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Control of the Heart Rate Electrical impulse flow chart below. SA node AtriaAV nodeAV bundle (Purkinje fibers)Ventricles SA node is the pacemaker of the heart located in the upper right handside of the right atrium. It’s like a ‘spark plug’ that fires electrical signals through the upper chamber of the heart causing them to contract and push the blood down into the lower chambers. That impulse then reaches a structure at the bottom of the right atrium called the atrio-ventricular node (AV node). The AV node acts as a bridge pathway (electrical relay station) between the upper chambers and lower chambers. The impulse then travels down to the apex of the heart via the ‘Purkinje fibres’ where ventricular contraction begins. The impulse then travels upwards, spreading rapidly through both of the ventricle walls activating them and causing them to contract and pump the blood out to the body. The main arteries now close, and while the ventricles relax, the cycle has already started again.