Download Age of European Exploration and Colonization

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Portuguese discoveries wikipedia , lookup

Conquistador wikipedia , lookup

Treaty of Tordesillas wikipedia , lookup

Age of Discovery wikipedia , lookup

Voyages of Christopher Columbus wikipedia , lookup

European Exploration and
Prince Henry the Navigator
-Set up a
school for
navigators at
Sagres in 1419
Portugal take
the lead in
The caravel and the astrolabe
Vasco da Gama and his discovery of a
new sea route to India
Reasons for European Exploration
1. To gain wealth (gold, etc.)
2. To gain fame
3. To spread Christianity
4. Scientific curiosity
5. Adventure
6. To get land
Competition among European powers (Spain,
Portugal, The Netherlands (the Dutch), England,
and France) for new trading routes, colonies
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Christopher Columbus and his four voyages to the New World
Columbus: Hero or Villain?
Differing views:
1. Columbus as an
explorer and discoverer
first and foremost
2. Columbus as a nonAnglo hero (Morrison,
3. Columbus as the
catalyst for genocide
(Kirkpatrick Sale)
Spanish colonies
• Conquistadors
• Reasons for conquests?
• System of government in New
Spain: Viceroy and calbidos
(advisory councils)
• The encomienda system –
a cheap labor source on
• Fr. Bartolome de Las Casas, O.P.
and the New Laws (1542) –
designed to end abuses
Portuguese colonies
• Alfonso Albuquerque and
the Far East (his forces
seized Goa in 1510 and
Malacca in 1511)
• Pedro Alvares Cabral and
• Entrepreneurs
• Donatario = landowner
(cf. patroons in New
The source of much of the cinnamon,
nutmeg, etc.?
Triangular Trade
Joint-stock companies
• What was their purpose?
Funding colonies, in the
Americas especially
• How did they work?
People pooled their resources for
a common purpose
• What are some historical
Virginia Company, East India
• What modern-day institution
does it resemble?
The corporation
The Middle Passage
The Columbian Exchange
• From the Americas to
Potatoes, corn, tobacco, squash,
quinine, peppers, beans, peanuts,
pumpkins, pineapples
. From Europe/Africa/Asia to the
Sugarcane, bananas, grains (wheat,
rice), citrus fruits, cattle, sheep, pigs,
horses, various diseases (smallpox,
measles, malaria, diptheria)
• What is it?
It concerns the balance of
trade between nations
• Goals of mercantilism =
gain more gold and silver,
achieve economic selfsufficiency
• Ways to achieve that end?
Export more than your
neighbor, establish colonies