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1900-1920 Changes
Who were the Progressives?
What reforms did they seek?
How successful were
Progressive Era reforms in the
period 1890-1920?
Consider: political change, social change (industrial conditions, urban life, women, prohibition)
WHEN? “Progressive Reform Era”
1917 1920s
WHO? “Progressives”
urban middle-class whites: managers &
professionals; women, African Americans
WHY? Address the problems arising from:
industrialization (big business, labor strife)
urbanization (slums, political machines, corruption)
immigration (ethnic diversity)
inequality & social injustice (women & racism)
WHAT are their goals?
Democracy – government accountable to the
Regulation of corporations & monopolies
Social justice – workers, poor, minorities
Environmental protection
Government (laws, regulations, programs)
value experts, use of scientific study to
determine the best solution
Writers, muckrakers expose issues
Coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906
Ida Tarbell
Lincoln Steffens
US journalist whose
exposed the abuses of
industrial monopoly of
The Story of a Great
Monopoly 1881
Alerted the public to the
need for antitrust
legislation and served
as a model for the new
genre of muckraking
American newspaper
reporter, social reformer
and photographer
How the Other Half
Lives 1890
Shocked the conscience
of his readers with
factual descriptions of
slum tenement
conditions in New York
McClure’s magazine
journalist was an
investigative reporting
pioneer; Tarbell exposed
unfair practices of the
Standard Oil Company,
leading to a U.S. Supreme
Court decision to break
its monopoly.
The History of Standard
Oil Co. 1904
Journalist, lecturer and
political philosopher
Shame of Our Cities 1904
Revealed the shortcomings
of the popular dogmas that
connected economic success
with moral worth, and
national progress with
individual self - interest
Clergyman, Protestant, organizer and
leader of the Social Gospel
Called for ending social injustice
Supported all races
Women’s rights
Christianity could help stop the evils
brought on by industrialization,
urbanization and immigration
Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its
Present Crisis
American progress has problems
American philosopher and educator who as a
founder of the philosophical movement known
as pragmatism
The usefulness, workability, and practicality of
ideas, policies and proposals are the criteria of
their merit
Action/experience over fixed doctrine,
Leader of education in the United States
American inventor and
engineer who is known as the
father of scientific
His development of this
system has influenced the
evolution of modern industry
Cut down on wasted time and
motion and heavily impacted
the development of mass –
production techniques (time,
money, efficiency)
Also known as Taylorism
In Taylor’s view, the task of the
factory management was to
determine the best way for the
worker to do the job
Provide the proper
tools/training and to provide
incentives for good performance
Timed workers with a stopwatch
to determine which job and
motions were essential
Workers become FAR more
productive when following a
machinelike routine
American Philosopher and
First educator to offer
psychology course in the U.S.
His work will influence social
groups who have been
American novelist who was
famous for his practice of
The adaptation of science to
literature and art
Wrote unflinching presentations
of real – life subject matter
1900 Book: Sister Carrie, idea
that even if you make it to the
top, you might still be naturally
miserable (poor-rich)
His novels exposed the social
problems that had arisen in a
rapidly industrializing America
Invented an improved oil
pumping mechanism
Introduced a host of
employee benefits
Eight hour working day
Profit sharing
Paid vacations
Minimum wage
Christmas bonuses
Recreational facilities
His guide in dealing with
employees was known as
the “Golden Rule”
Kindergarten (German idea) prep students for
public school 1880s
1880’s mandatory state laws coming into
Must attend year to year education
Junior high and senior high created
Currently we have Kindergarten-12th
Teacher training schools
Build teachers to teach curriculum
Methods: Teach reading writing and
1865 England
William Booth (minister to
general) and wife Catherine
Mission to take care of the poor,
homeless, hungry and destitute
Through violence and protest, his
message about Christianity and
helping the poor spread
Women and men helped
1880s reached America
(The New-York Historical Society)
Republican President
Energy and excitement
Spanish-American War
President McKinley
assassinated 1901 and
Roosevelt took over and
elected in 1904.
1912 Progressive Party
“Bull Moose Party” &
1902 Anthracite Coal
Miners Strike
“Square Deal”
Anthracite miners at Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1900
Anthracite Coal Strike in PA over pay, working
conditions and hours.
Roosevelt acted as mediator between Union and
Anthracite Coal Co.
First time that a president had intervened publicly,
at least implicitly, on the side of the workers
Wanted a “Square Deal” between businesses and
workers (remember Roosevelt’s square teeth S.M. quote)
big business would not exploit/take advantage of
workers and workers would gain protection
Helped create the Department of Labor under
President Taft in 1913
Theodore Roosevelt
Active federal intervention
to promote social justice
and the economic welfare
or the underprivileged
Called for an increase of
federal power to regulate
interstate industry and a
sweeping program of
social reform designed to
put human rights above
property rights
Essentially, was a reauthorization of the
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
Imposed heavy fines on railroads that
offered rebates and upon shippers who
accepted those rebates
Northern Securities Company (1904)
“good trusts” and “bad trusts”
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906)
Federal Govt. can set maximum railroad rates and extend its
Major earthquake with a
magnitude of 7.9 that
occurred on April 18th,
1906 at 5:12 a.m.
