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Biology 30 Reading Notes
Section 13.3
Hormonal Regulation of the Stress Response
The human body has ______ adrenal glands, which are located on top of
the __________________. Each gland is composed of an ___________
layer (the adrenal __________________) and an _____________ layer
(the adrenal __________________.) The adrenal cortex produces
hormones that are __________________ in __________________ and
__________________ from the hormones produced by the adrenal
The Adrenal Medulla: Regulating the Short Term Stress Response
The adrenal medulla produces two closely related hormones:
__________________ and __________________. (AKA
__________________ and __________________). These hormones
regulate a __________-________ stress response that is commonly
referred to as the ________-________-_________response.
In response to a __________________, neurons of the ______________
nervous system carry a signal from the __________________ directly to
the __________________ __________________. These neurons (rather
than __________________) stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete
__________________ and a small amount of __________________.
Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of
epinephrine and norepinephrine?
These hormones trigger an increase in __________________ rate,
________ rate, _________ pressure, blood flow to the heart and
__________________, and the conversion of __________________ to
__________________ in the liver.
At the same time, the ___________ of the eyes _____________ and
blood flow to the extremities __________________. Epinephrine acts
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is ___________ because
it is under __________________ __________________ control. Although
the __________________ effects are similar to those of the
__________________nervous system their __________________ on the
body lasts about 10 times longer.
The Adrenal Cortex: Regulating the Long-Term Stress Response
The stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex trigger the
__________________ __________________ responses that make up the
________-__________stress response.
The ____________________________ increase blood sugar, and the
___________________________ increase blood pressure.
The __________________ __________________ also secretes a small
amount of ______ ____________called __________________________,
which supplement the hormones produced by the __________________
(testes and ovaries)
Can you draw the two negative feedback loops for short-term and longterm stress responses?
Cortisol is the most abundant __________________. Cortisol is a steroid
hormone synthesized from __________________.
When the brain detects danger, it directs the __________________ to
secrete a releasing hormone. This stimulates the __________________
pituitary gland to secrete __________________ __________________
ACTH targets the ____________ _________, which causes the release of
the stress hormone ______________. The main function of cortisol in the
body is to _________ the blood glucose levels. Cortisol also prompts the
__________________ of fat cells, which also release
Increased cortisol levels in the blood cause negative feedback on the
__________________ and __________________ pituitary which
suppresses ACTH production and stops the release of _______________.
Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of blood
glucose levels?
The principal __________________ is a hormone called _____________.
If the adrenal cortex is damaged, __________________ disease can
result. The body secretes __________________ amounts of
__________________ and __________________. A person with this
condition needs to be treated within days, or the severe electrolyte
imbalance will be ___________.
Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of blood
mineral levels?