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Transcript
Part 4: Leading
Chapter 8
Foundations of Individual and Group
Behavior
個人與群體行為的基礎
1
Outline
1. Organizational behavior組織行為
2. Individual Behavior個人行為
• Attitudes and their components態度
• Personality and its use性格
• Perception and how it can be shaped
知覺
• Learning: shaping employee
behavior學習
3. Group behavior群體行為
2
心若改變....你的態度跟著改變~
態度改變....你的習慣跟著改變~~
習慣改變....你的性格跟著改變~~~
性格改變....你的人生跟著改變~~~~
態度決定高度
性格決定格局
腦袋決定口袋
3
Organizational Behavior (OB)組織行為
• The study of the actions of people at work
• The focus of OB
– Individual behaviors個人行為。包括態度、人格特性、知
覺、學習和動機
• Personality, perception, learning, and motivation
– Group behaviors群體行為,包括規範、角色、團隊建立
和衝突。
• Norms, roles, team-and conflict
• The goals of OB
– To explain
– To predict behavior OB
4
The Organization as an Iceberg Metaphor
態度
認知
規範
非正式互動
人際間與群體間之衝突
EXHIBIT 8.1
5
OB’s Interest
• Employee productivity生產力
– The efficiency and effectiveness of employees
• Absenteeism曠職
– The election by employees not to attend work
• Turnover離職
– The exit of an employee from an organization
• Organizational citizenship組織的優質員工
– Employee behaviors that promote the welfare
of the organization
6
• KNOWLEDGE
11 + 14 + 15 + 23 + 12 + 5 + 4 + 7 + 5 = 96
• HARDWORK
8 + 1 + 18 + 4 + 23 + 15 + 18 + 11 = 98
• ATTITU D E
1 + 20 + 20 + 9 + 20 + 21 + 4 + 5 = 100
• BULLSHIT
2 + 21 + 12 + 12 + 19 + 8 + 9 + 20 = 103
7
Attitudes態度
• Valuative statements concerning objects, people,
or events對於某些物品、人物、事件所作的評價
• 三要素(components):
– Cognitive component認知要素
• The beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and information held by a
person一個人所持有的信念、意見、知識或資訊
– Affective component情感要素
• The emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude某種態度在
情緒或感情上的因素
– Behavioral component行為要素
• An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or
something針對某些人或事所表現出的一特定行為意圖。
8
Job-related Attitudes
• Job satisfaction工作滿意度
– An employee’s general attitude toward his or her
job.
• Job involvement工作參與
– The degree to which an employee identifies with
his or her job, actively participates in it, and
considers his or her job performance important for
self-worth.
• Organizational commitment組織付出
– An employee’s orientation toward the organization
in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with,
and involvement in the organization.
9
Personality性格
• Combination of the psychological traits心理特
質 that characterize that person.
• Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
– A method of identifying personality types uses
four dimensions of personality to identify 16
different personality types
• Big Five model
– Five-factor model of personality that includes
extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,
emotional stability, and openness to experience
10
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
• Extroversion versus introversion (EI)外向vs.
內向
– An individual’s orientation toward the external
world of the environment (E) or the inner world
of ideas (I).
• Sensing versus intuitive (SN)感官vs.直覺
– An individual’s preference on gathering data
focusing routine facts (S) or on the big picture
among the facts (N).
11
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
(cont’d)
• Thinking versus feeling (TF)思考vs.感覺
– One’s preference for evaluating information in a
logical and analytical manner (T) or on the basis of
values and beliefs (F).
• Judging versus perceiving (JP).判斷vs.認知
– Reflects an attitude toward the external world that
is either in a planned and ordered way講求規畫及
順序 (J) or preferring to remain flexible and
spontaneous保持彈性或順其自然 (P).
12
Characteristics Frequently Associated with Myers-Briggs
Types
13
The Big Five Model of Personality
Extroversion外向性
A personality dimension that describes the degree to
which someone is sociable, talkative, and assertive.
Agreeableness
A personality dimension that describes the degree to
which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and
trusting.
