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Transcript
Management of Technology
科目名称:Marketing for Management of Science and Technology
Executive Summary
Management of Science and Technology (MOST) has always been an integral part
of Marketing. However, Science and Technology have emerged in this new
millennium as the most important driver of future events unprecedented in scale
and impact. This course therefore, has been designed to refocus on the importance
and relevance of MOST to the successful implementation of Marketing and vice
versa.
Naturally, the ultimate objective of this course is to assist students to develop
creative, productive, and strategic thinking skills and the ability to apply all these
skills in order to deal effectively with constantly emerging new realities in both the
global and local markets.
The course consists of 14 modules, including the first module for warm-up.
Additional materials such as Six Thinking Hats and Mind Maps are provided for
workshops or practices to enhance thinking skills and creativity of students.
This course and all the teaching materials have been developed over the past
year while actually teaching three courses at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University.
Namely: International Marketing for senior undergraduate students, Marketing for
MBA students, and Marketing Strategies also for MBA.
Consequently, this course covers a broad range of topics, from basic marketing
concepts to a higher level of strategic management tools such as game theory,
scenario planning, and real options. Although the course is divided into 13 months,
the volume of the content is not equally divided. In fact the volume is quite heavy
for modules 9 through 12 and teaching only the last three modules (module 10, 11,
and 12) in some depth could take a whole semester. Instructors are therefore
requested to pick up the contents most appropriate for their audience and make
their own teaching plan.
The cases provided in this course are either written by me or by my students. As a
matter of fact, this course has still much room for improvement in many ways. For that
your feedback will be highly appreciated. The case method is strongly encouraged for
teaching this course and the cases provided in this course or those from other
sources could be utilized.
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Management of Technology
Teaching Notes
1. Development of this course and its implications for teaching:
This course and all the teaching materials have been developed over the past year
while actually teaching the students the three courses at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific
University. Namely: International Marketing for senior undergraduate students,
Marketing for MBA students, and Marketing Strategies also for MBA.
Consequently, this course covers a broad range of topics, from basic marketing
concepts to a higher level of strategic management tools such as game theory,
scenario planning, and real options. Although the course is divided into 13 months,
the volume of content is not equally divided. In fact the volume is quite heavy for
modules 9 through 12 and teaching only the last three modules (module 10, 11, and
12) in some depth could take a whole semester. Instructors are therefore requested
to pick up the contents most appropriate for their audience and make their own
teaching plan.
The cases provided in this course are either written by me or by my students or
borrowed from periodicals such as Fortune magazine and Business Week. As a
matter of fact, this course has still much room for improvement in many ways. For
that your feedback will be highly appreciated.
2. Teaching Approach:
To ensure that the course is presented in a way that encourages constructive
two-way communication between students and lecturers:
1)
Lecture sessions should be structured in an interactive format where
students are encouraged to raise questions and make comments or
suggestions either during the class or at a later time.
2)
Students should be encouraged to make a short presentation related
to the topics being covered in the lectures, either voluntarily or upon
request from the lecturer.
3)
Use of the case method is strongly encouraged for teaching this
course, providing students with the opportunity to learn from real
world examples, and to engage in discourse and decision making in a
simulated setting, to help develop a real understanding of the
processes and issues that must be mastered in order to develop a
strategic mind set. The cases provided in this course (which are listed
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Management of Technology
in a separate document together with relevant module numbers) as
well as the cases from other sources could be used for that purpose.
For the use of the case method, please refer to “Making a Genuine
Case Method Feasible at APUBS”.
3. Brief Summary of Each Module:
Module *: Course Warm-up
This module is to unlock the mental locks of students in order to prepare them
for the course – mentally and physically. The warm-up exercises introduced here,
especially abdominal breathing, would actually be useful to start each class.
Module 1: Course Overview
Module 1 defines the course content and the target audience. It presents the aim
of marketing, while highlighting the importance of Management of Science and
Technology (MOST). It shows first that MOST has always been an integral part of
marketing. Then it emphasizes that MOST has emerged as the most important
driver of future events, unprecedented in its scale and impact, thus becoming a
central part of marketing. At the end of this module, students will let go of their
perceived notions about marketing and enter a completely new world of marketing.
The focus of this module is to open up the student’s mind and widen their horizons,
while inviting them to start the practice of marketing as a science and, more
importantly, as an art.
Module 2: Marketing Management
Module 2 is the run-up to the basic theory of marketing. This module will focus on
the essence of marketing and its processes. Various definitions of marketing and
marketing management philosophies are presented. The highlight of this module is
the innovative marketing equation that encapsulates marketing. The marketing mix
4P’s along with the 4C’s is another highlight. After this module, which is meant to
be an overview of marketing, students will be ready to proceed to more specific
topics of marketing.
Module 3: Market Oriented Strategic Planning
This module’s focus is on strategy, a word profusely used but rarely understood
in depth. It starts with why market orientation is essential. Then the importance of
developing inspiring mission statements is emphasized drawing on some excellent
examples.
