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I. History and Approaches By:Kaia Adams A. Logic, Philosophy, and history of science Psychology is a science because it uses systematic collections and observations. It is the study of behavior and the mind. Dualism refers to the division of the world and all things in it into body and spirit. Rene Descartes Hypothesized that the mind and body interact; and that the mind controls the body while the body provides the mind with sensory input for it to decipher. He believed that this action occurs in the pineal gland; located at the top of the brain stem. John Locke’s school of thought Is known as empiricism- the acquisition of truth through observations and experiences. Tabula rasa, “blank slate” is the term meaning all knowledge that we have must be learned and derived though experience. Thomas Hobbes Believed in materialism-the idea that of a soul or spirit, or even of a mind is meaningless; that the only things that exist are matter and energy. Charles Darwin’s theory Natural selection says all creatures have evolved into their present state over long periods of time; survival of the fittest. Evolutionary theory set the stage for psychology by establishing behavior as important and observable. Wilhem Wundt Known as the “Founder of psychology” because he initiated the first psychology laboratory to study consciousness. Titcher Called Wundt’s idea is called structuralism because it’s concerned with the structure of the mind and its parts. William James William James’ term functionalism is concerned with how the mind functions to help us survive and adapt. Approaches Approach 1: Biological Seeks to understand the interactions between anatomy and physiology and behavior. This approach is directly applied towards the portion of the brains involved in a particular brain process. Researchers use CAT scans, MRIs, EEGs, and PET scans to collect data. Approach 2: Behavioral Behaviorism is the study of observable behavior. “In order to understand human behavior we must take into account what the environment does to an organism before and after it responds. Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.” -Skinner Skinner believes our behavior is controlled by rewards, or positives reinforcers. The “Skinner box” presented stimuli to mice to record operant conditioning, in which a subject learns that a behavioral response will have an environmental outcome. Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning in which existing reflex responses come to be elicited by new stimuli. Approach 3: Cognitive The approach to understanding people’s behavior by understanding people’s behavior by understanding they think, (how one construes their environment). Cognitive behaviorism is the view that combines cognition and conditioning to explain a behavior. Approach 4: Humanistic Is rooted in the philosophical tradition of studying the roles of consciousness, free will, (the ability to make voluntary choices) and awareness of the human condition. Maslow proposed the idea of self-actualization- fully developing one’s personal potential, acceptions oneself and knowing your strengths and weaknesses. Approach 5: Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Freud developed a theory of human behavior known as psychoanalytic theory. He drew a distinction between consciousness-a mental state of awareness to which we have ready access- and the unconscious- those mental processes to which we do normally have access. Psychologists have developed further ideas based on psychoanalytic that are called psychodynamic. Approach 6: Sociocultural This approach believes that the environment has a great deal to do with how a person behaves and how others perceive that behavior. Cultural values that vary from society to society must be taken into account when trying to understand, predict, or control behavior.