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Transcript
Geography:
Mapping Skills
&
Map Making
Social Studies
Map and Geographic
Skills
Unit 1 Vocabulary—Map and Graph Skills
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Absolute location
atlas
bar graph
cardinal directions
cartographer
circle graphs
climographs
compass rose
density
distortion
Equator
Mercator Projection
intermediate directions
latitude
legend (key)
line graph
longitude
orientation Physical map
Polar projection
political map
relief
population maps
scale
primary resource
map
Prime Meridian
globe
relative location
Robinson Projection
Scale
• Shows the ratio between
a unit of length on a
map and a unit of
distance on the earth
Lines of latitude
• Imaginary lines that
measure distance north
and south of the equator
Lines of Longitude
• Imaginary lines that
measure distance east
and west of the Prime
Meridian
Relative Location
• Describes a place in
comparison to other
places around it
Orientation
• Direction -- usually
shown on a map using a
compass rose or
directional indicator
Sources of geographic
information
• Geographic Information
Systems (GIS), field work,
satellite images, photographs,
maps, globes, data bases,
primary sources
Mental Maps
• Help people carry out daily
activities (ex. Route to
school or the store)
• give directions to others
• understand world events
4 ways mental maps can be
developed and refined
• Compare sketched maps to
more formal maps such as
those in an atlas or book
• Describe the location of
places in terms of reference
points (the equator or
Prime Meridian
4 ways mental maps can be
developed and refined cont.
• Can describe the location
of places in terms of
geographic features and
land forms (ex. West of the
Mississippi River, or north
of the Gulf of Mexico)
4 ways mental maps can be
developed and refined cont.
• Describing the location of
places in terms of the
human characteristics of a
place ( ex: languages, types
of housing dress, recreation,
customs or traditions
What are the standard methods
of showing information on a
map
• Symbols
• Colors
• Lines
• Boundaries
• Contours
Thematic Maps
• Thematic maps show a
theme or a particular idea.
There are many different
types.
Types of Thematic maps
• Population density
• population distribution
• economic activity
• resources
• languages
• ethnicity
Types of Thematic maps cont.
• Climate
• precipitation
• vegetation
• physical
• political
Ways map can show change
• Changes in Knowledge
–Map of Columbus’s time
–Satellite images
• changes in Place Names
–Formosa, Taiwan, Republic of
China
–Palestine, Israel, Occupied
Territories
Ways map can show change cont.
• changes in Boundaries
–Africa in the 1910s and in
the 1990s
–Europe before WWII and
after WWII and since 1990
Ways map can show change cont.
• Changes in perspectives of
place names--Arabian Gulf v.
Persian Gulf
–Sea of Japan v. East Sea
–Middle East v. North Africa and
Southwest Asia
Ways map can show change cont.
• Changes in Disputed areas-Korea
–Western Sahara
–Former Yugoslavia
–Kashmir
Map Projections
• Three types of map projections
–Mercator
–Polar
–Robinson
• All three types have
distortion
Map Projections cont.
• You can distort area, shape,
distance and direction
• A Mercator projection is best
used for ship navigation
because of the nice straight
lines
Mercator projection
• Nice Straight lines
Map Projections cont.
• A Polar projection is best used
in airplane navigation. It is
easy to plot the Great Circle
Routes used to fly long
distances
• A Robinson projection is best
used for data representation.
Most of the maps in textbooks
are Robinson projections
Robinson Projection
• Latitude lines are straight. Longitude lines
are curved.
Pie Chart
• Used to
show parts
of a whole
or
percentages
Bar graph
• Used to
show items
East
in relation to
West
North
others
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
Line Graph
• Used to
show loss or
gain or
information
over several
time frames
Population Pyramid
• Shows the
population of a
country or region.
Allows you to
break into male
and female and
by age groups
Climograph
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
• J F M
0
A M J J
A S
• Shows precipitation and
temperature averages over a
one year period
Practical applications of Geography
• Recycling programs
• conversion of land
• airport expansion
• bicycle paths
• water sources
• air quality
• mass transit
Mapping It Out
Social Studies Online
Introduction
Blueprint Skill Geography Grade
2
–Recognize that a map
contains elements such as
title, scale, symbols,
legends, grids, and
cardinal and intermediate
directions.
What’s on a map?
• Maps have a lot of
information, but you need to
know how to read them.
There are several parts to a
map which explain details and
help you really see where you
are and where you're going.
Legend
• Maps often have
symbols to
represent such
features as
highways, small
roads,
campgrounds,
and rest areas.
