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Transcript
Dr. Nancy J. Aguinaga
http://cstl-coe.semo.edu/naguinaga/
WHAT IS
Autism Spectrum Disorder?
 What is your preconceived
notion or idea when you hear or
see the term autism?
 Preconceived feelings?
WHAT IS
Autism Spectrum Disorder?
 The fastest growing diagnoses of




childhood (from ‘91 to ‘99-up 1108%)
Very complex, often baffling
developmental disability
First described by Leo Kanner in 1943
as early infantile autism
“Auto” – children are “locked within
themselves.”
For next 30 years, considered to be an
emotional disturbance
WHAT IS ASD?
 Today, autism is a severe form of a broader group of
disorders
 These are referred to as pervasive developmental
disorders
 Typically appears during the first 3 years of life
 Expressed very differently – a wide range of abilities,
strengths and limitations.
WHAT IS ASD?
 Neurological in origin – not emotional, not the
refrigerator mom
 Prevalence figures vary (1 in 166 in text)
1:110
NOW
 4 times more prevalent in boys
 No known racial, ethnic, or social boundaries
 No relation to family income, lifestyle
WHAT IS ASD?
 Autism impacts normal development of the brain in
areas of social interaction and communication
skills and behavior.
 Difficult to communicate with others and relate to the
outside world.
 Occasionally, aggressive and/or self-injurious behavior
may be present.
WHAT IS ASD?
 May exhibit repeated body movements (hand
flapping, rocking).
 Unusual responses to people
 Attachment to objects
 Resistance to change in routine
 Sensory sensitivities
WHAT ARE THE TYPES?
 Actually, the “umbrella” heading is Pervasive
Developmental Disorder (PDD).
 Autism is one of the 5 PDDs. For now – DSM IV
 All have commonalities in communication and social
deficits
 Differ in terms of severity
 Differ in IQ levels
 DSM 5 - ASD
1. Autistic Disorder
 Impairments in social interaction, communication,
and imaginative play.
 Apparent before age 3.
 Also includes stereotyped behaviors, interests, and
activities
 Autism added to the DSM III in 1980
2. Asperger’s Disorder
 Impairments in social interactions, and presence of
restricted interests and activities
 No clinically significant general delay in language
 Average to above average intelligence
 Hans Asperger – a Vienese medical student– 1944 – his
work not translated into English until 1981 and entered
into the DSM IV in 1994
3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not
Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
 Often referred to as atypical autism
 Used when a child does not meet the criteria for a
specific diagnosis, but there is severe and pervasive
impairment in specified behaviors
 Entered into the DSM IV in 1987 revision
4. Rett’s Disorder
 Progressive disorder which, almost exclusively occurs
in females
 Period of normal development and then the loss of
previously acquired skills
 Also loss of purposeful use of hands, which is replaced
by repetitive hand movements
 Beginning at age of 1-2 years, typically in first 5 months
 Characterized by head growth deceleration and loss of
previously acquired skills between 5-48 months
 Entered into the DSM IV in 1994
5. Childhood Disintegrative
Disorder
 Normal growth and development prior to manifesting
social interaction (generally the first 2 years)
 Then significant loss of previously acquired skills in at
least 2 of the following areas(language, social skills,
adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control, play, or
motor skills) before the age of 10
 Entered into the DSM IV in 1994
IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act
 Autism was not an official disability category under
federal education law until 1990
 Before this services were received under other
categories such as ID(MR), OHI , or BD
Conclusions on Types
 Autism is a spectrum disorder
 This means that symptoms and characteristics can
present themselves in wide variety of
combinations, from mild to severe
 Individuals with autism can be very different from
each other
 Kluth “2003” “If you know one person with autism,
you know ONE person with autism”
http://vodpod.com/watch/4313806-paula-kluthautism
 “Autism” is still commonly used to refer to any of
the 5 PDDs
Cause?
 Good agreement in general that autism is caused by




abnormalities in brain and central nervous system
development (typically result in over or under reactions to
various sensory stimuli)
May include chemical exposure, viral and genetic factors
Vaccines? – NO NO NO
Currently no medical test to confirm
A diagnosis is made by behavioral observations
Famous People with Autism
People on the spectrum have made some of the greatest
contributions to the world we know…
http://vodpod.com/watch/1570669-who-has-autismfamous-google-video?u=naguinaga&c=naguinaga
Dr. Temple Grandin