The module also analyses the business environment for the organization and
points out the external forces of business in a macro and microenvironment. The
internal forces are also viewed through SWOT analysis. The module highlights
strategy formulation and a number of old famous oriental strategies are introduced.
They are expected to inspire the student to learn more about strategic thinking,
which in fact has long been deeply rooted in human history
Module 4: Markets and Buying Behavior
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Management of Technology
“What is a market?” is the first topic of this module. Then factors affecting
consumer-buying behavior are explained: namely, cultural, social, personal, psycho
graphical factors. Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs will be an ideal food for
thought to deepen student’s understanding of human needs. Consumer buying
behavior and buying decision process are also discussed. The two cases included in
this module will be appropriate for class discussion.
Module 5: Marketing Information Systems
Module 5 is about Marketing Information Systems (MIS) and it highlights
Marketing Research as the essence of MIS. Various research techniques are
mentioned and explained in this module, and the hurdles of different research
techniques is also mentioned. After completing this module, the student can discuss
on the various methods and techniques of marketing research and the kind of
information needed to be successful in marketing. In particular, students would have
become much more wary of various pitfalls in marketing research. Active class
discussion and student input are essential for the understanding of this module.
Module 6: STP Strategy
This module focuses on STP analysis. Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
are the essence of a company’s marketing strategy and this module will help the
student understand how a company actually reaches its target audience or target
customer with what appeals. Different methods of these techniques are explained in
this module and particular emphasis has been placed on the USP of a company
under its positioning strategy. The students are then encouraged to think and
create the USP of their own or their future company.
Module 7: Product Strategies
Reaching a clear understanding of “What a product is” is essential to the deep
understanding of Marketing. This module first provides a clear-cut answer to that
question. Then it proceeds to product strategy including product mix decision and
branding. Service is an integral part of product and is given a due weight in this
module. Product lifecycle and innovation are also discussed in some depth.
Module 8: Pricing and Distribution Strategies
Pricing is the most important aspect of a good marketing strategy (because it is
the only P that brings in money to the company) and therefore a lot of emphasis has
been given on different types of pricing techniques and methods. Factors that
affect pricing decisions such as elasticity of product demand are explained in some
depth.
Distribution is another important pillar of this module. The nature of distribution
channel and distribution functions is discussed. The drastic changes that are taking
place in distribution due to the advancement of IT and their ramifications are
discussed in Module 10.
Module 9: Marketing Communication Strategies
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Management of Technology
Designing and managing integrated marketing communications are the focus of
this module. Then each element of the communications mix (advertising, sales
promotion, public relations and publicity, personal selling, direct marketing) is
covered one by one. The Keynesian beauty contest practice will track students to
evaluate advertisements from the customer’s viewpoint.
Module 10: IT and Marketing
This module focuses on how IT has drastically changed marketing. First, the need
for a new marketing paradigm is emphasized. Then the interrelationship of so called
e-commerce, e-business, and e-marketing is classified. IT has also dramatically
affected the STP processes. The 11 Immutable Laws of Internet Branding vividly
show the unique characteristics of Internet marketing. A new marketing mix has to
be worked out being fully aware of the possibilities and limits of the Internet. The
ultimate question is about the future: how IT would affect the human life?
Module 11: Managing Uncertainty
This module focuses on how we can manage uncertainty. We start with the
anatomy of the future, especially the residual uncertainty. Then we move on to the
choice of strategic postures and moves. Introduction to Decision Science is
intended to familiarize students with decision making under uncertainty.
Furthermore, this module provides advanced managerial tools such as Scenario
Planning, Real Options. How to cope with pitfalls of emerging technologies and
disruptive technologies are also included for effective management of science and
technology.
Module 12: Strategic Management in the Asia Pacific
This module is designed to provide students with basic frameworks for strategic
management in the Asia Pacific. Developing expertise on how to form and manage
strategic alliances effectively is a sine qua non for any business planners concerned
with the region. The same applies to portfolio management. Therefore, several
portfolio models are introduced. But students need to be cautioned against the
limitations/pitfalls of these models.
A good understanding of the game theory would also help. More important is the
practice to utilize it in business. For that, several cases written by students are
included.
A deep understanding of value and supply chain management and Balanced
Scorecard also help managers not only to develop effective strategies but also to
put them into action.
The following case is very relevant to this module: Strategic Management in
China – The case of CIMIC Corporation.
Module 13: Course Wrap-up
This last module brings students back to the very question with which we started
the whole course: what is marketing? Through the discussion of criticisms levelled
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Management of Technology
at marketing, students are expected to see the forest that they may have lost sight
of because of many marketing trees in the course. They have yet to answer the
fundamental question: what are our highest needs? The comparison of Economics
and Marketing will shed some light for deeper understanding of marketing. The three
maxims of marketing are the wrap-up of this course.
February 2004
Aki TAKAMOTO
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
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