory
only briefly unless it is:
c. iconic or echoic,
a. encoded.
d. retries ed.
b. rehearsed.
17. iexthook chapters are often organized into
in order to facilitate information
a. mnemoni des ices
b, chunks
c. hierarchies
d. recognizable units
18. Memory researchers an suspic bus of long
repressed memories of traumatic ci ents that are
‘recos ered’ is ith the aid of drugs or hi pno’us
a. such experiences usually are s is idly remenu
hered,
b. such memories arc unreliable and easily infli’
enced by misinformation,
c. memories of events happening before about
age 3 ire espe ially unreliable,
d. of all of the ahos c reasons.
1. Studying that is distributed over time
produces better retention than cram
ming.
2. Generally speaking, memory for pie
tures is better than memory for words.
3. Recall of childhood abuse through hvp
nosis indicates that memory is perma
nent, due to the reliability of such
reports.
4, Most people do not have memories of
es ents that occurred before the age of,
5. Studies bs Fbbinghaus shoss that most
forgetting takes place soon after
learning.
6. The persistence of a memors i a inoJ
clue as to whether or not t de’iye’ from
an actual experience.
7. Recall of ness lv acquired knowledge i
no better after sleeping than after being
awake for the same period of time,
8. lime spent in des eloping imagery
chunking, and associating material with
what y ou already knoss is more c ffcc
tis e than time spent repeating infors i
tion again and again.
Ps)chology Applied
lthou h repress o has no been con
nec
x x. Incnt 1k, nun ny ho
sI’. e vc hoc c
verhy i n g matc al Di tO I tuing to
..stud t bes ond ‘nasterv often di
L4’t% recjll.
PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
v tr
uest stheda It wan iniasa
SOUL
1 i.hecl’
I erstan I i , ot flit. hapter
terms and tu-ttepts.
%Iultipk-Clioice Quectivuc
3. Oar en was isked 13 iunorii a ‘1st 01 I tF%
flat nduled
i
c ‘.1k. tc rt’aicd It
Ute sas is
niL i. cstr. I atth.t r
Ic tshadb cnencode
a. autrmaticaih.
c. -cmi iticaih.
b. i isualh.
d. aoustica1h.
‘
4. \ftet tindirg her old combinahon lo,.L, lonite
Cc!
ienie.a
its c binaf
‘eta’ s
it’
L
‘L.
Ct
itI’L
b L’t 3
1
N.s Oti )
°‘q. itt ng:
a. procathe iterfertnce
b. retroactn e intertereu,s.e.
C. encoding tailuic.
d. %tfliagt railure.
1 Conip’ctc this an lo rj. 1i11- r I c-blank let ques
ur%tnn
1
fr null’nl c. nic r
1115 ‘ C
3
er d
isfi torige.
b. to as ‘s to t icodmg.
c. rnJ.gn.tu’ Is to retail.
d. recall is it’ recognition.
245
5.
16
1 1 of tic followi’ç’ °cuen css )Uld b It.
blow
c
I ouwaitedtc
terc crc
nduced f r’etting in c der tc inipros
iii
recall on the psi chologt midterm.
•••
a. studs’. eat test
b. study. deep. test
c. ,tud, listen to musk, test
d. st idy, excr’ise, te I
100
6. Beinpm ibadmoodafc at ‘tidy
Susan couk tF’nk ot icthng p tc in ft
This is best explained as an e\ainFle of:
a.
C
priming.
b. mcniorv constna lion.
c.
(
1
10
fosizo
20
filet ii ut
2. 1 he abe e figure dt pit I.. the retail of a list of
isordc unck’r list) conditions. lVhti.li of the tol—
lowing test distrihts the differente between the
totiditit. “
c’andt t d
1
us’
I
I
c r.cstc d
tea
b. lit 1.’ it isord’. sen.. tud cJ a iii it newi.i in
tht ‘ri. cOr’te’t. ffl
the content ISCIt dt—
tt I tnt.
1 h. ne’tn
c.
ten’ tVfl pre%tTttation ot the last
ws ord
xl the
I of reca is a’ li na for A
lIt r
I
s i ‘stntitn ftF list
IbOt
ii flit I tot rccui wi’, IC er for I
Thai ..i
mood-congruent memnv.
d.
Ii let a failure.
7. na Ct!) t rcmtr I yt’ IUC
It cls
‘nat who s tehind & in tiltl ‘ade. ?s a na
mentai1 reci’ed the names of’ o’ner classirate’.
ho ..at near her. Martiiia’s effort to tetresh tier
mc’non by actis ating “elated a%’odatirt. i. an
‘-‘ample of:
a
nut
bd’s
I
,i the
i h.i.Ii
soth
attts rj.luation : om c e’ ‘-nted a i .‘J
nt ‘lt niemoriec. lo’n’. e’ L,erls fl.’L ‘iot,ed t’ e
8.1
mcli
si.an.
tob-’ )t.
a.
itc-dcp
C.
d
dtntmcr
n.
‘tt9’L’t
I
t’t
C.
t.
iii.
-rr
r
s.
C
q,
r- iiwt thini Karen did when she discovered
dwt 4w had mwplaced her keys was to re-create
a ae mind the dm ci ents. fhat she had little
1 w nit i in doind o illustrates:
Y( (. 5511
eat memor
10. l’c h Ia
it
the tallow in is the best example of a
uddenir emembering to buy bread while
r the her kout line at the grocery
nd
muir
c
,
th name of someone from high
‘a hile looking at his or her yearbook
rcmemberng to make an important phone
‘nwmb ri ig ‘a hat you were doing on
th pte rif r 11, 2 )0l when terrorists crashed
I ir mt the \orId linde Center towers.
ii X\ hen Caries was promoted, he moved nato a
new ott ie with a new phone extension. Every
ked for his phone number, Carios
5
time he is a
i’rst thinks ‘i ha- old extension, illustrating the
roar hi c r erterene,
i oactivc interference
1
nunding failure
c
d. turnie talure.
12. 1 Iderd Mr. Flananan. a retired electrician, can
iii teme 110cr how to ‘a ire a light switch, hut
root r ‘tither the name of the president of
ii d Ian tes. Lsmdently, Mr. Flanagan’s
memory.
m ror is hr tter than his
a. mialmut splint
C espiic:t: implicit
m. denCratmi e: procedural
1 nejarative
Ia. m na:
13
upl
(
a
I r c 11 the answer to a ques
onv midterm you hai e a
ige of the exthook page on which
m at i
encoding of
1
entir, r our
I d
as n
a. -conant automatic
a--ui; actumatil
b
odin]
inn r it
14. At your high school reunion you cannot remem
ber the last name of your homeroom teacher.
Your failure to remember is most likeli the result
of:
a. encoding failure.
b. storage failure
c. retries al failure,
d. state-dependent memory.
