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Biology 30 Reading Notes Section 13.3 Name:______________________ Hormonal Regulation of the Stress Response The human body has ______ adrenal glands, which are located on top of the __________________. Each gland is composed of an ___________ layer (the adrenal __________________) and an _____________ layer (the adrenal __________________.) The adrenal cortex produces hormones that are __________________ in __________________ and __________________ from the hormones produced by the adrenal medulla. The Adrenal Medulla: Regulating the Short Term Stress Response The adrenal medulla produces two closely related hormones: __________________ and __________________. (AKA __________________ and __________________). These hormones regulate a __________-________ stress response that is commonly referred to as the ________-________-_________response. In response to a __________________, neurons of the ______________ nervous system carry a signal from the __________________ directly to the __________________ __________________. These neurons (rather than __________________) stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete __________________ and a small amount of __________________. Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine? These hormones trigger an increase in __________________ rate, ________ rate, _________ pressure, blood flow to the heart and __________________, and the conversion of __________________ to __________________ in the liver. At the same time, the ___________ of the eyes _____________ and blood flow to the extremities __________________. Epinephrine acts __________________. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is ___________ because it is under __________________ __________________ control. Although the __________________ effects are similar to those of the __________________nervous system their __________________ on the body lasts about 10 times longer. The Adrenal Cortex: Regulating the Long-Term Stress Response The stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex trigger the __________________ __________________ responses that make up the ________-__________stress response. The ____________________________ increase blood sugar, and the ___________________________ increase blood pressure. The __________________ __________________ also secretes a small amount of ______ ____________called __________________________, which supplement the hormones produced by the __________________ (testes and ovaries) Can you draw the two negative feedback loops for short-term and longterm stress responses? Cortisol Cortisol is the most abundant __________________. Cortisol is a steroid hormone synthesized from __________________. When the brain detects danger, it directs the __________________ to secrete a releasing hormone. This stimulates the __________________ pituitary gland to secrete __________________ __________________ (_______). ACTH targets the ____________ _________, which causes the release of the stress hormone ______________. The main function of cortisol in the body is to _________ the blood glucose levels. Cortisol also prompts the __________________ of fat cells, which also release __________________. Increased cortisol levels in the blood cause negative feedback on the __________________ and __________________ pituitary which suppresses ACTH production and stops the release of _______________. Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of blood glucose levels? Aldosterone The principal __________________ is a hormone called _____________. If the adrenal cortex is damaged, __________________ disease can result. The body secretes __________________ amounts of __________________ and __________________. A person with this condition needs to be treated within days, or the severe electrolyte imbalance will be ___________. Can you draw the negative feedback loop for the production of blood mineral levels?