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Transcript
```Chapter 7
Propositional and Predicate Logic
1
Chapter 7 Contents (1)








What is Logic?
Logical Operators
Translating between English and Logic
Truth Tables
Complex Truth Tables
Tautology
Equivalence
Propositional Logic
2
Chapter 7 Contents (2)






Deduction
Predicate Calculus
Quantifiers  and 
Properties of logical systems
Abduction and inductive reasoning
Modal logic
3
What is Logic?


Reasoning about the validity of arguments.
An argument is valid if its conclusions
follow logically from its premises – even if
the argument doesn’t actually reflect the
real world:
 All lemons are blue
 Mary is a lemon
 Therefore, Mary is blue.
4
Logical Operators
And
 Or
 Not
 Implies
 Iff

Λ
V
¬
→
↔
(if… then…)
(if and only if)
5
Translating between English and Logic
Facts and rules need to be translated
into logical notation.
 For example:

It is Raining and it is Thursday:
R Λ T
R means “It is Raining”, T means “it is
Thursday”.
6
Translating between English and Logic

More complex sentences need
predicates. E.g.:
It is raining in New York:
R(N)
Could also be written N(R), or even just R.

It is important to select the correct
level of detail for the concepts you
7
Truth Tables
Tables that show truth values for all
possible inputs to a logical operator.
 For example:


A truth table shows the semantics of
a logical operator.
8
Complex Truth Tables

We can produce
truth tables for
complex logical
expressions, which
show the overall
value of the
expression for all
possible
combinations of
variables:
9
Tautology



The expression A v ¬A is a tautology.
This means it is always true, regardless of the
value of A.
A is a tautology: this is written
╞ A


A tautology is true under any interpretation.
An expression which is false under any
10
Equivalence

Two expressions are equivalent if
they always have the same logical
value under any interpretation:
A Λ B  B Λ A

Equivalences can be proven by
examining truth tables.
11
Some Useful Equivalences









A
A
A
A
A
A
A
vAA
ΛAA
Λ (B Λ C)  (A Λ B) Λ C
v (B v C)  (A v B) v C
Λ (B v C)  (A Λ B) v (A Λ C)
Λ (A v B)  A
v (A Λ B)  A
A Λ true  A
A v true  true
A Λ false  false
A v false  A
12
Propositional Logic
Propsitional logic is a logical system.
 It deals with propositions.
 Propositional Calculus is the
language we use to reason about
propositional logic.
 A sentence in propositional logic is
called a well-formed formula (wff).

13
Propositional Logic









The following are wff’s:
P, Q, R…
true, false
(A)
¬A
AΛB
AvB
A→B
A↔B
14
Deduction





The process of deriving a conclusion from
a set of assumptions.
Use a set of rules, such as:
A
A→B
B
(Modus Ponens)
If we deduce a conclusion C from a set of
assumptions, we write:
{A1, A2, …, An} ├ C
15
Deduction - Example
16
Predicate Calculus

Predicate Calculus extends the
syntax of propositional calculus with
predicates and quantifiers:
P(X) – P is a predicate.

First Order Predicate Calculus
(FOPC) allows predicates to apply to
objects or terms, but not functions or
predicates.
17
Quantifiers  and 

 - For all:
 xP(x) is read “For all x’es, P (x) is true”.

 - There Exists:
 x P(x) is read “there exists an x such that
P(x) is true”.

Relationship between the quantifiers:
xP(x)  ¬(x)¬P(x)
“If There exists an x for which P holds, then
it is not true that for all x P does not hold”.
18
Properties of Logical Systems
Soundness: Is every theorem valid?
 Completeness: Is every tautology a
theorem?
 Decidability: Does an algorithm exist
that will determine if a wff is valid?
 Monotonicity: Can a valid logical

19
Abduction and Inductive Reasoning



Abduction:
B
A→B
A
Not logically valid, BUT can still be useful.
In fact, it models the way humans reason all
the time:
 Every non-flying bird I’ve seen before has been a
penguin; hence that non-flying bird must be a
penguin.

Not valid reasoning, but likely to work in many
situations.
20
Modal logic




Modal logic is a higher order logic.
Allows us to reason about certainties, and
possible worlds.
If a statement A is contingent then we say that
A is possibly true, which is written:
◊A
If A is non-contingent, then it is necessarily
true, which is written:
A
21
```
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