15. Brenda has trouble remembering her new fivedigit ZIP plus four-digit address code. What C
the most likely explanation for the ditticulty
Brenda is har ing?
a. Nine digits are at or abos e the upper limit of
most people’s short-term memory capacitr.
b. Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of
most people’s iconic memory capacity.
c. The extra four digits cannot he organized into
easily remembered chunks.
d. Brenda evidently has an impaired implicit
memory.
16. Lewis cannot remember the details of the torture
he experienced as a prisoner of war. According to
Freud, Lewis’s failure to remember these painful
memories is an example of:
a. repression.
b. retrieval failure.
c. state-dependent memory.
d. flashbulb memor.
17. Which of the following illustrates the constructix e
nature of memory?
a. Janice keeps calling her new boyfriend by her
old boyfriend’s name.
h. After studying all afternoon and then getting
drunk in the cx ening, Don can’t remember the
material he studied.
c. After getting some good new s, elated Kareem
has a flood ot good memoriec from his
younger I ears.
d. Although elderly Mrs. Harvex.. siho has
Alzheimer’s disease, has many gaps in lam
memory. she invents set sible accc unts of her
activities so that her family will not worr\
18. fo help him remember the order of ingredientc in
difficult recipes, niaster chef Giulio often as-.oci
ates them with the route he walks to work each
dal. c;iulio is rising xx hich mnemomc technique?
c. the method ot luci
a. peg-si ord system
d. chunking
b. acronyms
Key Terms
19. During basketball practice Jan’s head was
painfully elbowed. If the trauma to her brain dis
rupts her memory, we would expect that Jan
would be most likely to forget:
a the n irnc ot her tL nun te
b. her telephone number.
c. the name of the play during which she was
elbowed.
d. the details of events that happened shortly
after the incident,
KEY TERMS
Writing Definitions
Using your own words, on a separate piece of paper
n rite i hrRt dennition r exphn ition of L1h ot the
following terms.
1. memory
2. flashbulb memory
3. encoding
20. After sufferina damage to the hippocampus, a
person would probably:
a lose rnLmorx for skills uh s hicxcle riding
b h n iphle oi being Jissnalk onditioi Ld
c. lose the ability to store new facts.
d. experience all of the above changes.
21. hen he was 8 years old, Frank was questioned
by the police about a summer camp counselor
suspected of molesting children, Even though he
was not, in fact, molested by the counselor, today
1 9-year-old Frank “remembers” the counselor
touching him inappropriately. Frank’s false mem
ory is an example of which sin of memory?
a. blocking
b. transience
c. misattribution
d. suggestibility
Essay Question
Discuss the points of agreement among experts
regarding the validity of recovered memories of child.
abuse. (Use the space below to jot down notes for
your essay; then write the essay on a separate piece of
paper.)
247
4. storace
a
5
lctne\ 11
6 senor rnemor
7. shortterm memory
8. lonterm
memory
a
9. working memory
10
utonntic proc sm
11. effortful processing
12, rehearsal
13. spacing effect
14. serial position effect
15. visual encoding
16. acoustic encoding
17. semantic encoding
18. imagery
19. mnemonics
20. chunkmg
21. iconic memory
22, echoic memory
23. long-term potentiation (LTP)
24. amnesia
25. implicit memory
26. explicit memory
27. hippocampus
28. recall
29. recognition
30. relearning
31. priming
32. déjà vu
248
Chapter° Memory
36. cpa’
ng tnt wine:
one:
33.
in;iif.,rtnatio,a ,ftfect
37. i1
34. tnoacti% C inteiterenc’
35
i1
it
‘t
on
38
e:c
ur
a
in
tross-CI’ccle
I r1J,
ci ov rk
e 1
ttt
inatatil o e important to the learn
in4 pwce. rtcr you ha C ii ritten
nC lwnta isir
lie 11W
aek.
ye: a inul cc
his aj
the cfl’sss oid puzfle iLl vibWe that
you Cdfl wi enc the prvcc.ø
reco iItC hetcrn,gi ‘nth Mit
5,
It.
1
vin
a
1
-
I,
-4
--
110
-
mc
wit )tat Itor
—
-
1
ig.
4. Scnsn
I
—
—
ACROSS
1. Euimplt’ or rnotiva’ed f’rget:.
-
I
fl
.timu
.
1
IL Fncnding LI information
Sift LiIe
tORu gt
7.
ti Ingas x I xi
nrdcr to retrci e a ‘pedfa
1’
‘itCfliOfl.
11. MaiL lpicturs.
he
14 3 ic4cdto
no asis
ic r irng irad i itmory
I
15. Vi’.ual sen.on memon.
19. Organizing niateri ii ink’ farnilrw.at fuluuts
20. 1. iii’ ilk tidirenir )1r rnot mall
imp’rtartt moment.
21. Los. ckt men .‘rv
21 lot 1 it titmr 31 II rma
9. Mar
ails
ot intnn i.th a into acme: y ac trdins.
to ts ‘ound.
enta inlesr’natio
12. Lne:ons.iou, er’coiing us 1e.i 4
tO. Encod
)
DOWN
-I. \mtosuie t.t rtter lion that tequires identiti irig
resic .i I ine:dniat 3t
tao
r
I
2
\n c’tett in v itith ci ti.itne”,e’, to an etent
mzrjorc.’c £v%I.’ad1r1 iforr ation it their
4.
.
ir
Iflit ii
at
tiat
ui
4
.1 ii ri.
that pi otes’es npli.it nwmorie. Icr
jM(
p
‘we:
.
cfegrre
Brain .‘rea
U If
8.
ic
4$
$
1
fJ
a
<ii
r
n
r]
is
b
16. Mt rei
c
18. I ne
Lilt
}‘CLflk
r.t
rtn.nr
i.
g
r.
tttett
,e:
•
ii
it
31
C
U
A fl’l•flt’
fa’%.- c.t 01 ‘n in ajrea*
itLiat
n.
ANSWERS
11w Phenomenon of Wnnong’
liii
2.
wIt
dk
ti’
a
7.
iii
in
Pt t ieatfl.iab.
nile fnr
:‘itt riere
ifl
mew-
1
13. hpc
Qflht)
3
ng
i.l.!ult
-‘
t’.
