Ancient Rome to 1700’s Augustus-first Roman emperor Pax Romana-peace in Rome for over 200 years. Accomplishments: written laws, aqueducts, roads, and bridges. Hundreds of years of warfare followed Pax Romana. Western empire gradually broke apart. Christian faith-as the empire fell apart, the people of Europe drew strength from Christianity. In such dark times, faith was like a welcoming light. Feudalism-a way to organize society when there is no central government. Lords ruled the local areas. Lords swore loyalty to king. Lord owned land called a manor. Crops, taxes, maintained order and enforced laws, protected the serfs (people who lived and worked on the land) The Renaissance was a time when creative thinking and new technology helped people to more accurately understand their world. Renaissance thinkers explored new worlds and reexamined old ones. Humanists based their studies on the classical cultures of Greece and Rome. Changes in Society -1300, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtaken Europe Catastrophic events, enormous loss of life may have led to changes of the 1300s Decrease in population led to: – Increase in food production – Decline in food prices – More money to spend – Specialization in products A new age had dawned in Western Europe, given expression by remarkable artists and thinkers. Europeans called this age the Renaissance, meaning “rebirth.” It began in the 1300s and reached its peak around 1500. The Renaissance marked the transition from medieval times to the early modern world. A. changing world view 1. Reawakened interest in classical Greece and Rome 2. New emphasis on human experience and Individual achievement B. A spirit of Adventure 1. Looked at universe in new ways 2. Experimented with new forms and techniques C. The Growth of humanism 1. Study of classical Greece and Rome to understand their own times 2. Emphasis on humanities- Rhetoric, poetry, and history During the Renaissance, creative minds set out to transform their own age. Their era, they felt, was a time of rebirth after what they saw as the disorder and disunity of the medieval world. Renaissance thinkers had a reawakened interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome, which medieval scholars had preserved. They continued to use Latin as the language of the Church as well as for scholarship. Yet they produced new attitudes toward culture and learning. Medieval scholars had focused more on religious beliefs and spirituality. In contrast, Renaissance thinkers explored the richness and variety of human experience in the here and now. At the same time, society placed a new emphasis on individual achievement. Indeed, the Renaissance ideal was a person with talents in many fields. The Renaissance supported a spirit of adventure and a wide-ranging curiosity that led people to explore new worlds or to reexamine old ones. In Navigators who sailed across the ocean, scientists who looked at the universe in new ways, and writers and artists who experimented with new forms and techniques all shared that spirit. part, that spirit of adventure came from a new view of man himself. As Italian thinker Pico della Mirandola asserted in 1486: “To [man] it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.” Italy: The Cradle of the Renaissance The Renaissance started in Italy and spread throughout Europe. The Roman Catholic Church and merchants who had grown rich from trade financed the creation of works of art. II. Italy: Cradle of Renaissance A. Italy’s history and geography 1. Rome the seat of Catholic Church, an important patron of the arts 2. Location encouraged trade with markets in Mediterranean and Africa 3. Center of the Roman Empire B. Italy’s vibrant city-states 1. Each city- state controlled by a powerful family and dominated by wealthy merchants 2. Florence was a symbol of the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanists studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome, but used that study to increase their understanding of their own times. Though most humanists were pious Christians, they focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that had occupied medieval thinkers. Humanists believed that education should stimulate the individual’s creative powers. They emphasized the humanities subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry, and history—that had been taught in ancient Greek and Roman schools. Humanities • • • • • Interest in ancient Greek, Roman culture Characteristics of good education Scholastic education gave way to classics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, Greek Subjects came to be known as humanities, movement they inspired known as humanism Humanists emphasized individual accomplishment Roots • • • • Roots traced to work of Dante; work contained glimpses of what would become focus on human nature Historians believe Renaissance began with two humanists who lived after Dante—Giovanni Boccaccio, Francesco Petrarch Both wrote literature in everyday language not Latin Advances were made in medicine, as well as astronomy Francesco Petrarch, a Florentine who lived in the 1300s, was an early Renaissance humanist, poet, and scholar. He assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts in monasteries and churches. In later years his efforts and those of others encouraged by his example enabled the works of Cicero, Homer, and Virgil to again become known to Western Europeans. Italy’s location encouraged trade with welldeveloped markets on the eastern Mediterranean and in northern Africa, as well as in northern Europe. Ships carrying a great variety of goods docked at Italy’s many ports. Extensive banking, manufacturing, and merchant networks developed to support trade. While trade declined throughout most of Europe during the Middle Ages, it remained strong in Italy. Trade provided