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Transcript
From www.bloodjournal.org by guest on June 17, 2017. For personal use only.
Iron
Absorption
By
SIMEON
: Effects
POLLACK,
LTHOUGH
the
increases
substances
mechanism
iron
depends
on
and
to
metabolic
in’estigae
substrates
its
in
ability
to
this
and
chelate
Reducing
AND
been
action
rats,
and
KAUFMAN
have
of
absorption
Sugars
NI.
RICHARD
many
tion,
of
iron.4
shown
to
CROSBY
increase
iron
Fructose,
been
We
possible
relationships
and reducing
agents
H.
WILLIAM
is obscure.
it has
Agents
suggested
proposed
to
example,
that
test
between
the
on iron absorption.
ahsorp-
for
its
this
effect
hypothesis,
effects
of
various
METHOD
Iron
jug
absorption
200-350
The
animals,
ferric
ion
except
250
of
ng.
to
for
with
needle
contained
1.6
pg.
ascorbic
ferrous
the
in \VRCF
repeated
overnight,
feeding
solution
studied
utilizing
fasted
esophageal
and
was
Giis.,
of
ion.
addition
as
the
fcrric
niolar
0.4
of
solutions
mM
of
the
of the
counting
to
with
were
amounts
of
assured
being
tested
through
iil.
of
iron’
the
reduction
control
except
an
control
chloride,
total
with
) weigh-
absorption.”
(losed
Etch
identical
substance
and
tested.
acid
strain
iron
ether
tracer
ascorbic
\Vistar
estimate
to be
chloride,
excess
Experimental
of
botly
were
lightly
anesthetized
1 ml. of the solutions
iron
acid;
rats#{176}( a derivative
total
of
solution,
where
otherwise
pH
of the control
solution
was 2.4.
\Vhen
the test material
in the experimental
solotion
changed
the pH ( always
iore
acid
) , tho control
solutli)n
for
that
experiment
was
brought
to the same
pH
with
HCI. Niaterials
tested
included
fructose,
glucose,
gahictose,
)yruvate,
lactate,
cysteine
and hydnoquinone.
noted.
RESULTS
Fructose
has
periments
( table
its
the
1
)
The
.
ability
port
to
to
of iron
the
unlike
lactate
complex
and
from
#{176}Theprinciples
Medical
Research
of
were
of Hematology,
1963;
accepted
laboratory
per
animal
cent
products
into
while
cxto
facilitating
the
trans-
unique
in its
ability
with
iron,7
to
the
hut
as
of
absorbed
in
of fructose,
glucose
and
60
Reed
for publication
metabolism
being
per
cent
Army
Feb.
25,
promulgated
of
Institute
It
lactate,
the
increase
the
vivo.
absorbed
or in perfused
rat
appearing
largely
of glycolysis,
Walter
care
our
magnitude
attributed
combine
are absorbed
in vivo
in mucosal
metabolism,
changed
ir the portal
blood.91#{176}
Pyruvate
and lactate,
the final
From
the Department
iflgt()fl,
D. C.
Submitted
Dec. 20,
enters
extent
as a mixture
2
and galactose
participation
been
is not
also
In
in
2).
galactose,
blood
thereby
galactose
a variable
portal
comprising
Glucose
or no
and
to
iron,
rats.4
variable
has
Fructose
( table
in
was
absorption
with
Glucose
glucose
absorption
but
iron
mucosa.
absorption
tissues
rat’s
on
intestinal
iron.
on iron
in the
fructose.8
with
little
the
iron
consistently
fructose
a stable
with
intestinal
appears
of
DISCUSSION
to increase
occurred
effect
form
no effect
Fructose,
rat’s
shown
across
combine
have
been
increase
AND
iron
gut
tin-
absorp-
of Research,
Wash-
1964.
by
the
National
Society
for
observed.
577
BLooo,
VOL.
24,
No.
5
( NOVEMBER
) , 1964
From www.bloodjournal.org by guest on June 17, 2017. For personal use only.
578
POLLACK,
Table
1.-The
Effect
of Fructose
on
Group
Mean
10
18.5
±
7.9
Experimental
10
19.6
±
5.8
two
tailed
not
two
=
fThese
groups
“t”
in
made
P
10.1 ± 3.7
15.7 ± 5.7
between
control
and
<.05f
N.S.f
experimental
group
was
consistently
using
the
test.
significant
experiments
receiving
significant
is
_______
SD
±
Control
comparison
CROSBY
Absorption
10
10
standard
in
Rats
AND
Absorption
Control
Experimental
#{176}Stafistical
N.S.
