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Post WW2: •Refugees made the United States the center for creating music post WW2. –Even composers born in Europe spend significant amounts of time in USA. •Separation between popular culture and the artist widens. –Abstract Art –Conceptual Art –Art installations –Indeterminacy John Cage 1912-1992 • Born in Los Angeles, CA • 1933: Music over painting – Studied with Arnold Schoenberg – “Of course he's not a composer, but he's an inventor—of genius.” • Cornish School of the Arts in Seattle, WA – Worked as an accompanist – Asked to compose music for ballet – Prepared piano: Screws, bolts, strips of rubber, and other objects are placed between the strings of the piano to change the character of the instrument. John Cage 1912-1992 • Late 40’s: Taoism and Zen Buddism – Obtained copy of I Ching (symbol system used to identify order in random events) • Used to compose music (when and what) – Began to question the role of the composer • Wrote compositions in with star charts, rolling dice, throwing darts… John Cage 1912-1992 • Indeterminacy: Music in which some element of the composition is left to chance – Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) – Atlas eclipticalis (1961). This piece was written for "eighty-six instrumental parts that could be played in whole or in part, for any duration and in any combination from soloist to full orchestra. – 4’33- What is the definition of music? John Cage 1912-1992 • “Happenings”- theatrical events that abandoned the traditional concept of stage-audience and occur without a sense of definite duration. – As Slow As Possible: and organ solo in which members of the audience can one by one come up to the keyboard and play a note, but it must take a very long time!