These symbols
are listed in the
legend.
Compass
• The compass
shows the
directions on a
map: north,
south, east,
and west.
Index
• The index tells
you where to
find a specific
place on a map.
Depending on
the size and type
of map you're
using, the index
can help you
locate a city,
town, or street.
Scale
• The scale helps
you measure the
distance
betweeen two
places. When
you know the
distance you can
calculate how
long the trip will
take.
Resources
• What’s on a map?
• Map Adventures (handout)
Social Studies:
Introduction to maps
What is a map?
• A generalized view of an area, usually
some portion of Earth’s surface, as seen
from above at a greatly reduced size
• Any geographical image of the
environment
• A two-dimensional representation of the
spatial distribution of selected
phenomena
Why make maps?
• To represent a larger area than we can
see
• To show a phenomenon or process we
can’t see with our eyes
• To present information concisely
• To show spatial relationships
Represent a larger area
Show
what
we
can’t
see
Present info concisely
Show spatial
relationships
How do we read maps?
• Maps are selective views of reality
• Size of the map relative to reality
(scale)
• What’s on the map (symbolization)
• Shape of the map (projection)
Map scale
• Ratio of the distance on the map to the
distance on the ground
• Scale is a fraction
• Larger area covered means larger
denominator
• Larger denominator means smaller
fraction
• So a large-scale map covers a small
area
Large-scale
Small-scale
Map scale
• Ratio of the distance on the map to the
distance on the ground
1. Graphic:
• Stays the same when photocopied
• Might not be right for the whole map
Map scale
1. Verbal:
1 inch equals 10 miles
• Easy to understand
• Can change if photocopied
Map scale
1. Representative fraction or ratio:
1:24,000
• Units don’t matter
• Can change if photocopied
Map symbolization
• Symbols are a code instead of text
• Three kinds: point, line, area
• Consider shape, size, orientation,
pattern, color, value
Point symbols
• Every symbol counts as one occurrence
• Qualitative points
– Indicate location
– Can also describe that location
• Quantitative points
– Show a distribution
– Indicate a value (graduated symbols)
Indicate location
Describe location
Show a
distribution
Indicate a value
Line symbols
• One-dimensional
• Mostly taken for granted (borders,
roads)
• Isolines connect same values
• Flow-line maps indicate value by width
of line
Isolines
(Contour
lines)
Flow-line maps
Area symbols
• Each territory or region has one value
• Differences in kind
• Differences in value
– Choropleth maps
– Usually, darker indicates more
• Cartograms distort area to show value
Differences in kind
Differences in kind
Differences in value
(Choropleth)
Cartogram
Topographic maps
• Also called quadrangles
• Nearly 54,000 for the U.S.
• Done by the US Geological Survey
(USGS) since 1897
• Map out the entire country in a
standard fashion
Topographic maps
• Till the 1940s, you climbed to the
highest point and plotted what you
could see from there
• Aerial photography after WWII
• Two overlapping photos are put in a
stereoscope
• 10 photos for each 7.5 minute map
Topographic maps
• Show 2D features, point, line and
area; also show 3D via contour lines
• Common symbols are in the appendix
of the text
• Note the contour interval at the
bottom of the map
Map-reading exercise
Class 1b:
Introduction to maps
What is a map?
• A generalized view of an area, usually
some portion of Earth’s surface, as seen
from above at a greatly reduced size
• Any geographical image of the
environment
• A two-dimensional representation of the
spatial distribution of selected
phenomena
Why make maps?
• To represent a larger area than we can
see
• To show a phenomenon or process we
can’t see with our eyes
• To present information concisely
• To show spatial relationships
Represent a larger area
Show
what
we
can’t
see
Present info concisely
Show spatial
relationships
How do we read maps?
