Download Click here to view animation.

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Roman Republican currency wikipedia, lookup

Ancient warfare wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Ruspina
January 4, 46 BC
Strategic Context
In 49 BC, civil war fractures the Roman Empire as Julius Caesar and Pompey struggle for control. In 48 BC, Pompey
is defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalus and pursued to Egypt where he is killed by King Ptolemy XIII. Despite
Ptolemy’s death, the Pompeians continue to build up forces in North Africa under the command of Metellus Scipio,
Titus Labenius, and King Juba of Numidia. After side quests in Egypt and Pontus, Caesar finally returns to Rome, puts
down a mutiny in his veteran legions, and lands in North Africa in December 47 BC. With most of his army yet to
arrive, Caesar launches a major foraging expedition south to sustain his forces until his fleet arrives with
reinforcements and supplies. Labenius’ largely Numidian army is also awaiting reinforcements as the main Pompeian
army under Scipio is only a few days away. Labenius surprises Caesar’s small Roman army as it forages, forcing
Caesar to quickly form a battle line.
To view animation on PC: hit F5
To view animation on Mac: hit ⌘ + enter
Stakes
+ A Roman victory would give Caesar
time for the rest of his forces to arrive in
North Africa and meet Scipio and
Labenius in a decisive battle.
+ A Numidian (Pompeian) victory would
destroy Caesar’s small army or at least
push it away from the sea, ending its
chances of being reinforced.
By Jonathan Webb, 2013
Ruspina, 46 BC
Strength
Romans
Numidians
Julius Caesar
Titus Labienus
9,000 heavy infantry
150 archers
400 cavalry
20,000 light infantry
11,200 cavalry
Well
Well
By Jonathan Webb, 2013 ©
Roman Empire c. 49 BC
The battlefield consists of a flat, arid plain with few if any features. The Roman camp is well off-map to the north.
N
Numidians (Pompeians)
(Labenius)
Romans
(Caesar)
With
Labenius
the Roman
deploys
army
his
light
Numidian
there
troops
is aforward
at
lull
in
center,
the
fighting
infantry
with
and
neither
cavalry
side
interspersed;
attacking.
The
heplans
places
Numidians
hisextricate
heavier
are
content
German
shower
andNumidians
Gallic
the
cavalry
Romans
onwith
the
Labenius
sends
his
Numidian
light
cavalry
to
throw
their
javelins,
then
retreat
as
some
Roman
infantry
break
ranks
to
attack
them.
The
Labenius’
Caesar’s
Caesar
quickly
launches
troops
intent
forms
are
issurrounded,
one
not
tiring
his
last
to
army
envelop
but
attack
dusk
back
and
with
isthe
into
approaching
hit
his
columns
the
exhausted
Roman
tounder
retreat
flanks
cavalry
which
back
however,
cover
and
to camp
some
he
but
to
but
infantry
completely
covers
to
tolittle
force
surround
distance
histo
the
army.
the
before
Caesar
Roman
Petreius
orders
back,
army.
wings. Labenius
missiles,
panicking
plans
some
tothen
surround
of Caesar’s
the less
Roman
experienced
army,
troops,
wear as
it
while
down
with missiles
can only
towait
provoke
out
the
a panicked
Numidian
rout.
supply
Caesar
of missiles
deploys
and
his the
infantry
cover
inof
a
Numidian
light infantry
advance
to
launch
theirthen
missiles
the Caesar
unshielded
right
side
of the
Roman
infantry.
Labenius’
German
and
Gallic
As
every
and
wounding
Caesar
Piso
second
arrive
orders
Petreius
cohort
with
his
in
more
infantry
to
the
turn
Numidian
process.
to
not
its
rear
advance
light
This
and
cavalry
last
past
attack
effort
to
their
rally
to
allows
cohort’s
support
the
Caesar
Numidians
standard,
the
to
cavalry’s
retreat
and
the
harass
Numidians
attack
to
camp
the
on
Roman
unmolested,
each
surround
end
rear.
the
of
the
small
Numidian
Roman
long
dusk.
thin
Caesar’s
line
to
personal
try
and
match
presence
the
Numidian
maintains
line;
the
morale
he
places
of
his
few
troops
archers
for
now.
in
front
It
is
of
during
his
infantry
this
lull
and
in
fighting
his
cavalry
that
on
Labenius
the
wings.
is
Caesar
wounded
is
by
surprised
one
of
cavalry advance as well, pushing back the outnumbered Roman cavalry, which are careful not to be enveloped as per Caesar’s orders.
army.
encirclement.
commanders
opting
The
Roman
to draw
attack
off
their
is successful,
forces.
forcing
the
Numidians
back in confusion.
by the
the
veteran
appearance
Roman
of
legionnaires
the
Numidians
when
and
a javelin
plans
to
fells
hold
hisfast
horse
and
while
simply
taunting
preserve
thehis
Roman
army. troops.
N
Numidians (Pompeians)
(Labenius)
Romans
Numidians
Infantry
Light infantry
Archers
Light cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
Romans
Numidians
(Julius Caesar)
(Pompeians)
9,000(Titus
heavy
Labenius)
infantry
20,000
150 archers
light infantry
11,200
400 cavalry
cavalry
Symbol guide
Romans
(Caesar)
Ruspina, 46 BC
Casualties & Aftermath
Romans:
Numidians (Pompeians):
≈400
≈1,200
or
or
4%
4%
Scipio and the main Pompeian army arrived shortly after the battle, harassing and
challenging Caesar’s army to battle. Caesar declined each time, maneuvering until his
reinforcements arrived, bringing his army up to full strength. Caesar finally gave battle in
April 47 BC at Thapsus where he decisively defeated the Pompeians, killing most of its
leadership including Scipio, Petreius, Cato and Juba. Labenius escaped to join Pompey’s
sons in Spain. Caesar defeated them at the Battle of Munda in 45 BC to end the war, but
was assassinated the following year.
By Jonathan Webb, 2013
The Art of Battle:
Animated Battle Maps
http://www.theartofbattle.com
By Jonathan Webb, 2013