‘tjitnted
24
3. information-processing;
retriex al
encoding;
4. three stage pa a ssmg; sensory memory
term, encoded long-term
storage’
7. 2
8. unlimited limtlcs’
short-
9. do not
10. Karl t ashIer tortcxcs
5. working auditory, x isual-spatial central execu
tn e episodic simultaneously
11, inteiferc decaxs
6. frc ntal lobes parietal’ temporal lobes
12. sx napses
Encoding: Getting Information In
1. autc matic protessing; practicc, experience
Automata proccssing includes the encoding ot intor
mation about space time and frequency It also
includes the encoding of word meaning, a tx pe of
encoding that appears to be learned,
2. effurtful plot essing
13. seroton n
14. less receptor s res
enzyme, L I P; faster
c r p
15. (RI B’ glutamate
16. will not’ will
17. facilitate
18. amvgdala, limbic
3. rehearsal
19. disrupt; hippocampus sI ru
4, I bbinghaus; fewer
20. amnesia; is not
5. ox erlearning
21. hax e not’ implicit’ arc not exy c
6. most; next-in-line
22. hippocampus. explicit r erb
7, ‘pacmg effect
9. semantic; acoustic
i
isual
10. semantic
24. implicit; ore blink, amx gd P
25. intantibe hippocanipus
1. recall
12. imagery, effortful processina
13. better
2. recall, recognize
3. relearn; more
14. semantically, visuallt
iS. rosx retrospcc tion
16. mnemonic, method of bc i
17. peg xord
4. priming
5. encode
6. the same
Ihe deja ru eApor1ntt
a’
being in a context im
I
men in belore It uc ha e t c
situ tion though v
ni t r
crrrentsitu,t nm
c
help us tc retriexe tic ea i
-
i
c
vii
19. 1 icrar lies
Storage: Retaining Information
1.
ens
2. about halt’ more’ V ma
3. echoic, less 3 or 4 seconds
4. rehcarsal’ actrre
5. 7;(ecr cM ‘ci
6. dc
ea
Retrieval: Getting Infonnation Oat
11, self reference
B nks
it.
23. temporarily; do slow ware Ii Lab
8. serial position effect, better
18,
t
c
t
beL
7. state-dependent
8. mood-congruent
Ihen happy, for examplc xc u
positise light and recall B ppy c
tions and memorie in I r Pr
Mo mds als nfl icr e i
behax icr
u
ib
ph
250
(hapter9 ‘cur n
rd guilt-promoting
c ectirg pur it’re
rc sulk rd dep ess on, interpret
9.
hart
Iorgett rig
I
or’ut
2.
c i
ett’ n d sft ric i
r
ti
sion
cdiig
3
4 c ters hr mi nory sx stcm
S ci c lug kss
6
5(
7
a ede
8 r
9
i
iemo
‘
tw
H
ii
teiterene
Suggestions for improx ing memo include rehears
ing material ox c r many separate and distributed
study sessions xx ith the objc ctin e of ox ertearning
material Studs ing should also mx oh e achn e
rehc arsal rather than mindless repetition of informa
tion Organizing information, relating material to
xx hat is already knoxi n developing numerous
rctric P cues, and using mnemonic den ice, that
inc orporate x ivid imagerx are helpful too. Frequent
actination of retrienal tues such as the context and
mood in xx hich the original learning occurred, can
also help strengthen memorn, as can recalling en ents
whrlc they arc frc sh, before possible misinformation
is c ntountered. Studvmg should also be arranged to
minimize potential sources of interference, I inally
self tests in the same format (recall or recognition)
that will later bc uscd on the actual test are useful,
10. pr )actire mterferene retroactire interfercnce
11, better
Progress Test i
12. p win C transter
Multiple-Choice Questions
13 repres ion
1. d. is the answ er. Information must be encoded, or
put into appropriate form’ stored, or retained
ox t r tin it’; and i etrie ed, or located and gotten
out when needed (p. 331)
14. Ic s
15 strc ss’ strengthen
Memorri C onstruchon
I construction
2. misinforn ation etfect’ can’ imagination inflation;
xix id imaginations
14 icn people new ed i film of a traffic accident and
we c uucd i weck later phrasing of qncstions
affected answers, thc word ‘smashed,’ for instance,
made x iexx ers mistakenly think they had seen broken
glacs
3
5(
ice a nnesia rnisattribute
4 pcrccpti us interprctat’o ‘is
S
de
6
)
icd
9, ne
a
lea
peg word systen.
ii,,
7. d. is the answer, (p 359)
a. Ihere is no such process of ‘consolidating.”
b. Organization d cs erthance mernorx but it does
so through hierarchies not grouping.
er o the pro essing of informa
e. I ncodmg r 1
tor ‘ntthc xc
sn t’m
rent
‘
12
nhnti c amne
cgnfi c
i
I
rd crc dire strategics art im
but mnemonic
x ‘cc is the eneral designation of techniqucs
t at facilitate memory such as acronyms and thc
ortant in ctonr g new n-en ones
u’st
11
4. d. is the answ er Retries al refers to the process of
remembering. (p 370)
S. c. is the answer. (p 362)
6. d. is the answer pp 358 359)
1 as ‘ton ,eldation teLh
a. I here is ‘e 3
a b tern
b. & c. In- igcr
S
10
3. d. is the ansxx er. Fchoic memories last 3 to 4 sec
onds (p 362)
n ques
t
i
1
du able
i
2 a. is the answer. Iconic memory is our fleeting
memor of n isual stimuli, (p. 362)
b. Fchoic memory is auditory sensory memory.
c I hr re is no such thing as photomemory
d Semantic memo is memory for meaning, not
a form ot sensory memo.
ugh
r
i
ii
ultural
y
r
Rfarsc
1
ix
Answers
8. c. us the answer. Kandel and Schwartz found that
when learning occurred in the sea snail :1iluIsm.
serotomn n as released at certain synapses, which
then became more efticient at signal transmission
(p. 365)
9. b. 3. the ansu er. In essence, we construct our
memories, bringing them into line ii ith our biases
and assumptions as well as with our subsequent
experiences. (pp. 382—383)
a. It this were true, it would mean that memory
ct nstruction does not occur. Through memory
construction, memories may deviate significantly
17.
from the original experiences.
c. Phere is no evidence that such chemical trans
fers occur.
d. Many long-term memories are apparently
unlimited in duration
10. d. is the answer. tn general, being in a context
18.
irnilar to that in which cou experienced some
thing will tend to help you recall the experience.
(pp. 372—373)
a. & b. The learning environment per se—and its
familiarity or exoticness—did not atfect retention.
11. a. is the answer. (p. 354)
b. & d. the text does not suggest that there is an
optimal interx al between encoding and retries al.
c. Learning increases the efficiency of synaptic
transmission in certain neurons, hut not by alter
ing the size of the synapse.
12. c. is the ansu er. (p. 365)
13. d. is the answer. When asked to recall all the let
ters, participants could recall only about half;
howe’. er, if immediately after the presentation
the were signaled to recall a particular row, their
recall was near perfect. This showed that they
had a briet photographic memors —so brief that it
faded in less time than it would have taken to say
all nine letters. (p. 362)
14. b. is the answer. Because amnesia yictim’. lose
theur fact (exphcih memories but not their skill
‘implicit naemnries or their capacits to learn, it
appear’ tbat human memori can be dir ided into
fir o dishnd hpes. (p. 36)
d. As studies of amnesia sic tims show, memors
losses follow ing damage to the hippocampus are
quite prc dictable,
15. d. is the answcr. (p. 367)
a. & b. Fxphcit mnemori’ (alsn called derlaratir e
memory I is memory of facts and experiences that
one ran consciousli know and declare.
c. there is no suda thing a prime memors.
