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Transcript
Ch15 HW Hints
SA1
1. Fossils reveal _______________ between extinct and living species and include some
forms that have features _______________ (ties them together) major groups.
2. They indicate a _______________ ancestry, and individuals with those features have
higher _______________ (can produce more viable offspring)compared to individuals
without them.
3. Complex _______________ (the molecules of living things) found in diverse species
probably did not evolve independently. Therefore, they indicate common_______________ .
4. _______________ evidence centers around the anatomy of a species, and
_______________ evidence centers around the bio-molecular chemistry of the species.
5. Birds and dinosaurs shared a common_______________ .
6. Taking the complete dose can help to prevent antibiotic_______________ . By taking
the complete dose, harmful variations have a decreased chance of_______________ , which
decreases the likelihood of a relapse of the disease.
SA2
1.
Describe one new line of evidence supporting evolution that scientists learned
after Darwin's book was published.
2.
List three of the conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle.
3.
Discuss factors that can lead to speciation.
4.
Indicate which pattern of evolution is shown by the many species of finches on the
Galapagos Islands.
SA3
1._______________ (studies inheritance), _______________ drift, _______________
equilibrium, or other reasonable answers.
2. Answers should include three of the following: _______________ populations,
_______________ mating, no _______________ (in) or_______________ (out),
no_______________ (random changes in genes), no _______________ selection.
3. An _______________ mechanism such as geological separation.
4. _______________ radiation or _______________ evolution
CA
1. _______________ is a mechanism for species change over time.
2. _______________ _______________ was used to produce purebred Chihuahuas and cocker
spaniels.
3. _______________ _______________ by members of a population with favorable
adaptations is a mechanism for a theory developed by Charles Darwin.
4. Which best describes the prevailing view about the age of Earth and evolution before
Darwin's voyage on the HMS Beagle? (think opposite of Darwin’s)
A. Earth and life are recent and have remained unchanged.
B. Species evolved rapidly during the first six thousand to a few hundred thousand
years.
C. Earth is billions of years old, but species have not evolved.
D. Species have evolved on Earth for billions of years.
5. Which statement about the tortoise would be part of an explanation for tortoise
evolution based on natural selection? (think fitness)
A. All tortoises look like the above tortoise.
B. Tortoises with domed shells have more young than tortoises with flat shells.
C. All the tortoises born on the island survive.
D. The tortoise shell looks nothing like the shell of either parent.
6. Darwin's theory of evolution by using an example: Each population has individuals
with_______________ . Individuals with the most _______________ variations are more
successful at survival and reproduction. Their variations eventually become the
_______________ in the population.
7. Short Answer How is artificial selection similar to natural selection? Both are
examples of_______________ (changes over time). However, _______________ selection is
directed by humans selecting the variations. _______________ selection is directed when
the environment selects the variations to be passed on to the next generation.
Think Critically
8. Sequence Sequence events leading to evolution by natural selection.
1. Populations produce individuals with inheritable_______________ .
2. Populations produce more _______________ than can survive.
3. Individuals with _______________ variations for a particular environment
survive and reproduce at a greater rate.
4. Desirable variations _______________ in the population over time.
9. What is the likely evolutionary effect on a species of an increase in global
temperatures over time? Some species will likely respond by evolving _______________ to
the increasing temperatures over time. Others may _______________ to remain in the same
climatic conditions. Others may become _______________ if they cannot adapt.
10. _______________ ______________ that have a reduced function in an organism are
analogous structures.
11. _______________ is a measure of the relative contribution an individual trait
makes to the next generation.
12. _______________ occurs when two or more species evolve adaptations to resemble
each other.
13. These organisms (no recent common ancestor) have similar features that are
considered what kind of structures?
A.
vestigial
C. analogous
B.
homologous
D. comparative
14. The photo of the bird above shows what kind of morphological adaptation (blends
in)?
A.
vestigial organ
C. mimicry
B.
camouflage
D. analogous structure
15. Which is not an example of a morphological adaptation (one sounds biochemical)?
A.
Cytochrome c is similar in monkeys and humans.
B.
Butterflies evolve similar color patterns.
C.
A harmless species of snake resembles a harmful species.
D.
Young birds have adaptations for blending into the environment.
16. Industrial melanism (color change) could be considered a special case of which of
the following?
A.
embryological adaptation
B.
mimicry
C.
physiological adaptation
D.
structural adaptation
18. Describe how cytochrome c (a complex molecule found in many different and
seemingly unrelated species) provides evidence of evolution.
19. What can be concluded from the fact that many insects no longer are resistant to
certain pesticides? (changes in genes over time)
20. Why are fossils considered to provide the strongest evidence supporting evolution?
(think changes, links, and many geographical locations)
21. State a hypothesis, control, and include artificial selection of a desirable trait
22. Think of Darwin’s finches and the mechanism
23. One species evolves over millions of years to become two different but closely
related species (a little bit over time)
24. A species evolves into a new species without a physical barrier.
25. The random changes in gene frequency found in small populations (towards one
trait)
26. The graph above best represents which kind of selection?
A. directional
B. disruptive
C. sexual
D. stabilizing
27. The plant in the above illustration looks like a cactus, but is classified in a
completely separate group of plants. This would be an example of which mechanism?
(think changes to a similar structure that is syccessful)
A. adaptive radiation
B
disruptive selection
C. convergent evolution
D. punctuated equilibrium
Constructed Response
28. Why is the Hardy-Weinberg principle often violated in real populations. (All or
most of the parts of this principle are violated)
29. Sea stars eat clams by pulling apart the two halves of a clam's shell. Discuss how
this could result in directional selection of clam muscle size. (Which ms would have a
tendency to survive?)
30. Compare and contrast genetic drift and natural selection as mechanisms of
evolution. _______________ ______________ is a random consequence of small population
size. _______________ _______________ is determined by environmental conditions and is
therefore definitely not random.
Hints word bank:
ADAPTATIONS
ADAPTIVE
HERITABLE
RANDOM
ANCESTOR
IMMIGRATION
REPRODUCTIVE
ANCESTRY
INCREASE
RESISTANCE
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
INHERITED
SELECTION
BENEFICIAL
ISOLATING
SELECTIVE BREEDING
BIOCHEMICAL
LARGE
SHARED
DESIRABLE
LINKING
SIMILARITIES
DIRECTIONAL
MAJORITY
SPECIMENS
DIVERGENT
MIGRATE
SURVIVAL
EMIGRATION
MIMICRY
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION
EVOLUTION
MORPHOLOGICAL
VARIABLE
EXTINCT
MUTATION
VARIATION(S)
FITNESS
NATURAL
VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
FOSSILS
NATURAL SELECTION
WALLACE
GENETIC
OBSERVATIONS
YOUNG
GENETIC DRIFT
OFFSPRING
GRADUALISM
PUNCTUATED