Section 6.1 How Do We Reason? We make arguments, where an

... followed by a single statement, called the conclusion. The hope is that we make valid arguments, where an argument is valid if the truth of the premises implies the truth of the conclusion. We can use rules of logic to make valid arguments. The most common rule of logic is modus ponens (mode that af ...

... followed by a single statement, called the conclusion. The hope is that we make valid arguments, where an argument is valid if the truth of the premises implies the truth of the conclusion. We can use rules of logic to make valid arguments. The most common rule of logic is modus ponens (mode that af ...

Logical Fallacies Chart APLAC TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE 1

... The two premises contradict; therefore, the logic is faulty; This fallacy's most popular appearance is in the form of a challenging question, because questions with contradictory premises are such brain teasers. Someone tries to win support for their argument or idea by exploiting her or his opponen ...

... The two premises contradict; therefore, the logic is faulty; This fallacy's most popular appearance is in the form of a challenging question, because questions with contradictory premises are such brain teasers. Someone tries to win support for their argument or idea by exploiting her or his opponen ...

To His Coy Mistress* Andrew Marvell

... • PART 1 – DESIGNED TO MAKE HER LAUGH “HAD” • PART 2 – DESIGNED TO MAKE HER AFRAID ...

... • PART 1 – DESIGNED TO MAKE HER LAUGH “HAD” • PART 2 – DESIGNED TO MAKE HER AFRAID ...

CS 2742 (Logic in Computer Science) Lecture 6

... We will start with a (propositional form of) Aristotle’s classic example of a valid argument (his original version had a quantifier; we will get to that in a few lectures). If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal Socrates is a man ∴ Socrates is mortal Terminology: the final statement is called ...

... We will start with a (propositional form of) Aristotle’s classic example of a valid argument (his original version had a quantifier; we will get to that in a few lectures). If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal Socrates is a man ∴ Socrates is mortal Terminology: the final statement is called ...

Discrete Computational Structures (CS 225) Definition of Formal Proof

... 2. A result of applying one of the logical equivalency rules (text, p. 35) to a previous statement in the proof. 3. A result of applying one of the valid argument forms (text, p. 61) to one or more previous statements in the proof. ...

... 2. A result of applying one of the logical equivalency rules (text, p. 35) to a previous statement in the proof. 3. A result of applying one of the valid argument forms (text, p. 61) to one or more previous statements in the proof. ...

Basic Terms in Logic - Law, Politics, and Philosophy

... E-type: Universal and Negative “Not all philosophers are rich.” ...

... E-type: Universal and Negative “Not all philosophers are rich.” ...

Lecture Notes 2

... mathematicians, is just as rigorous. It consists of sentences describing the situation at hand, the inferences being made, and the justification of each inference. ...

... mathematicians, is just as rigorous. It consists of sentences describing the situation at hand, the inferences being made, and the justification of each inference. ...

`A` now that you can cheat sheet

... You all better get an ‘A’ now that you can cheat sheet Arguments An argument is valid (or logical) if the conclusion is supported by the premises An argument is deductively valid if the truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion (i.e. if it is impossible for the conclusion to be fal ...

... You all better get an ‘A’ now that you can cheat sheet Arguments An argument is valid (or logical) if the conclusion is supported by the premises An argument is deductively valid if the truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion (i.e. if it is impossible for the conclusion to be fal ...

Valid Arguments and Logical Fallacies

... Are these reasons (given to support the conclusion) true? ...

... Are these reasons (given to support the conclusion) true? ...

PHIL 103: Logic and Reasoning QRII Homework #3 Due Monday

... determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the TV remote isn’t working, then John has to change channels manually. John has to change channels manually. The TV remote isn’t working. 2. Translate the following argument into our formal language and then use truth tables to determine whethe ...

... determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the TV remote isn’t working, then John has to change channels manually. John has to change channels manually. The TV remote isn’t working. 2. Translate the following argument into our formal language and then use truth tables to determine whethe ...

Logic primer

... i) Takes simple declarative sentences (i.e., sentences with no logical operators and that are either true or false) as its basic unit: For example, “Mary went to the store” but NOT “Mary did not go to the store”; the negation makes the latter a compound sentence. And NOT “Did Mary go the store?” as ...

... i) Takes simple declarative sentences (i.e., sentences with no logical operators and that are either true or false) as its basic unit: For example, “Mary went to the store” but NOT “Mary did not go to the store”; the negation makes the latter a compound sentence. And NOT “Did Mary go the store?” as ...

MATH 103: Contemporary Mathematics Logic Study Guide

... 17. Practice problems 2.7.2 no. 3b, d, e, h, j in Section 2.7.2. 18. Suppose a conditional statement is TRUE. Write T (True) or F (False) next to each of this statements. Explain your reasoning. (a) Its converse is true. (b) Its converse is false. (c) We cannot tell if the converse is true or false. ...

... 17. Practice problems 2.7.2 no. 3b, d, e, h, j in Section 2.7.2. 18. Suppose a conditional statement is TRUE. Write T (True) or F (False) next to each of this statements. Explain your reasoning. (a) Its converse is true. (b) Its converse is false. (c) We cannot tell if the converse is true or false. ...