At least 700 people were
Started a fire that
destroyed the central
business district
Investigative undercover
Most famous and enduring
muckraking novel
Exposed the conditions of the
Chicago Stockyards and
meat-packing process. The
book revealed the working
and unsanitary conditions of
the meatpacking industry
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle had a
profound effect on consumer
protectionism. President Roosevelt
passed two important laws
Chicago Meatpacking Workers, 1905
"A nauseating job, but it must be done"
Preventing the manufacture,
sale, or transportation of
adulterated or misbranded
or poisonous foods, drugs,
medicines, and liquors, and
for regulating traffic therein,
and for other purposes.
Prohibited the sale of
adulterated or misbranded
livestock and derived
products as food and ensured
that livestock were
slaughtered and processed
under sanitary conditions
Law reformed the industry,
mandating that the USDA
inspect all cattle, swine, sheep,
goats, and horses both before
and after they were
slaughtered and processed for
Newlands Act
(1902) - federal
Bureau of
Reclamation set up
in Interior Dept. to
build interstate
irrigation projects in
arid lands
Basically, every river
in the west was
Large bank
program for farmers
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
President can set aside forest reserves
from land in the public domain
U.S. Forest Service (1906)
Runs national forests and grasslands
Gifford Pinchot
Theodore Roosevelt and
Gifford Pinchot, 1907
First head of U. S. Forest Service
Advocated for planned use and
White House conference on
conservation -1908
John Muir
Conservationist author
Helped to preserve Yosemite
and Sequoia National Park
Roosevelt &
John Muir at
Roosevelt stepped down
and wanted friend
Republican William
Howard Taft to run
Prior job: Secretary of War
Democrat William
Jennings Bryan
Postcard with Taft cartoon
Standard Oil
forest and oil
Propose income
(Taft has) “…completely
twisted around the policies
I advocated and acted
-Theodore Roosevelt
BUT: Caused split in
Republican Party
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
Bill that increased tariffs and
called for fewer business
Opposite of what Republicans
wanted so it really angered
Roosevelt will leave
Progressives begin to
withdraw support from
president Taft as a result of
this bill
The Act extended the
authority of the Interstate
Commerce Commission to
regulate the
Designated telephone,
telegraph and wireless
companies as common
Goal of feds to strengthen
the federal governments
regulatory control over the
railroad industry
Occurred on March 25th, 1911
in a New York City sweatshop
Started a national movement
in the United States for safer
working conditions
129 women (mainly
immigrants) and 17 men
Many workers actually leapt
from the windows to their
Overloaded fire escape
collapsed and the firetruck
ladders were only able to
reach six stories
Ideas came from Europe
Late 1800s ideas that went against Capitalist
industries that hurt the workers
State or group ownership of property
More regulation and equal distribution of
Cooperatives are a type of “all benefit for the
common good” ideas
Industrialists and Republicans feared
Eugene Victor "Gene" Debs was an
American union leader, one of the
founding members of the
Industrial Workers of the World,
and ran as candidate of the
Socialist Party of America for
President of the United States 5x
1900, 1904, 1908, 1912
Once even ran for president while
in prison (1920)!
Republicans split!
Taft’s policies made Roosevelt leave the
Republicans and start run for President under the
Progressive Party!
Nicknamed: Bull Moose Party
“New Freedom”
Restore unfettered opportunity for
individual action and to employ the
power of the government on behalf
of social justice for all
Underwood Simmons Tariff (1913)
Sixteenth Amendment (1913)
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
Federal Trade Commission Act
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
Keating-Owen Act (1916)
Wilson at the peak of his power
Revenue Act of 1913
Reimposed the federal
income tax following the
ratification of the 16th
Also, lowered the tariff
rates of the Payne –
Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909
Sponsored by Alabama
Representative Oscar
Congress had the power to collect and levy a
federal income tax!