No.
iron’9
Fe’
(;
KAUFMAN
at the
are
.05 level.
representative.
fructose
in
4
Iron
separate
absorption
experiments.
The
increase
increased
was
statistically
two.
Table
2.-The
Effect
of
Glucose
Group
No.
and
Galactose
Rats
% Fe”
on
iron59
Absorption
Absorption
P
Glucose
Control
20
14.2
± 4.6
Experimental
20
12.2
±
5.2
N.S.
20
20
14.9
15.8
± 7.2
± 5.8
N.S.
Galactose
Control
Experimental
--
tion
( table
its
metabolism,
3)
tion.
ATP
and
shown
to
gested
that
must
insure
lactate
act
state
separate
loci
form.11
proved)
was
effect
creasing
iron
hydroquinone
proteins
absorption
reducing
on
in
absorption
(table
5).
iron
effect
in
reducing
the
then
sug-
membranes
of
DPNH,
the
ferric
ion,
or
sites
of
their
a strong
of
lactate
of both
actiois
separate
is rendered
further
and
is on
must
loci
of
( but
plausible
reducing
a maximally
Howadequate
hydroquinone
effect
of
of a reducing
in a dose
that
concept
cysteine,
presence
been
been
lactate.
absorption,14
If the
the
The
absorption
of
iron
suggesting
absorption.
iron
have
metabolism
dose
agent,
system.
the
effective
as the
of intramucosal
of
absorp-
If lactate
affected
iron absorption
acted
as an intracellular
reduc-
used
in
substances
the
administered
iron
transport
that
by generating
intramucosal
a maximally
4),
has
through
simultaneously
ir increasing
iron
Both
It
or
conceivable
products
on
metabolism.
of
( table
absorption
by
is
iron
by
or the
of fructose
trarisfers.’12’13
from
It
that
effect
independently
of reducing
during
iron
transfer
anticipated
the
the
effect
state of ferrous
iron.14
DPNH,
and if DPNH
maximum
iron
valence
means
we
of fructose,
the
biological
of
reduced
mask
its
for
generated
in
hydroquinone
increased
metabolism
or pyruvate
affects
iron
absorption
then
might
when
both
in a state
the
the
responsible
are
the reduced
of generating
agent,
agent
that
be
important
iron
in
DPNH
to
DPNH
lactate,
facilitating
preserving
by virtue
ever,
may
be
be
fructose,
ing
suggesting
agent,
effective
the
be
at
action
by
no
in
in-
dose
of
From www.bloodjournal.org by guest on June 17, 2017. For personal use only.
IRON
579
ABSORPTION
3.-The
Table
Effect
of Lactate
Group
No.
and Pyruvate
Rats
% Fe”
on Iron_Absorption
Absorption
P
Lactate0
Control
20
10.6
±
6.3
Experimental
20
14.3
±
7.4
20
11.7
±
.05
<
p <
.1
Pyruvatef
Control
Experimental
20
#{176}Lactic acid
and
control
fSodium
mental
was
used
solutions
to
make
was
1.8.
pyruvate
was
used
control
solutions
and
Table
the
to
was
4.-The
make
the
pH
Effect
Lactate
was
of the
35
experimental
control
Table
and
of
experimental
5.-The
35.0
solutions
Effect
of
was
solutions
In
by
Iron
+ Cysteine
by
1
iron
or DPNH
relation
2
)
absorption.
of
its
dose.
during
mucosa
or
without
±
7.0
P
<.001
given
lactate
and
received
0.8
iri\l.
without
Absorption
P
24.5
±
10.5
34.3
±
6.0
pH
of
<.05
control
locus
Lactate
or
\Vhile
chelating
of
and
experimental
gut
sacs
( or
loci
)
fructose
properties,
it
unifying
be
both,
would
the
imply
rate
is de-
produced
these
findings.
extent
to
that
iron
which
iron
transport
could
be
not
seem
to affect
these
quantity
the
of
in vivo.
these
This
in an abundance
If fructose-generated
absorption
must
system
responsible
lactate
of
changing
absorption
generation
se
in
the
constantly
in vivo.
increasing
generate
explanations
involved
of iron
bathed
fluid
DPNH
does
with
variable
as
of the
does
the
may
per
absorption
is consistent
or
for
by
iron
entertained
or
pyruvate
in
its absorption.
limits
ATP
absorption
perhaps,
this
responsible
locus
to the
mucosa
vivo
since
the cells are
in the extracellular
were
the
be
DPNH,
in vivo;
gut
iron
increase
in
the
absorption
in the
cell.
