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 - Source of protein
 Jobs depend upon fishing
 related processing industries (canning, freezing)
 Pet food, fertilizers
 Boat building, making nets, ice production
 The thermo-layer- the heat layer in the atmosphere or
water, at a different temperature to the air or water
above or below it
- expanses of continental shelf (naturally rich in
-ocean currents
Human factors
 The sea fish caught:
 - pelagic (near the ocean surface- herring, mackerel,
 - demersal (closer to the floor of the continental shelfcod, haddock, plaice, sole)
Other main marine animals of commercial value:
-crustacea (crabs, lobsters, crayfish)
- Molluscs (oysters, mussels)
- Dolphins, seals, turtles, whales
 Overfishing – there are insufficient fish left to carry on
the reproductive cycle and raise stock levels to the
point where large scale commercial fishing can return
 Should not be determined by the number of fish
available, but by the numbers that will be left to
maintain future fish stock
 Causes:
 Use of new technology
 Demand for fish continues to rise as the world population
 Consenquences
 - fish stocks on some fishing grounds are at such low levels
 Jobs in fishing and related industries were lost in the 1990s
 Search for new fish supplies is spreading the problem of
overfishing to other parts of the world (Southern Ocean)
Strategies for the sustainable
 UN Law of the Sea Conference (1974)-
200 nautical miles zone
(a country has sole rights to all natural resources
(Economic Exclusion Zone – EEZ)
Countries are responsible for marine resources in their
own territorial waters
 QUOTAS – annual limits are set for the amount and
types of fish that can be caught
Can be supported by other management policies:
Closed season for fishing (during the breeding time)
Restricted areas (so that breeding can take place and
stock recover)
Limits on net types and sizes (so that young fish can
swim through the nets)