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SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS • SOCIOLOGY is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. • Social Institutions consists of a group of people who have come together for a common purpose. • A social institution is a complex and integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic societal value. • These institutions come into existence to satisfy vital interests of man.(Sumner and Keller) • These institutions arise because of social demand or social necessity(Ward) • Primary and Secondary Social Institutions PRIMARY SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS • FAMILY • RELIGION / CASTE SYSTEM • STATE / POLITICAL ORGANIZATION / GOVERNMENT FAMILY • A major social institution and a locus or nucleus of much of a person's social activity. • Family is a social unit created by blood, marriage, or adoption. • Like a big tree as it contains an element of a broader kinship network that links ancestors and descendants of a person. • Family was considered as the most permanent and most persistent of all social institutions as it was having a great influence in life of the members from the moment of birth to the moment of death. • Transformation from Joint family system to nuclear family RELIGION / CASTE SYSTEM • Religion means “things that surpass the limits of our knowledge” (Emile Durkheim) • The word religion may be coined from the Latin religio (respect for what is sacred) and religare (to bind, in the sense of an obligation) • Faith the underlying principle of Religion provided differing degrees of “social cement” that held societies and cultures together. • Caste system can be considered as a byproduct of religion • The word "caste" derived from the Latin word castus which means pure • In India caste system is a unique social institution which was intended to be developed to preserve purity of blood. RELIGION / CASTE SYSTEM………….CONTINUED • The Sanskrit word for caste is varna which means colour • "Caste may be defined as a small and named group of persons characterized by endogamy, hereditary membership, and a specific style of life which sometimes includes the pursuit by tradition of a particular occupation and is usually associated with a more or less distinct ritual status in a hierarchical system". (Andre Beteille) • Caste system many merits (Unity in diversity, Co-operation, economic security, Racial and ethnic purity, cultural diffusion, integration of the nation etc) is having a number of demerits (Obstacle to national unity, untouchability, wrong / denying occupation, undemocratic etc) • Even we are undergoing fast changes due to industrialization, urbanization, modernization, education, secularization Caste system still plays an important role in shaping the Indian societal structure. STATE • Biggest and most prominent social institution is the state. • History of state began in ancient Greece • A community or society politically organised under one independent government within a definite territory can be called a State. • Three important elements a) Territory b) Sovereign / Ruler / Government c) Population / Subjects / People STATE …………. CONTINUED • The most important purpose of state is establishment of order and security to maintain peace and safety and ensure justice. • The existence of state depends on this. • It is possible by ensuring the rights of the subjects and enforcing their duties which can be done only through a permanent, strong, enforceable mechanism. • Law is the best mechanism through which the sovereign can regulate the subjects for establishing peace, order and security. • A state is a territorial division in which a community or people lives subject to a uniform system of law administered by a sovereign authority LAW • Jurisprudence coined from the Latin term jurisprudentia which denotes “ the knowledge of law’ is considered as the science of law or study of law. • There are different schools of law and Law is defined differently in different periods by different jurists. • Law is the utterance of justice speaking to man by the mouth of the state (Marcus Tullius Cicero) • Law was there even before the existence of state but got a structure after formation of state and societies. • In general sense law is a body of rules laid down for guidance of human conduct imposed by some authority in the form of command and which is enforceable. • “ Law is the command of the Sovereign” (Austin) LAW…………….CONTINUED • Law is the rule of civil conduct, prescribed by the supreme power in the State, commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong. (Blackstone) • Law is the body of principles recognized by state in the administration of justice” (Salmond) • A law generally is a body of rules which have been laid down for determining legal rights and legal obligations which are recognized by courts. Law is the case of an absolute monarch is his command which has to be obeyed by the citizens whether they agree with it or not. (Supreme Court in R.K.N Pratap Singh Deo vs State of Orissa) • IMPORTANCE / ROLE OF LAW • Law is the carrier of justice, ensuring stability, mentor of peace and Security and catalyst of social change. • Effective laws and an enabling legal environment are essential to a healthy society. • Law is the protector of individual rights and liberties • Law is the means through which disputes can be resolved. • Law is an Instrument of social change • "Social Change refers to any modification in established patterns of inter-human relationship and standards of conduct.“( Lundberg) • Law Change the society and Society change the law • When law changes the society it is the sign of beginning of the development of the society. When society changes law it is the sign of maturity of the society. IMPORTANCE / ROLE OF LAW…………..CONTINUED • Examples from different nations. Experiences from Soviet Union, Spain, Europe, USA, China etc proved that law can make enormous changes in the society and is an impetus in development. • In India transformation of society through law started with Abolition of Sati with the efforts of the social reformer Raja Ram Mohan Roy. • It was continued with the, Prohibition of slavery, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage restraint Act 1872, Protection of Civil Rights Acts, Special Marriage Act, Domestic Violence Act, Various Labour Legislations, Various legislations protecting the rights of children, women and weaker sections etc. • Constitution of India is the best example that conveys law as the instrument of social change • Law is the vehicle through which a programmed social evolution can be brought about.