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Transcript
Teaching and Technology
By:
Andrea Enders
Operant Conditioning/Behaviorist Theory
How Do people learn?
The Use of Technology in
learning:
•Classical conditioning;
•Educational software used
(Pavlov) – Involuntary
to correct identified
response (dog salivating over weaknesses in students
food)
•Software with built-in
assessment can be used to
measure students against a
OR
certain criteria
•Multi-media can be used to
•Operant Conditioning;
present content during
(Skinner) – control over
instruction
responses (behavior to
•Educational software used
receive reward or avoid
to develop prerequisite skills
punishment)
Operant Conditioning/Behaviorist
Theory (Skinner):
• Idea that learning is a function of reinforced
behavior
• Changes in behavior in response to events in an
environment
• Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced
(rewarded); conditioned to respond (e.g. hitting
a baseball)
• Reinforcers: good grades, verbal praise, feeling
of satisfaction
• wikipedia resource
Examples of Operant
Conditioning/Behaviorism:
• Practice should take the form of question
(stimulus) - answer (response) frames which
expose the student to the subject in gradual
steps
•Require that the learner make a response for every
frame and receive immediate feedback
•Ensure that good performance in the lesson is
paired with secondary reinforcers (verbal praise,
prizes, good grades, etc).
Information Processing Theory
How Do people learn?
•Through: Rehearsal,
organizing, elaborating,
imagery, etc
The Use of Technology in
learning:
•Educational software used
to correct identified
weaknesses in students
•Software with built-in
assessment can be used to
•Through systematic and
measure students against a
structured learning
certain criteria
environments
•Multi-media can be used to
•By teachers controlling all present content during
instruction
aspects of the learning
situation: content, stimulus, •Educational software used
to develop prerequisite skills
environment, time,
activities, sequence, etc.
Information Processing
Theory (G. Miller):
• First concept of “chunking” & capacity of short term
memory (5 - 9 chunks of information)
•“chuck” is any meaningful unit (digits, words,
people’s faces, etc)
•Second concept is TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit)
•A goal is tested and re-tested until achieved or
abandoned
•Has become a general theory of human
cognition
•Information Processing example with computers
Constructivist Theory
How Do people learn?
•By participating in
experiences and activities
that are meaningful
•Learning occurs when a
person constructs their own
unique way of retaining
knowledge
•Examples: visual formats,
cooperative learning,
exploration, project based
learning, problem oriented
activities
The Use of Technology in
learning:
•Computers and software
help foster creativity (Adobe
Photoshop, Illustrator, In
Design, etc)
•Problem solving and multimedia software (thinking
about how you think)
•Multi-media student
presentations to foster
cooperative group work
•Visual formats to promote
meaningful learning
Constructivist Theory
(Bruner):
•
Learning is an “active” process in which learners
construct new ideas or concepts based upon
current/past knowledge
•
Learner selects & transforms info, constructs
hypotheses & makes decisions
•
Four major aspects:
1. Predisposition towards learning (readiness)
2. The ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured
(to be most easily grasped)
3. The most effective sequences in which to present
material and
4. The nature and pacing of rewards and punishments
Examples of
Constructivist Theory:
• Much of this theory is linked to child
development research
• Focused on science and math learning
• Popular Theory Supporting the Use of
Computer Simulation of Experiential
Learning
The End : )
HW PowerPoint
Justification
 I choose my background based on two things. First I like the
fact that it had a neutral color, thus making it feasible to
write on the entire slide. Second, the fact that it had a
somewhat modern look to it and it had the world on it.
Symbolizing the importance of not only the types of learning
theories, but also that all three theories effect our world
 I chose to touch base on all three theories in technical way
(meaning pure definition) and I also wanted to find other
web resources that would make the learning theories easier
to understand. An example of this can be seen in my link to
short and long term memory and how it relates to different
types of computer hardware. Also, for last theory on
constructivist, I found a related web article to the theory
and teaching with computers.
 Finally, I chose to save my power point as an html to not only
figure out how to do it, but also to receive some extra
credit.