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Post WW2: •Refugees made the United States the center for creating music post WW2. –Even composers born in Europe spend significant amounts of time in USA. •Separation between popular culture and the artist widens. –Abstract Art –Conceptual Art –Art installations –Indeterminacy John Cage 1912-1992 • Born in Los Angeles, CA • Piano lessons • Interest in writing • Dropped out of college and traveled Europe. • 1931: Returned to the United States • 1933: Music over painting – Studied with Arnold Schoenberg – “"Of course he's not a composer, but he's an inventor—of genius." “ John Cage 1912-1992 • Cornish School of the Arts in Seattle, WA – Worked as an accompanist – Asked to compose music for ballet – Prepared piano: Screws, bolts, strips of rubber, and other objects are placed between the strings of the piano to change the character of the instrument. • Late 40’s: Taoism and Zen Buddism – Obtained copy of I Ching (symbol system used to identify order in random events) – Used to compose music (when and what) John Cage 1912-1992 • Indeterminacy: Music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). The term is most often associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a relatively limited number of possibilities. – Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) – Atlas eclipticalis (1961). This piece was written for "eighty-six instrumental parts that could be played in whole or in part, for any duration and in any combination from soloist to full orchestra. – 4’33- What is the definition of music? Art? John Cage 1912-1992 • 1957- Taught experimental music class at the New School for Social Research. • “Happenings”- theatrical events that abandoned the traditional concept of stageaudience and occur without a sense of definite duration. – HPSCHD: 7 Harpsichordists, live performers, 51 tapes, multiple film, slide, and light shows and several thousand listener-spectators who moved about freely during the 5 hour presentation.