Conscientiousness
A personality dimension that describes the degree to
which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent,
and achievement oriented.
Emotional stability
A personality dimension that describes the degree to
which someone is calm, enthusiastic, and secure
(positive) or tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure
(negative).
Openness to experience A personality dimension that describes the degree to
which someone is imaginative, artistically sensitive,
and intellectual.
14
五大性格模式
• 外向性格構面:描述一個人喜好社交、交談與專斷程
度。
• 適合性格構面:描述一個人良好本質、合作性與信任
程度。
• 正直性格構面:描述一個人負責、可信賴、堅毅與成
就取向程度。
• 情緒穩定構面:描述一個人鎮靜、熱忱、穩定(正面
的)或壓力、緊張、沮喪及不安(負面的)的程度。
• 對經驗的開放性格構面:描述一個人富想像力、對藝
術的敏感度與智力程度。
15
Emotional intelligence (EI)情緒智商 or
EQ
• An assortment of noncognitive skills,
capabilities, and competencies that influence
a person’s ability to cope with environmental
demands and pressures
• 知覺自己情感
– Self-awareness own feelings
• 自我管理情緒
– Self-management of own emotions • 自我激勵面對
– Self-motivation in face of setbacks 挫折
• 同理心
– Empathy for others’ feelings
• 處理他人情緒
– Social skills to handle others’ emotions之社交技能16
Personality Traits And Work-related
Behaviors
• Locus of control
• 命運之
– A personality attribute that measures
the degree to which people believe that 內外控
傾向
they are masters of their own fate
• Machiavellianism (“Mach”)
• 馬基維
– A measure of the degree to which
people are pragmatic務實, maintain
利主義
emotional distance, and believe that
ends can justify means目標可以合理化
任何手段
17
Personality Traits And Work-related
Behaviors (cont’d)
• Self-esteem (SE)
– An individual’s degree of life dislike
for him- or herself
• 自尊
• Self-monitoring
• 自我監
– A measure of an individual’s ability to 控
adjust his or her behavior to external,
situational factors
• Propensity for risk taking
• 冒險傾
– The willingness to take chances—a
向
preference to assume or avoid risk
18
Matching Personalities And Jobs
Person
Performanc
e
Job
19
Personality Characteristics of
Entrepreneurs
• Proactive Personality
– High level of motivation
• Internal locus of control
• Need for autonomy
– Abundance of self-confidence
• Self-esteem
– High energy levels
• Persistence
– Moderate risk taker
• Problem solver
20
Perception知覺
A process by which individuals organize and
interpret their sensory impressions in order
to give meaning to their environment.
• 個人經由整理及解釋感官印象,並賦予環
境意義的過程。
• 每個人對同樣的事物,產生不同的知覺。
21
Influences on Perception知覺的影響
• Personal
• Target
characteristics個 characteristics目標特質
人特質
– Relationship of a target
– Attitudes
– Personality
– Motives
– Interests
– Past
experiences
– Expectations
to its background
– Closeness and/or
similarity to other things
– The context in objects is
seen
– Other situational factors.
22
Perceptual Challenges: What Do You See?
EXHIBIT 8.5
23
Attribution theory歸因理論(How
Managers Judge Employees)
• A theory based on the premise that we judge
people differently depending on the meaning
we attribute to a given behavior解釋我們對於
人的判斷不同,乃基於我們對特定行為有不
同的歸因。
– Internally caused: believed to be under the
control of the individual.內在引發的行為,是那些
被認為在個人控制之下的行為。
– Externally caused: results from outside causes;
having been forced into the behavior by the
situation.外在引發的行為,是外界原因所造成的
結果,也就是個人迫於情境而產生的行為。
24
Interpreting Behavior解讀行為
• Distinctiveness特異性
– Whether an individual displays a behavior in many
situations or whether it is particular to one situation. 是否在
許多不同情境下,或只有在特定情境下,才有這樣的行為表
現。
• Consensus共通性
– If the individual responds in the same way as everyone
else faced with a similar situation responds.每個人面對相
似情境時,是否以同樣的方式應對
• Consistency一致性
– The individual engages in the same behaviors regularly
and consistently over time.是否表現出一致的行為
25
EXHIBIT 8–6 The Process of Attribution Theory
26
Judgment Errors
• Fundamental attribution error基本歸因錯誤
– The tendency to underestimate the influence
of external factors and overestimate the
influence of internal or personal factors when
making judgments about the behavior of
others.
