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Transcript
Islam Expands (Section 2)
In spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims create a huge empire that includes land on 3 continents.
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam
 A New Leader
o In 632 Muhammad dies, Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be first caliph
o Caliph, title for Muslim leader, means “successor” or “deputy”
 “Rightly Guided” Caliphs
o First 4 Caliphs guided by Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions
o Jihad, armed struggle against unbelievers, used to expand Islam
o Muslims control all of Arabia, armies conquer Syria, lower Egypt
o By 750, Muslim empire stretches from Atlantic Ocean to Indus River
 Reasons for success
o Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded
o Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict
o Persecuted citizens of these empires welcome Islam
o Attracted to Islam’s offer to equality and hope
 Treatment of Conquered Peoples
o Muslims invaders tolerate other religions
o Christians, Jews receive special consideration as people of the book
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
 Rise of the Umayyads
o Struggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliph
o Wealthy family, Umayyads, take power; move Muslim capital to Damascus
 Sunni- Shi’a Split
o Shi’a – “party” of Ali – believe caliph should be Muhammad’s descendant
o Sunni – followers of Muhammad’s example – support Umayyads
o Sufi followers pursue life of poverty, spirituality; reject Umayyads
o In 750, a rebel group – the Abbasids – topple the Umayyads
Control Extends Over Three Continents
 Fall of the Umayyads
o Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman
o Flees to Spain; establishes new Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus
o al-Andalus – Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans
 Abbasids Consolidate Power
o In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad
o Location provides access to trade goods, gold, information
o Abbasids develop strong bureaucracy to manage empire
 Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands
o Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi’a Muslims form new caliphate
o Fatimid caliphate – claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad
o Begins in North Africa; spreads to Red Sea, western Arabia and Syria
 Muslim Trade Network
o Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe
o Muslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks
o Cordoba, in al-Andalus, is dazzling center of Muslim culture
Muslim Culture (Section 3)
Muslims combine and preserve the traditions of many peoples and advance learning in a variety of
areas.
Muslim Society
 The Rise of Muslim Cities
o Leading cities include Damascus, Baghdad, Cordoba, Cairo, Jerusalem
o Baghdad, impressive Abbasid capital; population around a million
 Four Social Classes
o Muslim society (Top to bottom); Muslims at birth, converts, protected people, slaves
o “Protected people” were Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians
 Role of Women
o Women enjoy some rights but expected to submit to men
o Women’s responsibilities vary with husband’s income
Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge
 Muslims Support Learing
o Muslims use scientific knowledge to help fulfill religious duties
o Muhammad valued power of learning, study, scholarship
o Muslim scholars preserve and translate scientific, philosophical texts
o House of Wisdom – Baghdad institute; library, academy, translation center
Art and Sciences Flourish
 Muslim Literature
o Qu’ran is standard for Arabic literature; praise for Muhammad, Islam
o Abbasid caliphate poets write of nature, life, and love
o Popular literature includes The Thousand and One Nights
 Muslim Art and Architecture
o Islam discourages images of living things, artists turn to calligraphy
o Calligraphy – art of beautiful handwriting
o Architecture of Muslim mosques is blend of many cultures
 Medical Advances
o Persian al-Razi is greatest physician, from 500 to 1500
o Al-Razi writes encyclopedia of medical knowledge
 Math and Science Stretch Horizons
o Muslim scientists solve problems through experimentation
o Al-Khwarizmi develops algebra and writes textbook
o Mathematician Ibn al-Haytham changes ideas about vision
Philosophy and Religion Blend Views
 Scholars Promote New Ideas
o Ibn Rushd is criticized for blending Greek philosophy with Islam
o Jewish philosopher Maimonides faces opposition for his ideas
o Blends philosophy, religion, science in The Guide for the Perplexed
 The “Ideal” Man
o Muslims recognize values of many cultures; enjoy a blended culture
o Emerging Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal empires reflect Muslim culture
Section 1: The Rise of Islam
Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes
Your Notes
The Prophet Muhammad
Your Notes
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Picture to Represent the Section
Picture to Represent the Section
Beliefs of Islam
Your Notes
Practices of Islam
Your Notes
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Picture to Represent the Section
Picture to Represent the Section
Islam Expands (Section 2) - Muhammad’s Successors Spread ________________________________________
 A New Leader
o In 632 Muhammad dies, Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be first caliph
o
__________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

“Rightly Guided” Caliphs
o First 4 Caliphs guided by Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions
o
__________________________________________________________________________________________
o
o
Muslims control all of Arabia, armies conquer Syria, lower Egypt
By 750, Muslim empire stretches from
_______________________________________________________________________________

Reasons for success
o Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded
o Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict
o

_______________________________________________________________________________
o _______________________________________________________________________________
Treatment of Conquered Peoples
o Muslims invaders tolerate other religions
o Christians, Jews receive special consideration as
_______________________________________________________________________________
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis


Rise of the __________________________________________________
o Struggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliph
o Wealthy family, Umayyads, take power; move Muslim capital to __________________________
Sunni- Shi’a Split
o
__________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Sunni – __________________________________________________________ – support Umayyads
Sufi followers pursue life of _______________________________________________________; reject
Umayyads
o In 750, a rebel group – the Abbasids – topple the Umayyads
Control Extends Over Three Continents
 Fall of the ____________________________________________________________________
o Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman
o
o
o

o __________________________________ – Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans
Abbasids Consolidate Power
o In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to ________________________________
o
o


______________________________________________________________________________
Location provides access to trade goods, gold, _________________________________________
Abbasids develop strong bureaucracy to manage empire
___________________________________________________________
o Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi’a Muslims form new caliphate
o Fatimid caliphate ________________________________________________________________
o Begins in North Africa; spreads to Red Sea, western Arabia and Syria
Muslim Trade Network
o Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe
o Muslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks
Muslim Culture (Section 3) - Muslim Society
 The Rise of Muslim Cities
o Leading cities include Damascus, Baghdad, Cordoba, Cairo, Jerusalem
o

Baghdad, impressive Abbasid capital; ___________________________________________________
Four Social Classes
o Muslim society (Top to bottom); ________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
o
“Protected people” ___________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Role of Women
o Women enjoy some rights but expected to ________________________________________________
o Women’s responsibilities vary with husband’s income
Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge
 Muslims Support Learing
o Muslims use scientific knowledge to help fulfill ___________________________________________
o Muhammad valued power of learning, study, scholarship
o Muslim scholars preserve and translate scientific, philosophical texts
o ________________________________________ – Baghdad institute; library, academy, translation center
Art and Sciences Flourish
 Muslim Literature
o Qu’ran is standard for Arabic literature; __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
o





Abbasid caliphate poets write of nature, life, and love
o Popular literature includes ____________________________________________________________
Muslim Art and Architecture
o Islam discourages images of living things, artists turn to calligraphy
o Calligraphy – ______________________________________________________________________
o Architecture of Muslim mosques is blend of many cultures
Medical Advances
o Persian al-Razi is greatest physician, from 500 to 1500
o Al-Razi writes _____________________________________________________________________
Math and Science Stretch Horizons
o Muslim scientists solve problems through experimentation
o Al-Khwarizmi develops _____________________________________________________________
o Mathematician Ibn al-Haytham changes ideas about vision
Philosophy and Religion Blend Views
Scholars Promote New Ideas
o Ibn Rushd is criticized for blending Greek philosophy with Islam
o Jewish philosopher ______________________________________________ faces opposition for his ideas
o Blends philosophy, religion, science in The Guide for the Perplexed
The “Ideal” Man
o Muslims recognize _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
o Emerging Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal empires reflect Muslim culture
o