Download Lesson 4: Early Civilizations of Middle America The Mayan

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Human sacrifice in Aztec culture wikipedia , lookup

Aztec Empire wikipedia , lookup

Aztec religion wikipedia , lookup

National Palace (Mexico) wikipedia , lookup

Aztec cuisine wikipedia , lookup

Aztec society wikipedia , lookup

Lesson 4: Early Civilizations of Middle America
1) The Mayan Civilization
A. Mayan Farming and Science
Mayan farmers grew Maize (corn) as their main food. They also grew beans and squash.
They also created a calendar, a system of writing, and a numeral system.
B. The Great Mystery of the Mayans
Around 900 A.D. the Mayans disappeared. No one knows the exact cause for it.
Millions of Mayans still live in modern day Central America.
2) The Aztec Civilization
A. Aztecs Expand their Empire
The Aztecs invaded other nearby lands and forced them to pay tribute (food, cotton, gold, or slaves).
There were several classes in Aztec society. Nobles and Priests, Warriors, Traders, and Farmers
B. Other Aztec Accomplishments
Aztec doctors made medicines, astronomers predicted eclipses, priests wrote in hieroglyphs.
They changed the swampy Lake Texacoco into their capital city.
3) The Incan Accomplishments
A. Roads and Aqueducts
The Inca built 14,000 miles of roads. They were used to govern, send messages, and help trade goods.
They also created aqueducts to carry water to dry areas from a distant source
B. Government and Records
The King controlled the Nobles, and the Nobel’s taxed their citizens. Citizens work for the government.
They didn’t have a written language. They used recorded information on quipus (strings with knots on them).
C. Religion and Descendants
Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas worshiped multiple gods.
The Incas were conquered by the Spanish in 1,500A.D., but their descendants can still be found in South America.
Homework: When talking about the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca, does that make you think that every society declines sooner or later? 6 Sentence.
Lesson 5: European Conquest
1) Europeans Arrive in the Americas
A. Columbus Reaches America
Christopher Columbus left Spain in search for a new route to Asia.
In 1492, he landed in Central America thinking it was the Indies. He called the people Indian.
B. Dividing the World
Spain and Portugal became rivals at claiming land in the New World, they even tried to stop each other.
They signed the “Treaty of Tordesillias” spitting Latin America in half. Portugal got the east, Spain the west.
2) A Clash of Cultures
A. Cortez Conquers the Aztecs
Cortez came to Mexico in search of treasure. He had an army of Conquistadors with him.
The Aztec leader Montezuma at first welcomed Cortez and his amazing entourage.
Fighting broke out and Montezuma lost to Cortez and his allies, the people the Aztec’s picked on.
B. Pizarro Conquers the Incas
Similarly, Pizarro conquered the Inca like Cortez did with the Aztec.
The Spanish had the advantages of iron, horses, and the European diseases they brought with them.
3) Colonization
A. Spain Organizes Its Empire
Spain divided its territory onto Providences. They included New Spain and Peru.
Cities were divided by classes. Spanish born in the center, then Mestizos (mixed race), then Natives.
B. The Effect of European Rule
Natives were forced to work on Haciendas (farms) or mines. They also had to pay taxes.
In the first 50 years of Spanish the Native population went from 25 Million to 3 Million in New Spain.
Homework: Graph – Create a circle graph that you think represents what happened to the natives.
Lesson 6: Independence
1) Independence in Mexico
A. The “Cry of Dolores”
Miguel Hidalgo was a criollo (native born Spaniard) priest in the town of Dolores Mexico.
He wildly rang church bells and cried out to the people to rebel against the Spanish.
The rebels were defeated and Hidalgo was caught. He was executed for treason and is still remembered today.
B. Independence Finally Comes
Small rebel groups kept fighting the Spanish even after Hidalgo.
Agustin de Iturbide, a Spanish army officer, went over to the rebels and led them to victory.
2) South American Independence
A. Bolivar and San Martin: The Liberators
Simon Bolivar led the Venezuelan people to independence against the Spanish.
Jose de San Martin led the Chilean people to independence by surprising the Spanish on the sea.
When Bolivar and San Martin met, San Martin quit and turned his forces over to Bolivar.
B. Brazil Takes a Different Route to Freedom
In the early 1800’s, France invaded Spain and Portugal back home in Europe.
Portugal’s royal family fled to Brazil, but when they returned one of the King’s sons stayed behind.
The son, Dom Pedro, one year later declared Brazil independent. Portugal said O.K.
3) Challenges of Independence
A. Simon Bolivar dreamed of making South America into “The United States of South America.”
B. South America was just too big to pull it off, so the idea was abandoned.
C. South America became ruled by strict military men who only wanted to stay in power and be rich.
Homework: Write an article for a newspaper as if you are an embedded journalist following Bolivar or San Martin. What is going on?
Include a Headline, a picture, and six sentences of writing.
Lesson 7: Issues in Latin America Today
1) Foreign Investment
A. In the Mid-1900’s, most companies in Latin America were owned by or worked for foreign companies.
B. The Foreign companies made huge profits, but didn’t help out the Latin American countries.
C. Latin American countries borrowed money to try and build their economies. They have lots of debt now.
2) Facing Economic Challenges
A. Latin American countries have made rules limiting foreign investments and purchases.
B. Latin American countries are also encouraged to work together instead of competing against each other.
3) Land Distribution
A. Dividing the Land
Most of the land in Latin America is owned by wealthy families. They even keep the best parts.
Poor farmers have campesinos (small farms) that usually have poor growing conditions.
B. Using and Protecting the Land
Brazil moved peasants to the rainforest to encourage them to farm. They were cutting the rainforest down.
The Brazilian government is still trying to find a balance to this issue even today.
4) The Move to the City
A. Around the 1950’s the poor farmers started moving back into the cities to find work.
B. The population in urban areas has gone up the most during this population explosion.
Homework: Should the Brazilian farmers who own the land they live on be allowed to cut down the part of the rainforest on their land
so that they can make a living for their families? 6 Sentence Response.