7.7
with
each
that
reflects,
ATP
to accept
substrate
that
±
% Fe”
The
pyruvate
may
)
is difficult
metabolic
likely
shown
of fructose
speculations
compounds
ATP
and
effect
observations:
of
and
Absorption
Rats
in
metabolism.’5
lactate
it is metabolized
rate
given
have
cellular
variable
Several
expeni-
1.7.
11
was
experiments
on
fructose,
The
was
10
hydroquinone
of the
1.1.
vitro
pendent
rats
Hydroquinone
on
No.
of
pH
experimental
Absorption
20.2
Those
Hydroquinone#{176}
Hydroquinone0
of the
The
with
% Fe”
Rats
hydroquinone.
Cysteine
mg.
solution.
10
mg.
pH
The
of Hydroquinane
on Iron
Absorption
+ Lactate
given
--
035
solution.
10
Hydroquinone#{176}
.01
1.8.
No.
The
5.6
experimental
Hydroquinone
#{176}Each rat
5.2
12±
it would
bear
within
for
iron
and
seem
some
special
the
mucosal
increasing
absorption
probably
of
iron
by
virtue
pyruvate
From www.bloodjournal.org by guest on June 17, 2017. For personal use only.
580
POLLACK,
within
the mucosa.
the generation
of
in
these
)
experiments
passage
The
of iron
additive
consistent
during
effects
with
agent
Pyruvate
can
a red
complex
absorption
in
so
absorption.
of cysteine
either
at a locus
itself
combine
with
on mixing
pyruvate
Perhaps
.
of
these
separate
by functioning
doing
and
it
that
of hydroquinone,
CROSBY
evidenced
by
ferrous
chloride
facilitates
Cysteine
AND
( as
iron
and
hydroquinorie
hypotheses.
from
KAUFMAN
the
on
iron
may
act
transcellular
absorption
as
or it may
is
a reducing
influence
iron
as a carrier.
SUMMARY
The
iron
effect
of the
absorption
ing
iron
These
iron-chelating
in rats
absorption.
suggest
Pyruvate
and
in
are
additive,
hydroquinone
tion
and
actions
The
two
are
it is metabolized
products
of
agents
in increasing
of these
le
augmentar
le absorption
fructosa
IN
effecto
del
le absorption
le absorption
de ferro.
es responsabile
Pyruvato
e lactato,
sorption
de
ferro
de
Iste
ferro.
Glucosa
constatationes
pro
alterar
le absorption
Le
de
effectos
ferro
de
cysteina
actiones
independente
in explication
de
lo que
etiam
pro
observationes
iste
increase
on
iron
iron
ahsorp-
absorption.
Alternative
ferro
es
in rattos,
durante
etiam
lactato
e de
indicar
etiam
le effecto
super
de
viste
que
que
isto
augmenta
non
le ab-
hydroquinona
actiones
super
independente.
additive,
agentes
de reduction.
es presentate.
de
nulle
effecto
le metabolismo
que
de
pare
ha
ha
glycolysis,
de
glucosa,
Fructosa
sti absorption,
e hydroquinona
del
tive
also
absorp-
of cysteine
independent
e galactosa
suggere
effectos
es additive,
for
its
ferro-chelatori-fructose,
in rattos.
de
final
Le
during
The
effects
suggesting
iron
le absorption
le productos
in le ratto.
absorption.
responsible
INTERLINGUA
ferro
illo es metabolisate
durante
le processo
es le caso pro glucosa
e galactosa.
on
increas-
observations.
sucros
de
in
iron
is
hydroquinone
actions.
additive,
are
galactose,
effect
on
fructose
glycolysis,
and
independent
absorption
in explanation
examinate
Esseva
of
lactate
an
effect
since
not.
SuMxARIo
e galactosa-super
no
of
final
reducing
offered
have
and
has
metabolism
rat
are
effects
suggesting
on iron
of these
hypotheses
the
rat.
glucose
Fructose
galactose
the
in the
galactose
lactate,
the
fructose,
examined.
and
that
iron absorption
glucose
and
absorption
sugars,
been
Glucose
findings
changing
tion, while
has
lo
que
suggere
Hypotheses
alterna-
REFERENCES
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NIoore,
C.
Welch,
On
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the
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and
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induction
at)-
succinic
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J.,
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of
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M.,
and
of
iron
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From www.bloodjournal.org by guest on June 17, 2017. For personal use only.
1964 24: 577-581
Iron Absorption: Effects of Sugars and Reducing Agents
SIMEON POLLACK, RICHARD M. KAUFMAN and WILLIAM H. CROSBY
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