• Self-serving bias自我滿足的偏見
– The tendency for individuals to attribute their
own successes to internal factors while
putting the blame for failures on external
factors.
27
Distortions in Shortcut Methods in Judging
Others判斷扭曲偏頗的情形
Selectivity選擇性
Assumed similarity假設有類同經驗
Stereotyping刻板(先入為主)印象
Halo effect光環效應
Self-fulfilling prophecy自我實現預言
EXHIBIT 8.7
28
Learning學習
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience任何經
由經驗所產生的較持久的行為改變。
Operant conditioning操作性制約(B. F. Skinner)
– Voluntary, or learned, behavior is a function of its
consequences行為是其結果的函數
• Reinforcement強化 increases the likelihood that
behavior will be repeated; behavior that is not
rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.
• Rewards 獎勵are most effective if they immediately
follow the desired response.
29
Learning (cont’d)
• Social learning theory社會學習理論
– People can learn through observation and
direct experience; by modeling the behavior of
others人們經由觀察和直接經驗來學習的理論;
透過模擬別人行為的方式
• Modeling processes
– Attentional processes
– Retention processes
– Motor reproduction processes
– Reinforcement processes
•
•
•
•
注意
留意
動作重現
強化
30
How to Shape Behavior如何塑造行為
• Shaping behavior
– Systematically reinforcing each successive
step that moves an individual closer to a
desired behavior系統化的強化每一系列的步驟,
使個人逐漸趨近目標行為
• Four ways to shape behavior:
– Positive reinforcement
– Negative reinforcement
– Punishment
– Extinction.
•
•
•
•
正向強化
負向強化
處罰
消弱
31
Steps in Shaping Behavior
1. Identify the critical behaviors that have a significant
impact on an employee’s performance.
2. Establish a baseline of performance.
3. Analyze the contributing factors to performance and
their consequences.
4. Develop a shaping strategy.
5. Apply the appropriate strategy.
6. Measure the change that has occurred.
7. Reinforce desired behaviors.
32
Foundations Of Group Behavior
• Group群體
– Two or more interacting and interdependent
individuals who come together to achieve
particular objectives
• Role角色
– A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to
someone in a given position in a social unit某人
在社會中擔任職位的一套行為模式 。
33
Foundations Of Group Behavior
(cont’d)
• Norms規範
– Acceptable standards (e.g., effort and performance,
dress, and loyalty) shared and enforced by the
members of a group群體中成員互相認同的標準
• Status地位
– A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group群體
中較具聲望的成績、職位、階級
• May be informally conferred by characteristics such as
education, age, skill, or experience.
• Anything can have status value if others in the group admire it.
34
Why do People Join Groups?
Security
Status
Self-esteem
Affiliation
Power
Goal
achievement
35
Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study
Solomon Asch and Group Conformity:
Does the desire to be accepted as a part of a group leave one susceptible
to conforming to the group’s norms? Will the group exert pressure that is
strong enough to change a member’s attitude and behavior? According to
the research by Solomon Asch, the answer appears to be yes.
EXHIBIT 8.9
36
Group Effects群體效應
• Social loafing社會虛擲
– The tendency of an individual in a group to
decrease his or her effort because
responsibility and individual achievement
cannot be measured由於個人的責任及成就無
法量測,成員會有降低自己努力的傾向。
• Group cohesiveness凝聚力
– The degree to which members of a group are
attracted to each other and share goals
• Size, work environment, length of time in existence,
and group-organization goal congruency affect the
degree of group cohesiveness.
37
The Relationship Between Group
Cohesiveness and Productivity
EXHIBIT 8.10
38
39