municipal reform
utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys
Local executive reform (mayor) council-manager
plan (Dayton, 1913) introduced
Shoe line - Bowery
men with gifts from
ward boss Tim
Sullivan, February,
strong mayor system
council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913)
American Senator who
fought against the
unfair business practices
of large corporations,
particularly the
Was also a strong antiwar advocate against
US involvement in
World War I
Republican Robert M. La
House of Reps
Governor of Wisconsin
secret ballots
direct primary
Senator 1906-1925
Seventeenth Amendment
Progressive Party 1924
Anti-Political bosses, trusts,
WWI, & League of Nations
Robert M. LaFollette,
Wisconsin Governor 1900-06
A specified number of voters may
petition to invoke a popular vote on
a proposed law or an amendment to
the constitution
A statute or constitution requires
that certain classes of legislative
action be referred to a popular vote
for approval or rejection
Method of election in which voters
can oust an elected official before
his official term has ended
Minimizes the influence of political
parties on elections
Provided for the direct
election of US senators
by the voters of the
states, rather than the
appointment of senators
by the state legislatures
The amendment reflected
popular dissatisfaction
with the corruption and
inefficiency that had
come to characterize the
legislative election of US
senators in many states
Federal Reserve System or The FED
Central banking authority of the United States
Commercial banks are accountable to the FED
Oversees the supply of currency and inflation
in the U.S.
Makes loans to commercial banks
Federal Reserve Act
Charged with preventing unfair or deceptive
trade practices
Regulates advertising, marketing, and
consumer credit practices
Has no authority to punish violators, can only
make their violations public
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was the first
Act to prohibit trusts and outlaw monopolistic
business practices.
The new 1914 act provided further
clarification on topics such as price
discrimination, price fixing and
unfair business practices.
Companies could not buy stock
from other companies. Feds back
The Acts are enforced by the Federal Trade
Commission (FTC) and the Antitrust Division of
the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).
workplace & labor
eight-hour work day
improved safety &
health conditions in
workers compensation
minimum wage laws
child labor laws
Triangle Shirtwaist
Factory Fire, 1913
Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works,
Midnight, Indiana. 1908
Child Laborer, Newberry, S.C. 1908
“Breaker Boys” Pennsylvania, 1911
Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co.
Bay St. Louis, Miss., March 3, 1911
Prohibited the sale in interstate
commerce of goods produced by
factories that employed children
under fourteen, and mines that
employed children younger than
sixteen, and any facility where
children under fourteen worked
after 7:00 p.m. or before 6:00 a.m.
or more than 8 hours daily.
Jane Addams
Most settlement house workers were: middle
class, educated women, religious
Opened doors for women to lead and
Social Gospels: religious faith should be
expressed with hard work; churches help
solve societies issues
Social Gospels went against the Social
Darwin “only strongest survived”
Temperance Crusade
Women’s Christian
Temperance Union (WCTU)
Anti-Saloon League
Frances Willard (1838-98),
leader of the WCTU
Anti-Saloon League Campaign, Dayton
Ideals started in 1850s
Alcohol is killing the family and safety of the
society resulting in higher crimes, accidents,
divorce, violence and death.
Women and religious leaders would push for
The leading organization
lobbying for prohibition in
the United States in the early
20th century.
More power than Woman’s
Christian Temperance Union
and Prohibition Party
Prior to Prohibition
Smash taverns with a
Refused to wear a
Baseball player
Evangelist Christian
Attracted large audiences
among the wealthy
Influential sermons helped
gain support for prohibition
The amendment to the US Constitution that
imposed a federal prohibition of Alcohol
This image cannot currently be display ed.
Eighteenth Amendment
Prohibition on the Eve of the
18th Amendment, 1919
Minnesota Representative Andrew J. Volstead
Federal enforcement of 18th Amend.
The act outlawed the export, sale or possession of
alcoholic beverages was prohibited within
the United States
Alcoholic beverages that contained more than onehalf percent of alcohol
Federal agents were empowered to investigate and
prosecute violators
Congress Passed and Democrat Wilson vetoed.
Congress would override the veto
19th Amendment
National Woman’s Party members picketing in front of the White House, 1917
(All: Library of Congress)
Women’s Rights/suffrage
1872 First female candidate
for President of the U.S.; no
electoral votes
Advocate for free love: free to
marry, divorce, bear children
without government
American women’s Suffrage
leader who campaigned for
the 19th amendment
Served as president of the
National American Women
Suffrage Association and
was the founder of the
League of Women Voters
National American Women
Suffrage Association NAWSA
Formed in 1890
Goal was Suffrage for
American Women
American Woman who introduced the first
equal rights amendment campaign in the
United States
Advocated the use of militant tactics to
publicize the need for a federal woman
suffrage amendment to the US Constitution
Considered the NAWSA too timid
Formed the Congressional Union for Woman
Suffrage which later became the National
Woman’s Party
Held protests and demonstrations in front of the
White House
Silent sentinels
Picketed the White House and held banners demanding
the right to vote
Were arrested and sent to Occoquan Workhouse in
Would be harassed and sometimes beaten while
Paul was arrested for seven months
Began a hunger strike to protest the awful conditions of
the prison and was forced to eat; she was fed raw eggs
through a feeding tube
Women finally gained the right to vote to
or women’s referred to as women’s
Originally coined by the philosopher Charles
The belief in the social, economic, and political
equality of the sexes (wait until 1960s)