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Transcript
Introduction to Psychodynamic Therapy
Lyn Siegel, MPH, MSW, LCSW
51 Main St. Suite 12
Clinton, NJ 08809
908-586-3254
e-mail lynsiegel@patmedia.net
Web: www.clintontherapist.citymax.com
General Approaches of
Psychological Theories
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Cognitive
Psychotherapy
psychoanalysis
psychodynamic
existential
cognitive
behavioral
cognitive/behavioral
Sigmund Freud’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics



Structure of Personality: ID, EGO, super-ego
The most comprehensive theory of
personality and psychotherapy ever
developed
Concepts of the conscious, preconscious and
the unconscious
Freud’s Structure of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics

Clinical Evidence for postulating the
unconscious (which can not be studied
directly)
– dreams
– slips of the tongue
– forgetting
– posthypnotic suggestions
– material from free-association techniques
– the symbolic content of psychotic
symptoms
Sigmund Freud’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy

Ego-defense
mechanisms
– repression
– denial
– reaction formation
– projection
– displacement
– rationalization
–
–
–
–
–
sublimation
regression,
introjection
identification
compensation
Sigmund Freud’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychosexual stages
– oral
– anal
– phallic
– latency
– genital
Sigmund Freud’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamic Therapy

Important to Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Social
Workers:
– Transference

projecting feelings from the past on the therapist as
a significant figure of the past
– Counter-transference
seeing yourself in a client
 meeting your own needs through a client

Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy

Other names for Psychodynamic psychotherapy
– Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
– Exploratory psychotherapy
– Insight oriented therapy
Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy


General approach
– historical focus: interpretations or observations
are based on the client’s history
– always based on the transference-patient/therapist relationship
It’s assumptions
– unconscious mind exists
holds painful feelings
– we avoid thru our defenses
 Needs, drives and feelings motivate behavior

Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy

Goals
Bring unconscious conflict to awareness
= emotional insight
make client’s problem clear (elucidate)
 understand defense mechanisms and transference
responses


Techniques used (origins in Freud)
– therapeutic alliance
– free association
– defense and transference interpretation
Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy

Therapists’ role
– unconditional acceptance
– make interpretations
Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy

Duration/frequency
– months to years
longer term: open-ended
 1-3 x weekly

– brief therapy techniques growing

1 x week
Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic
Repressed childhood conflicts, Id
content, ego activity
Less emphasis on sexual and
aggressive drives
Bringing conflict to conscious
awareness
overcome
neurosis
Less emphasis on unconscious info
More emphasis on past
relationships
Differences in Assumptions and Focus
Overview of Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis
all adult problems
can be traced back to
childhood
interaction of ego, superego, id
Psychodynamic
Offshoot of the
psychoanalytic school
Interpretation is main tool
Mediator, a conscience,
and a devil
Differences in Assumptions and Focus
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics




Theory of the mind/psyche (psyche = the personality
as a whole), ego-the organizer of the conscious mind:
Theory of archetypes
Theory of dynamics of the psyche: principle of
opposites, principle of equivalence, principle of
entropy
Theory of synchronicity
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics

Important concepts
– complexes (a feature of the personal
unconscious in which groups of contents clump
together)
– individuation (the process by which the
consciousness of a person becomes
individualized or differentiated from other
people)
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics

Understanding of the human personality
– Psychological typology
attitudes = introversion/extroversion
 the functions = thinking, feeling, sensation, and
intuition

Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics


Human development, especially in middle age
A spiritual approach
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics


That the personality is also based on who we want
to become, rather than just the past (movement
toward self-actualization)
Dreams as an attempt to express rather than
repress
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics

An archetype is the content of the collective
unconscious.
– The persona: our public image, a mask (or
public face) that we wear to protect ourselves.
– Shadow: represents our dark side, the
thoughts, feelings, and actions that are socially
reprehensible and that we tend to disown by
projecting them outward.
Carl Jung’s Major Contributions to
Psychodynamics

Archetypes (con’t)
– Anima/ animus
– Syzygy: divine couple. wholeness and
integration. The opposites of the inner and
outer life are joined in marriage.
– Mother: the nurturing one
Carl Jung’s Major Contribution to
Psychodynamics