the wealth that fueled Italy’s Renaissance. Trade routes also carried new ideas, important in shaping the Renaissance. Unlike the kingdoms of most of the rest of Europe, Italy was divided into many small city-states. Each Italian city-state was controlled by a powerful family and dominated by a wealthy and powerful merchant class. These merchant families exerted both political and economic leadership, and their interest in art and emphasis on personal achievement helped to shape the Italian Renaissance. Venice With access to sea, Venice built economy, reputation on trade Had long history of trading with other ports on Mediterranean Sea Shipbuilding prospered, sailors traveled to Near East Wealthy Venetian merchants built unique city, “work of art” Milan, Florence Milan, west of Venice, based economy on agriculture, silk, weapons Florence, to south, famous for banking, cloth Monarchs appealed to Florentine bankers for money to fund wars Merchants refined raw wool into fine cloth Bankers, merchants created city to rival any in Europe The Medici family of Florence, for example, ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe. Cosimo de’ Medici gained control of the Florentine government in 1434, and the family continued as uncrowned rulers of the city for many years. Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo, known as “the Magnificent,” represented the Renaissance ideal. A clever politician, he held Florence together during difficult times in the late 1400s. He was also a generous patron, or financial supporter, of the arts. At Lorenzos invitation, poets and philosophers frequently visited the Medici palace. Artists learned their craft by sketching ancient Roman statues displayed in the Medici gardens. The Medicis’ great wealth and influence transformed Florence. Perhaps more than any other city, it came to symbolize the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance. Like the ancient city of Athens, it produced a dazzling number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists in a relatively short span of time. • • • Early 1500s life in Italy seemed insecure, precarious Church no longer served as source of stability, peace Form of humanism developed from Petrarch’s ideas; focus was secular, was worldly rather than spiritual Service Renaissance Man • Humanists argued that individual achievement, education could be fully expressed only if people used talents, abilities in service of cities. • Ideal Renaissance man came to be “universal man,” accomplished in classics, but also man of action, who could respond to all situations. How to Act • Italian diplomat Baldassare Castiglione wrote book, The Courtier • Described how perfect Renaissance gentleman, gentlewoman should act • Book includes fictional conversation between duke, guests Castiglione’s Advice • Castiglione gave nobles new rules for refined behavior in humanist society • Speak of serious, as well of amusing subjects; know Latin, Greek • Be well-acquainted with poetry, history; be able to write prose, poetry How to Rule • Philosopher, statesman Niccolò Machiavelli also wrote influential book • Experiences with violent politics influenced opinions on how governments should rule in The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) -- “The Prince” The goal of the prince must be power Cynical view of human nature Fear is a better motivator than affection Politics as the art of deception Machiavellian advice seemed to encourage harsh treatment of citizens, rival states Describes Advises men as “ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers” rulers to separate morals from politics Power, ruthlessness more useful than idealism Ruler must do whatever necessary to maintain political power, even if cruel Machiavelli’s theory that “the end justifies the means” deviated from accepted views of correct behavior Idea that state an entity in itself, separate from its ruler, became foundation for later political philosophy Scientific Information • Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical texts • Discovered wealth of scientific information Scientific Challenges Natural World • Focus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography • New ideas about natural world began to be explored also Earth, Sun • Science soon became important avenue of inquiry • Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universe • Church’s teachings about world were challenged, particularly that Earth center of universe • Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun Renaissance art and artists flower A. Reflecting humanist thought 1. Portrayed well-known figures of the day 2. Revived many classical forms B. New artistic techniques 1. Invented perspective 2. Drew From live models C. Architecture became a “social art” 1. Meant to blend beauty with utility and improvement of society 2. Adopted columns, arches and domes favored by Greeks and Romans The arts a reflection of the new humanist spirit Medieval artists—idealized and symbolic representations Renaissance artists depicted what they observed in nature Patrons of the Arts • Medieval times, anonymous artists who worked for church created art • Renaissance artists worked for whoever offered them highest price • Buyers of art, patrons, might be wealthy individuals, city governments, or church • Profit-making became more important than Church doctrine Competition Among Patrons • Wealthy individuals competed, displaying wealth, modernity through purchase of artworks • Florence, Lorenzo de Medici supported most talented artists • Milan, ruling Sforza family benefactors of artists, others • To overcome guilt, profit-makers indulge in philanthropy Renaissance artists wanted to paint the natural world as realistically as possible. Artists Methods • Studied perspective, represented threedimensional objects • Experimented with