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Chapter 6
Views of Earth
Section One - Landforms
A. Plains – large, flat areas which often have
thick, fertile soil and grassy meadows
1. Coastal plains stretch along coastal areas
and are often called lowlands.
2. Interior plains are in the central part of a
Section One - Landforms
B. Plateaus – flat, raised areas of land made
up of nearly horizontal rocks; their edges
rise steeply from the are around them
Section One – Landforms…continued
C. Mountains tower above the surrounding
1. Folded mountains form when rock layers are
squeezed from opposite sides, causing the
rock layers to fold like a rug pushed up
against the wall.
2. Forces inside Earth push the crust up to form
upwarped mountains.
Section One – Landforms…continued
3. Fault-block mountains form when tilted
blocks of rock are separated by faults from
the surrounding rock.
4. Layers of molten material pile up forming
cone-shaped volcanic mountains.
Section Two - Viewpoints
A. Latitude and longitude lines identify
exact locations on Earth by means of
an imaginary grid system; when
starting a location latitude always
comes before longitude.
Latitude – lines running parallel to the
Running from the North Pole through
Greenwich Observatory near London,
England, the prime meridian is the
reference point for lines of longitude,
distances in degrees east or west.
East lines of longitude meet west lines
of longitude at the 180° meridian,
which is opposite the prime meridian.
Section Two – Viewpoints…continued
B. Earth is divided into 24 time zones, each
about 15° of longitude wide and exactly
one hour different from the zones on
either side of it.
C. Calendar dates begin and end at
midnight; the International Date Line is
located at the 180° meridian.
Section Three - Maps
A. Map projections are made when points and lines
on a globe’s surface are transferred onto paper; all
projections distort the shapes of landmasses.
Mercator projections, used mainly on ships, project
lines of longitude parallel to each other, resulting in
area distortions but correct continent shapes.
Section Three - Maps
A Robinson projection keeps lines of latitude parallel
and lines of longitude curved, resulting in less
distortion near the poles.
Conic projections are made by projecting points and
lines from a globe onto a cone and are useful for
relatively small middle-latitude regions.
Section Three – Maps… continued
B. A topographical map models
the changes in Earth’s surface
1. Contour lines connect points of
equal elevation.
2. Index contours are marked with
their elevation.
3. The map scale is the relationship
between the distances on the map
and the distances on Earth’s
4. A map legend explains symbols
used on a map.
5. A map series includes maps that
have the same dimensions of
latitude and longitude.
Section Three – Maps… continued
Geologic maps show the arrangement of
rocks at the Earth’s surface; computers
can generate three-D views of Earth’s
surface features.
Portion of the "Geologic Map of Monterey
30'x60' Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas,
California Geological Survey CD 2002-04
The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping
Program produces geologic maps of areas being
classified for mineral resources (mineral land
classification), and of areas where naturally occurring
mineral hazards (asbestos, mercury, and radon) are
more likely to occur.
Section Three – Maps… continued
Often using satellites, remote sensing
allows scientists to collect information
about the Earth.
1. Landsat satellites take pictures of Earth’s
surface using different wavelengths of light.
2. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses 24
satellites sending position and time signals to
allow a person to calculate his or her exact