Archetypes (con’t)
– Father: guide or authority figure
– Child: a pattern related to the hope and
promise for new beginnings.
Other Disciplines in Psychodynamic
Psychotherapy





Adlerian
Object relations/ Psychoanalytic self psychology
(Kohut)
Ego psychology
Psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy
Transactional analysis-Berne
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology



Underlying is a theory of personality,
psychopathology, and psychotherapy
His theory is connected to a humanistic
philosophy of living
– Core premise: the extent of feeling of
community (connectedness)
is both an index and goal of mental health
Holds philosophical ideals as therapeutic goals for
individuals and groups
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology


Techniques: analysis of birth order, coping
patterns, early memory work
Systems view
– Within the systems context: 3 key life tasksvocation, love, and sex
– These and our relationships are social
challenges
– First system: family-the origin of our world
view and attitude toward life
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology

“Fictional finalism”- a central goal guiding a
person behaviors
– “Only when I am perfect can I be secure”
– “Only when I am important can I be accepted”
Individual (Adlerian) Psychology

Treatment
– Brief, couple, family
– Goals: Connected-ness, self-development,
contribute to others’ welfare
– Correct mistaken assumptions, attitudes,
behaviors and feelings about the world
– Objective: redirect self-focused behaviors
toward social contribution
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)


Emphasizes empathy
“Empathy is used to describe an intrapsychic
process in the therapist by which an understanding
of the patient, particularly an emotional
understanding, a capacity to feel what the other is
feeling is enhanced. Situated somewhere between
listening and interpreting, empathy serves as a
precondition for both.”-Berger 1987
Empathy: The power of entering into the
experience of or understanding objects or
emotions outside ourselves
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)


Understanding and explanation ( interpretative
process) are offered from the client’s perspective
Prevailing form of psychoanalysis in Europe
Psychoanalytic Self Psychology (Kohut)


Revolutionary departure from the “biological
model”
Kohut claimed it would form a framework in
which
– Empathetic, subjective methods were overiding
– Other methods could be used
– Distinctions between psychiatry and
psychology were no longer relevant
Ego psychology

Groundwork
– Anna Freud-building blocks of defense theory
– Erikson-Psychosocial stages
Emphasized ego’s role in development
 Focuses on social influences throughout the life
span
 Deals with early AND later developmental stages

Ego psychology

Heinz Hartmann-leader of ego therapy
– It’s really structural theory-ego therapist interested in all aspects--incl ID
 the preservation of Freud’s drive theory
– emphasizes the centrality of the ego


Focuses on the ego’s workings in creating
defenses rather than focusing on the underlying id
content
Engages the patient, less emphasis on uncovering
hidden secrets, more on psychic structure-i.e the
relationships between the id, the ego, and
superego (Mitchell and Black-1995)
Ego Psychology

Heinz Hartmann: the father of Ego Psychology
– Studied”the ways in which the Ego organizes
itself, adapts, and deploys ID drives
– Contributions:
neutralization (rather than sublimation)-the ego
strips the drives of their sexual and aggressive
qualities changing their nature-e.g like a power plant
 notion of “ a child born with an innate potential that
unfolds naturally in a receptive environment” and
“average receptive environment”- Mitchell and
Black 1995

Sources
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Brown D, Pedder J, Introduction to Psychotherapy, Tavistock/Routledge, 1991
Covey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy:
Brook/Cole, 2001
Mitchell SA and Black MJ, Freud and Beyond-A History of Modern
Psychoanalytic Thought: The Perseus Books Groups, 1995
Ursano RJ, Sonnenberg SM, Lazar SG, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy:
American Psychiatric Press, 1991
Hall CS, Nordby SH, A Primer of Jungian Psychology: Penguin Group, 1973
Http:psychcentral.com/therapy.htm
http//easyweb.easynet.co.un/simplepsych/204
http://www.ni.edu/acad/psych/frauenglass/psychodynamic.html
http://meagerlab.tamu.esu/M-Meagher/Intro/TREATMENT.html