‘16. d. is the answer up. 373
19.
20.
251
a. State-u epend.ent naenaou y is the phenonienon un
which information l best rc’tner ed when the per
son is i a the same e r ational o physiological
stati hi or she w s i a when thc uatehal was
lear red
b. I ncoduig faulurc c cais yhen a pcrson has not
processed intormat a a
wienth for it to enter
the men c r si stern.
c. Priming is the process hr rr hich a memorr is
actix ated through rctrier al of an associated
memoir
h. is the ansr er. When the words were organized
into cafe ,ories, rer all i as tw o to thrce times bet
ter, indicating the benetits ot hitrarchical organi
zation in nemor p 3(0)
d. this study did not examine the use of
mnemonic des ices.
a. is the answer. (p. 351
b. Hernian Fhhinghaus conducted pioneering
studies ot x erhal learning and memoir.
c. t,oitus and Painaer conducted influential
resean..h studies ot er ewitness memory.
d. George Sperhng i’ know ir for his research
studies of iconic memory
d. is the answer. It is in both encoding and
retries al that we construct ut riemories and as
t.oftus studies shoy cd leading questions affect
people’s memori constructon. tp. 85)
a. The memory encoding occtmrred at the time of
the cx out in question, not during c
uestionirmg bx’
1
the hr pnotist.
b. State-dependent nsemor’. refer’. to the influ
ence of one’s ow n emotional or phi siological
state on encoding and rctrier al, and would not
apply herc
c. Proactn c tntettc ren i he interh ring effect of
prior learning on thc rc a I of ne i info mation.
b. is thc answer. ip, 69
a. The tnppocampos
a innora r processing
site
for c5?”i( (liii?’
,‘,s
c. & d. These area in the brain are not directlx
in’. nix ed in fbi memer
Stt’fl(.
21. b. is the ins’.’. ci. B;o
di
example of
retries al I i ore. f c
other S i exainpic
s n
of a
f dist
c
P Si
r ‘mories
aithougl iasc r e ue ct ci P3 p
Matching Items
(p. 3n2
2. O(}2. P31)
6.
3, 1
S
1.
p
(p S
4. a
5. m (p 3’
(p.
(p. 3
kn
7. ep.
Fr
1:
9. i (p
10 hIp
P3’4(
i
11. a (p. P391
12. up. P541
13. Ia p.
p. PSI
14.
j
15.
p aP31
“2
(
Ffultiplt
When misled he the phrasmgs cf
en ste r 5 a cets mncorrectlx reeal ed details f
cv ‘r “remembered” objects that
r a
tr
382—383)
cc tt er
t. c.
Speed reading, which entamis
5 re
2
F ogress Tee
eJzercn
(
r c
r’ Fe
.
(I
I
tnd Bahrick both
ttt ‘c that is going to
arring.fp. 3M’
c ens nit.
ate” t c I h’
e
.n ,enens m’on attc
i
-
Horn r. pr
2. 2. 2 t
a. & to ii:”, ctectt dir! not rind evidence that
n th time.
tj0e (demo 1
,n 0’
P di on
an ake. there are many ‘ncr: poten
of ‘Vettit tt ‘nterfctence than tt ‘ten
3.
.
-\ t
t(
rt
ans. cc.
.
trier :1
F et of recall pren n2 the
ae and nsnalh proeiures tOe
did)
rer:’et ai
H fond
4. d,istbeaimnenv3nN
3. d. P ;h. nr.c en dicerdina to the serial nontlon
it: ms at the hepnnii’g aard end of a list
nienh ‘t d est (p. die)
n
P ob tm t
rt
6
anrn et
a.
tt r
1’. 2 5 s tie’
a
r
,n’ddl of th
t Ott
c & d tie
t m
two form
p
i
‘
P
ai
b t m
t
d
pa
t
3
i’ rico c
a. & b. I ishic
r
‘
‘‘n .i ante of hr
t C. ‘ lesiooing
t
9
a.
.
‘
in :nn e’
di
a t art
h.
ci’ mo,..’
‘
tIM
hem ire
p.
to :en ‘!Hate into hiM
e.
;nf,rmatiot
(mm.
itm”tn’omme—.
ii,,a.th ,:
£ar
a
in
ratbe .han
cm, up: the tirmamioa, 3
H
‘
t
dim head wipe— not
F t’im
tc nn’r
°
F
asP I y fcund that
I
di
ts F
p least a
ore her tic. (p. 364j
nrestigate the
d r
en iearntng and
a e
r
ittri
.s
n ‘mu r tacihta
hite
3
‘do
the
nt
e
rsotits
n ,r rdr
I rg) prodomes nru’h
m risual o I oustrc
1
t
‘
e t, the items in the
shon Fe panes! reten
t
i
ts
‘n
in
ref
ft
,in
10.
-it
mme
‘m
nt
l ‘e
it’t
an—”
m L
a.
&
I
h
aam
cc
t
Ic
s
2 a” I
cc
e
.‘ming
di pr
at
r
ni i-rend ne reote—s
‘roe .c.r self-concepts
i
.
little a
pal
ehearsal, yields poor retention. (pp
‘
P
14. b. is the ao—wer. (p. 331)
a. Fn. eadig iS the process ot getting inforntation
amma
tiie’aOt\
c. RehearsaI i5 the cinscions repetItion ot infor
ruation in order to maintamn it in memory.
d. Stora e ii- the maintenance ot encoded nrateriai
c”. cc t,me.
13. B. is the ansn em Amnesia patients typically hare
sO tiered dumage to tire hippocampns, a brain
Prico”e mm 01mM in processing erplicit memo
ries dir tact-. (po. 3e7, 308)
a. Amnesia pattents do retain implicit nternories
for di r to do things; these are processed itt thc
rr p trts of the brain.
in r
e & d. F t ‘w patients generally do not experi
r c n rpairn cnt in their iconic and echoic senso
v ten rr’s.
16. B. stt’arwer.(p 354)
a I r or atm ar mn short-term memory has alrm di.
r
rtcdd
c. I ‘om an I echoic are types of sensory memory
a is the process of gethng material
d. Ret
ef s o pm and into conscious, short-ternr
r
r r I h s al matermal in short term memorr
cirel I been retriex ed or is about to be
t s cit
r
Ic
r ncr Br breaking concepts doun into
11
r h
s i
n
ts di yet sma]ler divisions and show
ir’g t r I tionships antong these, hierarchic
ntm rination processing. Use of ntam
faeilta
heads and mhh,eads is an era ntpie ot the organt
/an.3n “ cesloook chapters into hierarchies, (p.