• Maps are selective views of reality
• Size of the map relative to reality
(scale)
• What’s on the map (symbolization)
• Shape of the map (projection)
Map scale
• Ratio of the distance on the map to the
distance on the ground
• Scale is a fraction
• Larger area covered means larger
denominator
• Larger denominator means smaller
fraction
• So a large-scale map covers a small
area
Large-scale
Small-scale
Map scale
• Ratio of the distance on the map to the
distance on the ground
1. Graphic:
• Stays the same when photocopied
• Might not be right for the whole map
Map scale
1. Verbal:
1 inch equals 10 miles
• Easy to understand
• Can change if photocopied
Map scale
1. Representative fraction or ratio:
1:24,000
• Units don’t matter
• Can change if photocopied
Map symbolization
• Symbols are a code instead of text
• Three kinds: point, line, area
• Consider shape, size, orientation,
pattern, color, value
Point symbols
• Every symbol counts as one occurrence
• Qualitative points
– Indicate location
– Can also describe that location
• Quantitative points
– Show a distribution
– Indicate a value (graduated symbols)
Indicate location
Describe location
Show a
distribution
Indicate a value
Line symbols
• One-dimensional
• Mostly taken for granted (borders,
roads)
• Isolines connect same values
• Flow-line maps indicate value by width
of line
Isolines
(Contour
lines)
Flow-line maps
Area symbols
• Each territory or region has one value
• Differences in kind
• Differences in value
– Choropleth maps
– Usually, darker indicates more
• Cartograms distort area to show value
Differences in kind
Differences in kind
Differences in value
(Choropleth)
Maps
The World Political
• Political maps show how people have
divided places on the Earth into
countries, states, cities and other units
for the purpose of governing them.
The World Physical
• Physical maps show what the surface
of the Earth looks like.
Oceans of the
World
• The world has four major oceans.
•
•
•
•
Atlantic
Pacific
Arctic
Indian
Arctic
ocean
Pacific
ocean
Atlantic
ocean
Indian
ocean
Global Climates
• Students generally associate Arctic and
Antarctic with cold weather, so
students could make the observation
that the climate at the poles is cold.
This map shows the general climate
regions of the world.
World Religions
• Religious beliefs help define a people’s
culture, so to understand a people, it is
important to consider what religions
influence that group.
Map Review
• What is the purpose of a Political map?
To show borders of countries, states,
cities
Map Review
• What is the purpose of a Physical map?
• Physical maps show what the surface
of the world looks like
Map Review
• What are the four major oceans of the
world?
• Atlantic
• Pacific
• Arctic
• Indian
Map Review
• Why is it important to understand a
peoples religion?
• because religion helps shape their
culture
Latitude and Longitude
►The
earth is divided into lots of lines
called latitude and longitude.
Lines
►Longitude
lines run north and south.
►Latitude lines run east and west.
►The lines measure distances in
degrees.
Latitude
Longitude
Where is 0 degree?
►The
equator is 0 degree latitude.
►It is an imaginary belt that runs
halfway point between the North Pole
and the South Pole.
Equator
P
M
E
R
R
I I
D
► The prime meridian Mis 0
I degrees
longitude. This imaginary
E A line runs through
N
the United Kingdom, France,
Spain, western
Where is 0 degree?
Africa, and Antarctica.
Hemispheres
►By
using the equator and prime
meridian, we can divide the
world into four hemispheres,
north, south, east, and west.
Compass
►A compass is a tool that helps
the user know what direction
one is headed.
►On a map, a compass or a
compass rose helps the user
locate these directions.
Compass Rose
►The
needle on a compass is
magnetized to point to the earth's
north magnetic pole. Thus with a
compass, a person can roughly tell
which direction they are headed.
►There are four major or cardinal
directions on a compass- north, south,
east & west. In between are the
directions northeast, northwest,
southeast, southwest.
► Direction
Quiz
Source: http://aerocompass.larc.nasa.gov
Directions
► The
cardinal directions are north, south,
east, and west.
► The intermediate directions are northeast,
southeast, southwest and northwest.
► They help describe the location of places in
relation to other places.
Scale
►Maps
are made to scale; that is, there
is a direct connection between a unit of
measurement on the map and the
actual distance.
►For example, each inch on the map
represents one mile on Earth. So, a
map of a town would show a mile-long
strip of fast food joints and auto
dealers in one inch.
Scale
Time Zones
►The
Earth is divided into 24 time
zones, corresponding to 24 hours in a
day.
►As the earth rotates, the sun shines in
different areas, moving from east to
west during the course of a day.
►Places that have the same longitude
will be in the same time zone.
Map Legends
► The
legend is the key to unlocking the
secrets of a map. Objects or colors in the
legend represent something on the map.
Religions
Legend
Can you understand this legend?
Age Expectancy
Legend
Sites to visit
Look up Latitude and Longitude for US Cities
► Maps and Map Skills Degrees, Latitude, & Longitude
Worksheet
► Latitude and Longitude Map (lesson plan)
► Scale
► Time Zones
► Anchors Aweigh (a map adventure)
► Map Quiz
► Make Your Own Map
► Topography Maps
► U. S. Map Collection
► GeoSpy Game
► Globe Projector
► GeoGame
►