Download Psychotherapies Notes - San Elijo Elementary School

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Psychological Therapies
• An interaction between a trained therapist and
someone suffering from psychological difficulties.
Eclectic Approach
• Therapy where the therapist combines
techniques from different schools of psychology.
Kind of like a buffet.
• Freud's therapy.
• Use free association, hypnosis and dream
interpretation to gain insight into the
client’s unconscious.
Psychoanalytic Methods
• Psychotherapists use their techniques to
overcome resistance (the blocking from
consciousness of anxiety-laden material) by the
•The psychoanalyst wants you to become aware
of the resistance and together interpret it’s
underlying meaning to gain self-insight.
• In psychoanalysis, the
patient transfers to the
analyst emotions linked
with other relationships.
Humanistic Therapy
• Focuses on people’s
potential for selffulfillment (selfactualization).
• Focuses on the present
and future.
• Focuses on conscious
thoughts (not
unconscious ones).
• Take responsibility for
you actions.
Client (Person) Centered Therapy
• Developed by Carl Rogers.
• Therapist should use
genuineness, acceptance and
empathy to show
unconditional positive regard
towards their clients.
• Most widely used Humanistic
Active Listening
• Central to Roger’s
• Empathetic listening
where the listener
echoes, restates and
Behavior Therapies
• Therapy that applies learning principles to the
elimination of unwanted behaviors.
•The behaviors are the problems - so we must
change the behaviors.
Classical Conditioning Techniques
• A behavioral therapy that conditions new
responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted
Two Types: Exposure Therapies & Aversive
1. Exposure Therapies
• Systematic desensitization is a type of
counterconditioning that associates a pleasant
relaxed state with gradually increasing
anxiety-triggering stimuli. (i.e. phobias)
How would I use systematic
desensitization to reduce my
fear of old women?
Systematic Desensitization uses…
progressive relaxation versus
Flooding which…
exposes you to an anxiety-provoking situation
at the highest level of fear all at once.
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
2. Aversive Conditioning
• A type of counterconditioning that associates an
unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.
How would putting peppers on the fingernails of a
nail biter effect their behavior?
Aversive Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Token Economy: an operant conditioning procedure
that rewards a desired behavior.
A patient exchanges a token of some sort (earned by exhibiting
the desired behavior) for various privileges or treats.
Cognitive Therapy
Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
• Noticed that
depressed people were
similar in the way they
viewed the world.
• Used cognitive therapy
get people to take off
the “dark sunglasses” in
which they view their
Cognitive Therapy
• Cognitive therapists try to
teach people new, more
constructive ways of thinking.
Is .300 a good or bad
batting average?
Cognitive Therapy
Albert Ellis & Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
• Focuses on uncovering
irrational beliefs which
may lead to unhealthy
negative emotions and
replacing them with
more productive
rational alternatives.
Stress Inoculation Training
• Teaches people
to restructure
their thinking in
• Basically
changing your
• Like when you’re
nervous and
negative before
a big exam.
Cognitive Therapy - Does It Work?
Group & Family Therapies
Biomedical Therapies
Therapies aimed at the altering the body chemistry.
• The study of the effects of drugs
on mind and behavior.
Drugs and Hospitalization
Emptying of Mental Hospitals
Testing New Drugs
• When a new drug is released there is always too much
•Must use a double-blind procedure to combat placebo
and experimental effects.
Types of drugs include:
Antipsychotic Drugs
• Medicines used to treat
psychosis - typically in
schizophrenia and bipolar
• Thorazine although effective
often has powerful side effects.
• Tardive dyskinesia – neurotoxic
effect involving involuntary
movements of the facial muscles,
tongue, and limbs.
Antianxiety Drugs
• Anxiolytic drugs like Valium,
Librium, and Xanax.
• Like alcohol, they depress
nervous system activity.
• Most widely abused drugs.
Antidepressant Drugs
• Lift you up out of depression.
• Most increase the availability of
norepinephrine or serotonin.
• Prozac, Paxil & Zoloft are known
as SSRI’s (selective-serotoninreuptake-inhibitors). They block
serotonin reuptake.
• Lithium is an effective mood
stabilizer used by those with
bipolar disorder.
Prozac, Paxil & Zoloft
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
• Biomedical therapy for severely
depressed patients in which a
brief electric current is sent
through the brain of an
anesthetized patient causing a
mild seizure.
• Usually produces temporary
memory loss.
• But has been very effective of
temporarily ridding people of
suicidal thoughts.
Alternative to ECT
• Repetitive transcranial
magnetic stimulation
• Application of magnetic
energy to the brain.
• Doesn’t produce
seizures or memory
• FDA approved in 2008.
Still waiting for
conclusive data.
• Egas Moniz developed the
lobotomy and it became very
popular in the 1940’s and 50’s.
• Surgery that removes or
destroys frontal lobe brain
tissue in an effort to change
• Ice pick like instrument through
the eye sockets cutting the links
between the frontal lobes and
the emotional control centers.