—
a. dine n. ‘ncr dcx ice’ are the method ot loch
er mentort S Jm”mqmme that tamP
t
and ot
mmate metntm.’n
irnittait
the Jfeets ot %mmch mm:urmes
.r’ mg.
on
‘c ssed nienon’
‘sts that then
th time.
tan
t, c
B. UI am to arm organirahoits of knott it dge rrtto
familiar, ‘ii ‘nageahit’ unit—.
d. Recogntion is a measure of retention.
18. d. i’ the a”' ,or np. 3SP—SsS(
19. e. is toe tswer, Short-ternt recall is —lighth better
bee anse
tor iniormation. cxc hear rather than see
outlasts
iotruc
inontentarile
remoir
cch i
,
rt’
mnli, such as ,tords, are a
easih than meaning
I
tters.
Answers
b. lconic memory does not last as long as echoic
memory in short-term recall.
d. Although context is a powerful retrieval cue.
there is no general facilitation of memory in an
unusual context.
20. c. is the answer. Loftus and Palmer found that
e ewitness testimon could easily be altered
when questions were phrased to imph mislead
ing inFormation, (pp. 382—383)
a. \ithough memories are constructed during
encoding, the misinformation effect is a retries al,
rather than an encoding phenomenon.
b. & d. ln tact, just the opposite i true.
21. d. is the answer. (p. 376)
a. This defines absent—mindedness.
b. This is misattribution.
c. This is bias.
True—False items
1.
2.
3.
4.
5,
‘1 (p. 35)
1 (p. 363)
F (p. 385)
1 (p. 388)
1’ (p. 377)
6. F (p.
7. F (p.
8. 1 (p.
9. F (p.
10. F (p.
385)
380)
392)
381)
354)
Psychotogy App(ied
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. d. is the answer. (p. 370)
a. & b. In order to correctly answer either type of
question. the knowledge must ha e been encoded
and stored,
c. With fill-in-the-blank questions, the answer
must he recalled with no retrieval cues other than
the question. With ni u I tip1 c-choice questions. the
correct answer merely has to he recognized from
among several alternatives.
2. d. is the answer. (p. 336)
a. & b. A serial position effect w ou’d presumahl
occur sshetht.r the studs and retriexal contexts
were the same or different.
c \s researchcrs found when reca I is de aved,
onlr the tint items in a list an recalled more
accurately than the others, With immediate recall,
both the first and lact items are recalled more
accurately.
3. d. is the ansis er. Phat all foLir mistakes are has’d
on a sound confusion suggests that the letters
were encoded acousticallx. (pp. 336—337)
a. Memorizing a list of letters would in oh e
efturtful, rather th in automatir, proc essing.
b. I he mistakes do not mx olsc’ k tt rs that are
similar in apprarance
253
c. Semantic encoding would have been suggested
errors based on similarities in meaning.
4. b. is the answer. Retroactive interference is the
disruption of something von once learned by Hen
information. p.
370)
a. Proactive interference occurs when old infor
mation makes it difficult to correcth remember
new information.
c. & d. Irterference produces torgetting even
w hen the forgotten material was err’ecns eiy
encoded and stored, Janice s problem is at thc
le el of retrie aL
5, B, is the answer. (pp. 379 380)
a., c., & d. Involvement in other activities, es en
just eating or listening to music, is more disrup
tive than sleeping.
6. c. is the answer. Susan’s memories are affected h
her had mood. (p. 374)
a. Priming refers to the conscious or unconscious
activation of particular associations in memory.
B. Memory construction refers to changes in
memory as new experiences occur.
d. Although Susan’s difficulty in recalling the
good could be considered retrieval failure, it is
caused by the mood-congruent effect, w hich is
therefore the best explanation.
7. a. is the answer. Priming is the conscious or un
conscious activation of particular associations in
memory. (p. 372)
B. DOji vu is the false impression of hax ing previ
ously experienced a current situation.
c. That Martina is able to retrieve her former
classmates’ names implies that thex alreath hax e
been encoded.
d. Relearning is a measure of retention based on
how long it takes to relearn something alruadx
mastered. \Tartina is recalling her former class
mates’ names, not relearning them.
8. B. is the answ er Being bark in the ontext in
which the original c xperiences occ urrcd trigger u
memories of these experiences (p 373)
a. The memories were triggered h
arty
r 1
not
mood
acc
p
c, Retroactu e interference would mx oh e ditfu Ui
ties in retriex ing old memories.
d. Lchoi memory rerers to momentarx memorx
of auditory stimuli.
9. a. is the answer, Time and space- -and therefore
sequences ot events—are often automaticallr
processed. (p 33)
b. ‘I hat she had /ttfle difi ii1t; indicate’, that the
processing was autom itic rather than cffoitful
c. & d. State-dependent memors and p i ni c
24
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drugs a ‘e unreliable, as are memories of eents betore
ae 3 Finally, the\ agree that memories can be tram
math whether real or false.
15. Visual encoding is toe use
rriag
information into menu r p. 336
16. Acoustic encoding N the pro
tion into memors ace 31 din to
ri
to process
ssin t iniolnui
s mud (p
IN
17. Semantic encoding i the proc-m’mg t otot
tion iflto memor accordmng to
meamunu,
Key Terms
p.
Vt ritinc Dcf’initwns
1. Memory is the persictence of learning over time
ia the sturape and retriei a) of information. (p.
2. A flashbulb memory is an unusuall vi id menu
or of an emotionally important moment in one’s
life. (p. 331)
(p
3. Encoding is the first step in memori; information
s
translated into some form that enables it to
enter our memory si stem. (p. 331)
4. Storage is the process b which encoded informa
tion is maintained o er time, (p. 3l)
5. Retrieval is the process of bringing to conscious
ness information from memor storage.
351)
6. Sensory memory is the immediate, very brief
recording of sensor Information in the memor’
sstem. (p 31)
7. Short-term memory is conscious memory uhich
can hold about 5cr en items for a short time. (p.
8. Long-term memory is the relativeh permanent
and unlimited capacit memory sstem into
rr hich information from short-term memory ma
pass. (p. 3311
9. Working memory is the newer was of conceptu
alizing short-term memory as a ii ork site for
the active processing of incoming auditorx and
visual-spatial information, and of information re
trieved from long-term memors. (p. 32)
10. Automatic processing refers to our unconscious
eluoding of incidental information such as space.
time, and fretiencr and of well-learned intcmrrna
tion. (p. 33)
11. Effortful processing is encoding that reatlire..
attentIon and conscinu- effort. 1
p- 54i
12. Rehearsal is the con’,cious, eftnrttui repetition of
intormaton that t ou arc’ trying either
n
to maintain
or to encode for storage (p. ‘4;
iS. Imagery refer to mental pictures and can be
important aid to effcirttul rut e5s1i3 P
19. Mnemonics are memory aids (the methou of ioci,
acronyms, peg-word.., etc. I. o imicim itCii me i
Imagert and organIzatIonal de it-u
20. Chunking is the memo”x technoue
22. Echoic memory is the mome ta
ry of auditors stimul I in
onds
(p.