using color to portray shapes, textures • Subject matter changed; artists began to paint, sculpt scenes from Greek, Roman myths Classical Influence • Religious paintings focused on personality • Humanist interest in classical learning, human nature • Building design reflected humanist reverence for Greek, Roman culture • Classical architecture favored Art started to focus on the individual Humanism- studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome to understand their own time. Focused on worldly subjects rather than on the Religious Issues Humanities- subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry, and history. Focus on man’s free will The depiction of nudes Imitation of nature was a primary goal Pagan scenes and myths were popular subjects with no apologies to the Church Boticelli’s “Birth of Venus” Status of artist is elevated to cultural hero Renaissance art stressed proportion, balance and harmony—and was not otherworldly Artistic problems of perspective and composition addressed Artists started emphasizing the mathematical side of painting --Brunelleschi’s “linear perspective” Linear perspective is a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s. The artist and architect Brunelleschi demonstrated its principles, but another architect and writer, Leon Battista Alberti was first to write down rules of linear perspective for artists to follow Innovations in Renaissance painting The Big Renaissance Artist, Painters, and Thinkers RAPHAEL Raphael (1483-1520) Man of great sensitivity and kindness Died at the age of 37 “The School of Athens” Famous for frescoes in the Vatican Palace A few years younger than Michelangelo, Raphael (1483– 1520) was widely admired both for his artistic talent and “his sweet and gracious nature.” Raphael studied the works of the great masters but developed his own style of painting that blended Christian and classical styles. He is probably best known for his tender portrayals of the Madonna, the mother of Jesus. In The School of Athens, Raphael pictured an imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists, including Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and the Arab philosopher Averroës. With typical Renaissance self-confidence, Raphael included the faces of Michelangelo, Leonardo—and himself. LEONARDO!!!!!!!!!! Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) True Renaissance Man Scientist, inventor, engineer and naturalist Dissected Corpses Short attention span Artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) had an endless curiosity that fed a genius for invention. He made sketches of nature and of models in his studio, and dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work. As a result, Leonardo’s paintings grip people with their realism. The Mona Lisa is a portrait of a woman whose mysterious smile has baffled viewers for centuries. The Last Supper, showing Jesus and his apostles on the night before the crucifixion, is both a moving religious painting and a masterpiece of perspective. Because Leonardo experimented with a new type of paint, much of The Last Supper decayed over the years. However, it has recently been restored. Leonardo thought of himself as an artist. Yet his talents and accomplishments ranged over many areas, including botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering. He made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats centuries before the first airplane or submarine was actually built. Though most of his paintings are lost today, his many notebooks survive as a testament to his genius and creativity. Michelangelo Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Conflict with Pope Julius II Incredible energy and endurance Artist Michelangelo (1475–1564), like Leonardo, had many talents—he was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet. Michelangelo has been called a “melancholy genius” because his work reflects his many life-long spiritual and artistic struggles. In his twenties, he created masterpieces such as David and the Pietà marble. The Pietà which captures the sorrow of the Biblical Mary as she cradles her dead son Jesus on her knees. Michelangelo’s heroic statue of David, the Biblical shepherd who killed the giant Goliath, recalls the harmony and grace of ancient Greek tradition. More Michelangelo One of Michelangelo’s greatest projects was painting a series of huge murals to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. The enormous task, which took four years to complete and left the artist partially crippled, depicted the biblical history of the world from the Creation to the Flood. Michelangelo was also a talented architect. His most famous design was for the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. It served as a model for many later structures, including the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C The significance of Gutenberg’s printing press Explosion of printed materials --By 1500, 40,000 titles printed and between 810 million copies The impact of movabletype printing presses: research and literacy Popular publications in the early days of the printing press Thomas More --Utopia --Executed by Henry VIII in 1535 Erasmus—Dutch Christian Humanist William Shakespeare (1564-1616) --Globe Theater Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and genres His history plays were the most popular at the time Macbeth: ambition Hamlet: individualism Keen sensitivity to sounds and meanings of words 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How was the worldview of the Renaissance different from the worldview of the Middle Ages? How did humanism influence Renaissance painting and sculpture? Who was Petrarch, why is he influential? What are the Humanities? Of the five artists we have studied, who do you think was the most influential to the Renaissance? Why?