Introduction to Proofs, Rules of Equivalence, Rules of

... • An argument is a set of statements, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to follow from the others (the premises). • All statements have a statement form, i.e., they are substitution instances of one of our 5 basic statement forms. ...

... • An argument is a set of statements, one of which (the conclusion) is supposed to follow from the others (the premises). • All statements have a statement form, i.e., they are substitution instances of one of our 5 basic statement forms. ...

The origin of the technical use of "sound argument": a postscript

... premises guarantees (or is intended to guarantee) the truth of the conclusion without appeal to other reasons" (35-36).) The idea that a deductively valid argument with true premisses is a good argument appears in the textbook literature even earlier than 1946, in Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel's ...

... premises guarantees (or is intended to guarantee) the truth of the conclusion without appeal to other reasons" (35-36).) The idea that a deductively valid argument with true premisses is a good argument appears in the textbook literature even earlier than 1946, in Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel's ...

Definition: A proof is a system of reasoning or argument to convince

... 1. Appeals to tendencies because of statistical premises. 2. Lack of counterexample 3. Appeals to authority 4. Appeals to experience 5. Appeals to analogy. ...

... 1. Appeals to tendencies because of statistical premises. 2. Lack of counterexample 3. Appeals to authority 4. Appeals to experience 5. Appeals to analogy. ...

Logical Argument

... (see formal logic). Johnson and Blair (1987) define informal logic as "a branch of logic whose task is to develop non-formal standards, criteria, procedures for the analysis, interpretation, evaluation, criticism and construction of argumentation in everyday discourse." Opinion pieces of newspapers ...

... (see formal logic). Johnson and Blair (1987) define informal logic as "a branch of logic whose task is to develop non-formal standards, criteria, procedures for the analysis, interpretation, evaluation, criticism and construction of argumentation in everyday discourse." Opinion pieces of newspapers ...

1 Chapter 9: Deductive Reasoning

... Given that the validity of deductive arguments derives solely from their form, tools that enable us to examine the formal properties of deductive arguments, abstracting from the particular content of a particular argument, will be useful. Formal logical languages are such a tool. Languages in genera ...

... Given that the validity of deductive arguments derives solely from their form, tools that enable us to examine the formal properties of deductive arguments, abstracting from the particular content of a particular argument, will be useful. Formal logical languages are such a tool. Languages in genera ...

Homework #3 - Jonathan Livengood

... determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the TV remote isn’t working, then John has to change channels manually. John has to change channels manually. The TV remote isn’t working. 2. Translate the following argument into our formal language and then use truth tables to determine whethe ...

... determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the TV remote isn’t working, then John has to change channels manually. John has to change channels manually. The TV remote isn’t working. 2. Translate the following argument into our formal language and then use truth tables to determine whethe ...

Horseshoe and Turnstiles

... is true and ψ is false, and true in all other cases. The double turnstile ‘⊧’ is the symbol for the logical implication. It expresses a (binary) relation between a premise, or a set of premises (Γ), and a conclusion (φ): Γ ⊧ φ. The relation in question can be called ‘following-from relation’ or the ...

... is true and ψ is false, and true in all other cases. The double turnstile ‘⊧’ is the symbol for the logical implication. It expresses a (binary) relation between a premise, or a set of premises (Γ), and a conclusion (φ): Γ ⊧ φ. The relation in question can be called ‘following-from relation’ or the ...

logica and critical thinking

... Fallacies of relevance: When an argument relies upon premises that are not relevant to its conclusion, and therefore cannot possibly establish its truth Fallacies of weak induction: When the connection between premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support the reasoning Fallacies of presump ...

... Fallacies of relevance: When an argument relies upon premises that are not relevant to its conclusion, and therefore cannot possibly establish its truth Fallacies of weak induction: When the connection between premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support the reasoning Fallacies of presump ...

Quiz Game Midterm

... true, it’s valid. If there’s a row where the premises are all true but the conclusion is false, it’s invalid. ...

... true, it’s valid. If there’s a row where the premises are all true but the conclusion is false, it’s invalid. ...

a. p

... Valid and Invalid Arguments Testing an Argument Form for Validity 1. Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument form. 2. Construct a truth table 3. Look at the row when all the premises are true. If the conclusion is true, it is a valid argument. Otherwise it is invalid ...

... Valid and Invalid Arguments Testing an Argument Form for Validity 1. Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument form. 2. Construct a truth table 3. Look at the row when all the premises are true. If the conclusion is true, it is a valid argument. Otherwise it is invalid ...

Introduction to Logic

... Formal Language • Formal logic replaces the ordinary language of argument with a symbolic language. • This language is meant to be free of all ambiguity and vagueness. • The language is meant to wear its logical structure on its face. • Our formal languages: SL and QL. ...

... Formal Language • Formal logic replaces the ordinary language of argument with a symbolic language. • This language is meant to be free of all ambiguity and vagueness. • The language is meant to wear its logical structure on its face. • Our formal languages: SL and QL. ...