362)
23. Long-term potentiation (F I P) s i
crease
fol ov
synapse s firing potentia
‘net. rt
stimulation I IF is bdies d t)l c t i tiC Uflil has
for learning and meinor (a 36)
24. Amnesia is the loss of memor
p 3o7)
25. Implicit memories
26. Explicit memories
ing
called declaratis e
y retained th
i
th
s
in tie r
iddle
(
art—
n1enmorie of fat-f.. mnclctd
f i’s
oX cuts
are
memorot-
p
27. 1 he hippocampus i a nets a c mts i lotthe linshc sistem tna N mpmitt fl ‘1m’
:
..p
ing of e\pliUt memormos
28. Recall P a measure
Of tc-teta;’
must remenis’er,
information iearnc m’
son
30. Relearning ‘s a
norc cc i
skills prefer
mae. and
names,
14. The serial position effect
the tcndencs for
are me rorics of
ences, and dispositions Ihesc memormec .ire cvi
dentli processed, not by the hippocainpus, hut
hr a more priniitis e part of the hratn, the curehel
or :.?mir
lum. They are also called pus cia
[hi’ mcmnnra’c. p. 3o
29. Recognition
is
organizmna
images
13. The spacing effect i the tendency for distributed
ctudy oi practice to yield better long-term reten
tion than massed study or practice. (p. 355)
tcms it the beginning a id u d )f a F t P b
t
1
meannoful ii1it5 p 3m
21. Iconic memory is the r uual wnom iiie’flor\
consisting of a perfect photographic numorr
which lasts no more than a terv tenths of a etond, (p. 362)
or
‘i’epesent i
Menioru aid I ci I me ins irs ‘i
tion.” iconic memory
r
ot
bidet risual
st
material into familiar
uitim
‘,..hc!t-
to’
r
it-. a n’ easure ot
1
fc
c
t 1
t-c
in
uo
t-5is
i’
Fir
ton Pm ,n ii
need ohs id nt f rathet than
idOl
miush learned inforn ati
ti c
tO
.c
cm
iCr,
one
the less
more tF
fr
i’m c I I
itt’ I 1101
pit
in
i’sar nauSlli,
F
S I
thdt
tIn,
256
Chapter 9 Memory
31. Priming i, the activation often unconscions ot a
web o
t associations in mtmorv in oider to
retriei c a specif memory, p. 372)
32. Déjà vu is the false sense that you have aireads
experienced a current situation. p. 373
33. Mood-congruent memory is the tendenot to
recall txporiences that are consistent with our
current mood. i’ 374)
34. Proactix e interference m the disruptit e etfect ot
s mcthing ron airtady have learned on your
sfforts tt Icarn or recall new mformation (p. 379)
3S Retroactive interference is the disruptn e effect
of somethinp ret er t
s learned on old know ledge
1
D))
(p,
Mu or zzd’ Rctro means ‘backward” Ret; oactive
interference is “backward-acting” interference.
36. Repression is an example ot motivated forgetting
in that paintul and unacceptaBle memories are
pret ented troni entering consciousness, In p5w
Lnoanal\ tic theors it ts the basic defense nrecha
nisnr ‘p 3S1
1 O( US ON VOGABUIARYANI) LANGUAGE
11w Phcnonzenon of Memory
343. Yr ur mensory is your mind’s storehoase
3
Pa
the r sri alt ot sour accumulated learning. Myers is
usmg ar analogi to help r on understand the gener
al toncept of memors. Both teeelionses and rescroezrs
are used to keep materials (water, tood. etc.) until
‘a e need thcm. Liken ise, your memors systeni re
tains most of the things r ott experienced (acm (inlittOt
ot imi’:o;;:, and itenw tan he reca Bed or retrieved as
reqo ire)
I’D’
I S
mc
i
‘ii
Sonic tn’lit s has
xplored the earls a I
r us loss th r it csc rchers has r cxar i
s ot men try s
I
s and ansrs
c notcd tt c bencfmts (ha; s) 0 not
t r
fc t m n or for s try thing that hap
3
t
5
information about the event into their memories.
(p. 353)
38. At the heart ot many false memories, source
amnesia reters to naisattnihutmg an event to the
is rong ource (p. 354?
Cross-Check
DOWN
ACROSS
1. repression
4. erhcio
1. recognition
2. sensory
3. misinformation effect
6. semantic
7. priming
4.
5.
8.
9.
10.
12.
13.
16.
17.
18.
11. imagery
14. LII’
15.
19.
20.
21,
22.
conit
chunking
flashbulb
amnesia
rehearsal
ettortfut
hippocampus
nnpticit
mnemonics
acoustic
automatic
proactive
long term
usual
deja vu
Page 3 iv. Do h s memory feats make y our own mem
orv seem feeble? Myers is poinhng out that although
S may have demonstrated spectacular abilities in
remembering all sorts of things (memory fi’ats), nor
mal memor in the average person is no less
astounding in many is as s (pi’ett;j staggrring). Despite
our occasional failures, our ordinary memory
accomplishments, it hich we tend to take for grant
ed, are quite remarkable their are Dr front being
feeb/e).
Pap’s PlO 52: instead we mIlle the flashlight bean; 0
oar
sPent/a’;
not el or
‘a
certain
important
intoming
stimulioften
stimuli. One model of memory
suggests that s e onh fat us on (shin the flashlt”l,
/‘ea’a f r ‘I I ; a;;) and p occss one part or
aspect of t ic tt tal scnsory input, particularli new
in
cr ‘mportant stimuli. We can also locate and
bring bark stored infoi m ation from long tcrm mem
on tLrM) into short-term memory (STM).
I’d’
a; ‘dat ,ei;;a; c ‘a a nary Olinat Irs.
ew optional tnt nrc ries art’ heing likened
or compared to the top athletes in the Olympic
Lames. S for example. would cleans receive the top
prize ‘dm tct :;;a: “; m am competition in mvhith
People
37. l’he misinformation effect is the tendency of eve
‘a itnesses ta an et cut to h’ttorporate nnsleading
Encoding: Getting hforina tion In
itO
rerne;nhcra g
x ast
brine t’-rc’cl ta:aic,:’a
amounts
(.51,’;’;/
0.
of
nfarmaton
‘a as
Page .354:
One ivax to improx e and
lea-f
increase the power at our meniors is to use
rehearsal. Ehus, attis dr repeating some new infor
mation (such is a stranger’s name or nest torrninolo
gi ) still help —trengtiIen (‘‘at oor abilits to reinein
.
,
,
.
.
