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World of Music - “Music History” – European “classical” music – Part 2 Classic Period (mid 1700’s – early 1800’s; 1750-1820) Clear, recognizable melodies Understandable musical forms (binary, ternary, rondo, sonata, theme & variations) Some Musical Styles: Multi-movement works – 3 or 4 sections – fast, slow, (minuet), fast) Symphonies – string or full orchestra 3 or 4 “movements” – sections that can stand alone 1. fast; 2. slow; (3. dance-like); 4. fast String quartets (2 violins, viola & cello) and other “chamber music” – same structure as symphonies Concertos for solo instrument & orchestra - same structure as symphonies Sonatas for piano solo or piano & solo instrument Suites & Serenades Operas – Grand & comic opera; generally based on stories from popular literature Sacred music styles continue Instruments **Piano becomes widely used – harpsichord & organ less popular Strings still very important Increased use of woodwind, brass & percussion Invention/adoption of clarinet Composers Franz Joseph Haydn – Austria – “Papa Haydn” – “Father of Symphony” (wrote over 100) lived to be pretty old, taught both Mozart & Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Austria – was a child prodigy – began playing, performing & writing music when still preschool-age; wrote TONS of music, mostly be imagining the finished work in head, then just writing it down; died at age 35; music for all instruments, symphonies, operas Ludwig van Beethoven – Germany/Austria – first became famous as a pianist; piano music compositions are very famous; 9 symphonies; TONS of piano music, 1 opera Later music more like “Romantic Style” Romantic Period (early 1800’s – about 1900; 1820 – 1900) All about expressing emotion, stretching & changing rules for musical style & harmonies Lots of musical experimentation. Some Musical Styles: Symphonies - more flexible form, many MUCH LONGER Other Orchestral music – tone poems, overtures, many that reflect a story (programme music) Concertos, Sonatas & Chamber music still around Piano Music – Sonatas, many descriptive songs (programme music) Art Songs – Single songs or set of songs (song cycles) intended to be solo showpieces or poetry set to music Operas – Much “heavier” theatrical sounding music, the “Ring” opera (fat ladies/horns) Instruments Piano Full orchestra Technical advances (valves) on brass instruments make them more adaptable Unusual groupings of instruments Very expressive vocal music Composers *Ludwig van Beethoven (later music) – especially 9th symphony (using singers for symphony) Johannes Brahms – symphonies, string quartet Robert Schumann – piano music, songs Felix Mendelssohn - piano & symphonic music Franz Schubert – best known for song cycles Peter I. Tchaikovsky – ballet music, 1812 overture Sergei Prokofiev – symphonies, ballets, Peter & the Wolf Frederic Chopin – best known for piano music Franz Liszt – virtuostic piano music Richard Wagner – huge operas 20th Century (about 1900 - ) All about redefining what’s “correct”- melodically, harmonically, stylistically Mixing rhythms & keys simultaneously, influence of jazz Some Musical Styles: Symphonies, sonatas, concertos & opera still created in new styles Programme music still created Film & TV music become important Impressionism – much like in visual art, melody creates a blurry “picture” with lots of interesting blended harmonies Neo-Classical Music – using musical forms from classic period, with a huge twist on musical harmonies Serialism/Atonal music – Heavy use of “dissonance” by using all 12 notes of the octave, not just 8 or so. Aleatory Music – chance music – players gets to decide which notes/when to play based on options composer presents Minimalism – use of only a few notes and repeated patterns Experimental music – may not use traditional music/instruments at all, or may use them in non-standard ways (aka “prepared piano”) Electronic music – using electronically created sounds, sometimes live musicians playing with prerecorded electronic soundtracks Instruments Traditional symphonic instruments Electronic instruments “Found” instruments (furniture, car parts, etc) Composers Claude Debussy – impressionism – piano & orchestra Maurice Ravel – piano & orchestra; arranged many piano pieces for orchestra Igor Stravinsky – orchestra & ballet music John Cage – experimental music Edgard Varese – electronic music Arnold Schoenberg – atonal/serial music Philip Glass - minimalism George Gershwin – influence of musical theater & jazz on neoclassical music Aaron Copland – neo classical, “programme” music, ballet, movies, TV Leonard Bernstein – West Side Story John Williams – movie music – Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Harry Potter, etc.