Focus on ocabu1ary and language
her this material. As Myers notes it is important for
effective retention to space out or distribute
rehear’.als over time (tIle spaez;i effect) rather than
doinn the repetitions all at once niassed practice or
cramming).
Pac’c 356. Gordon l3ower and Daniel Morrow (1990)
liken our minds to theater directors who, ii’ell a ran’
script, imagine a tmshed stage production. This sug—
pest’- that what we remember is not an exact replica
of reality. We construct some mental representation
or model t’inisiicd stage production) from the basic
ensori information (rare script) available to us, and
so, when we recall something, it is our own version
(mental model) that comes to mind and not the real
thing.
Page 318: Thanks to the durability of our most vix id
Images, we sometimes recall our experiences with
mental snapshots of their best or xx orst moments. The
use of imagery or mental pictures (snapshots) is one
wa’ to enhance recall. We hax e exceptional1 good
memorx for pictures and ideas that are encoded
using visual imagery. As Myers notes, “imagery is at
the heart of many memory aids” (e.g.. method of
loci, peg-word, etc.).
Pave $38 (caption;
...“
(elF until iiou are blue in the
face”,,. Ihis refers to the situation in xs hich some
one says the same thing (e.g., a reciuest, a plea. a
xx a ruing) over and over, but sax ing it does not
appear to hax e am effect on the listener, You can
xx am people repeatedly about the dangers (icalth
• ha ; d of sum tanning and smoking (tier an t i I
m in thc fa e) with little or no change
I w i a
ix the target audiences behaxior visual images of
• the consequences of tanning and smoking haxe a
greater impact.
353,
is
based on me
ix riz r
g
a
short 10-
item poem c ;gle that can he wsoLiated xx ith a new
list of I 0 item through x isual iniageri rim flexi
items are hung on. or pegged to, th familiar items.
\lc’timnec a’!uie ‘rat ii m91’ ;llimi’cr,
.;l;ec. He .c’!:;ya’; ca
tn
:‘
,‘ilhl’c. I hfc
n’;:I IH b’cf an’::, en hb ‘i;iger.
‘,;t,,b f:i t,i ‘n tr,a, hx chunking (orga
and ran
1 I anits) we can
nizing material into meaning
increase the an ount of inforr ian x we can iemem
her, l)onatdli x s able to r cal u o 0( numbers
read to Fun onix on e, en elicit per second, by
using chunkin; aid H mar h es c ustcrs of chunks,
Page $n; 1:
Pac $4: Hb, [Ehhinghaus’] solution was to form a
list of all possible 11 nsensc suliat’les created by rand
a’iclu;iç a i owel hetu cen tu o consonants. in order to
a oid using meaningful nords with prior associa
tions Hermann Ilhbinghaus mx ented three-letter
n ords that made no sense and had no meaning
(in. nsi nse siiUabks). lie did this bx putting a xowel
(sandG ‘iclung it) betu een two consonants. I us non
sense (‘in anrngless) syllables were consonant (C),
von ci (\) consonant (C), or CA’Cs.
Pace
n’ord” method
257
For exiniple, the
‘pegncord’
si stem
requires that you first memorize a iiiiclc. A inn,de is
an easili remembered succession of ivorcis that ring
or resound against each other due to alliteration or
rhyme and are often used in radio or TV commer
ciìR. Pie mflemunic (mernuri aid) ca lied the ‘pe
Donatelli then
organized from small to big 1k xx as quiet xx bile lis
tening to the list but became mcix a fix c and agif at
ed Pu’ cp;ang I a ) a he used his nnemonic tech
niq ue
Storage: Re to in ing Intorm at ion
Page $o2’ It was harder than reading by I;gi:tni;ig
flashes. In his mx estigation of sensori storage,
George Speilrng showed hic suhiect’- .an array of
nine letters for a x cry brief period lor about the
length of a hid’ t liglit;iing;. lie’ demonstrated that
this was sufficient time for then to hrietl\ mien
fli;;ps I all nine letters and that an in’age remained
for less than halt a second before fading away; he
called this brief f7e t r g) memory f m icual stimuli
iconic memory
5Pm ek Holijic’Mx sterx writer Sir
Page P3’
Ic’s
ular
character was a
most ros
Arthur C ona x Dox
ate
phi
detectix
e named
very intelligent and logical
as
mani
did
Holmes,
heliex
ed
Holmes
Sherlock
xx
limited,
much
others. that our memorx capacity a’as a small empti room or attic can hold onix so
much furniture before it ox erflows. Contempirars
psvchologicts noi’. heliex e that ‘or ability to store
limit.
x iti: eat
1
long-terlu memories ;s haucal
xx
any
Among amn s me’ contender
Page lb I 1’
‘ xxould
e I it’db”air
for dxamp
xu mker is
kr
the Cl k
t
x t a pH
Sr Il b n
small bird xx t
nomenal netro
1 i te a period
where it u cx i s c 3. It
mx )nths a000
e Cr t ocations of
of more than
hidden foe’l
Pap’- •PP i’’
,.itJi ‘aa” e,’ a; ‘P 1;;
make, a -tttemc’xt tint is not meant
to he’ taken se’riuusl’, ‘a, ‘m’tc’ that it xx as said
H hey
‘m’m
,’,’
1
bec s’att xl that
fell u’
reality,”
than
‘-ixal
dual
more
a
a
‘i
are
of
Li
‘ries
X\ hen
someone
•
;‘
‘
c’sean
258
chaptet
Niemon
tint r
wit tc
ac
\ or
sent
i;tO 0
tim
a
rsen s ntc the
4
e
s
or cerhan norTnones. Tnese in turn
Lc’ do tOt [e
cigna: rh m i: that soniethin irnpurtant [mc hap
penad nd the ox enb tim r triggered the arousal
macic
r deihl
piemi
r the b H much a
F
tim a’.re’
e
•
I
Of
LO :e o itt’ a nnesial can he Jas n
athni’ecl.. Intl ran learn to read iOtfiu”
o: do
;cic.. thex can he
[a’s ci ettdidn red PeaLe it ho hat e io
t the
5
ihiiittx
‘memb r ten intc ration ii LsciD) ma
to •g throF acsrcia
xc
hc
in
im i
in
i dofla’nnftoshrc
orohlc
e.
,}lrrl s yen if thc arc not
ao
hex inn done —o. \h er notes that thesr
final inm -nggest teat nxernor’ is not a single. unified
—x stc n’ \nuiesles win [earn kin’, to ia somethrng
implicit memo ‘ithoot xcv knott iedge of this
harni
phcit
declarative, memory
d
(‘1
oIler
,
a
ci
[‘r’ri
(7(l)J
Ir
ab drivers are iften
F o work ir Lon For
oe
iebici face an enormous chal
to cne monze the complicated lanout
ntx teets: the longer thex ixork there the
a e :ear area or the hppocamnus nt’hich spw
niotx) F
iair/c
ptia’
ne.
0
re)rir’x
pr
r
1
t
c
rni
i’d ‘1
H x oar ,onx gdaia. ReNt ing and reliching
ine’ro’x
iCe
Paso ccssfulpc
x
a s
coLa
a phaizi a id Her that
‘ci p ‘H fr m x ariouc cortical storage citec
Lw then with the emotional associations
vi, H
5
c
of
pact
nix alcnt
‘vi
no’
acconxpiishznentc
in orcne
an
tza’c dir
i
0
•
no’-’
ci’
-
,
ciii,•c,rax,ddh,the.wirgciaia
,
,
Ph’.’
‘
,
as
um
c d (hula p H rrcsc] souic ma north). Memory of
cv m at pa ‘ci s influanc r d by the particular
r
ulaicia V
x od we a
cur
•L’
ci’
‘a
I
iwi”
hrr
‘,
,
in
u’’.
N
.
‘
P zge thi: An d all tire applause for nu’zuen/
hare
a i x oices hr i heard ii praise of forgetting? ‘iF e
t ‘n
focu )t tF e unportance of remembering and
re alh ig info, nation ft zero is touch applause for mono
.
ci
ul I Ioweyc
•
i
re
to [iL I
Ni
ct
t
i’eoirr’ in
a’d
ii’
r
let t u total
.
if xve could not forget, we would he
like the Russian memory expert izziezzii’rii told:) S
who xx as or erwhelmed hr the aniount of useless
information ira had stored thanzztcd ha his juoir heap of
mcrzoricp. Fh is many people, from William James
tear ‘-at
1 cogni’h a psychologists, 0
cknoxx H
edg I c 1 npo tanc e of forgetting.
‘5: A tame ot p i po/sed on the f/p o the
f
t,’zzc;,e. xi aihng to he retrieved. The expression
an the Li;’ of cci’ r”o oh’ reters to the teeling r on get
rvhen n on are trying to remember something (a
name, place ett., hut can’t, even though r on feel
thou
n or
0
r
say it f,f’s on It to o
‘r
i
r7
r ai propr’ itc retries a
(
ue
F is tIc
ettc cf re nar
r comethin d
rhyri ‘5 mdi c ) ace r ften rrn emher the tcm.
‘fl’c
0 F— ron
collect nnore and
moe intermation,
“t’,l oh it net er hilt. hot it ccrtainlr gets edit
ruod, OF e mar h,a’e an onihuited amount of space in
0’ r
s”5)rn m
t
,
r our
:‘
0
•
/
Forgetting
Pa,.
P, H i no F (ick’ng fnlornzwztzon Ozzt
r whether it is good or had, and we
tc id to remember the excnts accordingly.
Pap: L4: Limo teenagers are daci’zi, their parents
—cern inhuman: a thetr mood hdghtcn. their parents
H ‘ii Hr 7’ acLa aaocl’. Because our nremorie
te id to he mood-congruent. xx e are likely to explain
on n ‘cc t c i tion ii state hr remembering cx ents
ar d
c is
ng c insistent (canyrurat) nith hon
ste ow tee
n one studs xx hen young adolescents
werc mi a had mood H a), titer x iexx ed their par
ent— a true, and nncarhig (inhuman). hut later
lieu ther were in a much better (lit is/itcH mood
their parents acre descrihed in much nicer terms. It
sci i’d as t tough thcir parents had undergone an
‘mfng char pa i i cimraLcr (morphu;zg fret;, deazlc to
I zg I ) hut tF
in ‘e x as simply in the teenagers’
mood Ac \Iyc notes pasciazzs [or cmafzansl exag
(5
J
)
1
rod h )et
cia a i t\v ut —ad nd uniarpx.
r
‘‘
ear
i use
si stem or i
r
t
1 rtti
to
(a oom at
the top
ith a rnstant flow of ncn infor
r t in g
, ii c storage can become disorga
d (Hoff
I lie neix in tormation may get in
the xx ax of recaling old material (retroactive inter—
ferencei, or old material mar’ block or disrupt ret all
of mar ,ntormetien (proactive interference;
r
t)
situa(ion
‘mon
nici
Focus on Vocabulary and Language
r
Page 380: We sheepi$ilii accepted responsibility tar 89
cookies. Still, we had not come close; there had been
160. 1he Myers family obviously loves chocolate
chip cookies, and the stor of how all toO were
cn, ate. c ncunzed) within
1
de\ oured uczrtcd, au/ted do
24 hours wet a creed’ ices 1t1t is quite funny but
makes an important point. Embarrassed, guilty, and
feelin° a little foolish (sheepish). they could onh
account for and remember eating 89. This illustrates
the se1t-ser ing nature of memory and how, un
knon inglv, we change and revise our own histories.
Pepc $81: I he words re/it a b/ou’n-eitt candle in the
mind
Just a an extinguished dilewii out) candle
can he reignited (re/it) with a match, the presentation
of a retrieval cue ma help someone recall or
retrieve a long forgotten memory ‘\ithough Freud
proposed that we repress memories of painful expe
riences in the unconscious mind in order to protect
our self-concepts and minimize anxiety, Myers notes
that most contemporary memory researchers beliexe
repression rarely, if ever, happens.
Memory Construction
Page 384: Because memory is reconstruction as well
as reproduction, u e can’t be sure whether a memory
is real by how real it feels, It is difficult to determine
if a memory is real simply by noting how real it feels
or how confident we are about its accuracy. We not
only recall and retrie e real memories (reproduction)
but we also manufacture false memories (reconstruL
259
Page $85: Memory construction helps explain wh\
“hipiiotical1u rebuIued memories of crimes so easilx
incorporate errors, some of which originate with the
hypnotist’s leading questions. Because of the ten
dencv to manufacture events u ithout being con
sciously aware of doing so (;nenoro colNtruction a
people are likely to be influenced by suggestions
and biased questions uhile under hxpnosis. 1her
subsequent recollections ( IluEp not kill/il rctreued
ma\ therefore he a mixture of fact and fiction,
Pae 38o: If memories can he silken’, xet sO sillcerc;if
uu’rolig, might children’s recollections of sesual abuse
he prone to err The evidence suggests that under
appropriate conditions children’s memories can he
reliable and accurate (sincere), but that they are also
prone to the misinformation effect and can he mis
led by biased questions and suggestions; later, the
children are not able to reliably separate real from
ta I se (sincerely wrong) memories,
Improving Memory
Page 391: Sprinkled throughout this chapter and sum
mariied here for easy reference are conc reP’ sugges
hans for improx ing memory, This chapter on mem
ory has many good ideas for memory improx ement
scattered or interspersed (sprinkled) throughout it
and Myers has pulled them together in an easy to
understand format—the SQ3R (Surx cx, Question,
Read, Rehearse, Rex iew) method, Ihese are real and
tangible (concrete) ways that will help you improx e
your memory. Use them!!!