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Biomedical Treatment
What is the biomedical approach to
Drugs, surgery, ECT
Types of drugs?
Antipsychotics – (schizophrenia) can lead to
tardive dyskinesia
Antidepressants – (Prozac, Zoloft, Wellibutruin)
Antianxiety – can lead to drowsiness (Xanax,
Somatic therapy (Drug Therapy)
• Antipsychotic drugs
– alleviate the symptoms of severe disorders such as
schizophrenia; Examples: Thorazine,
– many work by blocking dopamine receptor sites
– Can lead to tardive dyskinesia, (tremors)
Tardive dyskinesia
Drug Therapy
• Psychopharmacology –
The prescribed use of drugs to help treat
symptoms of mental illness ostensibly to
ensure that individuals are more receptive to
talk therapies
Drug Therapy
• Antidepressants and mood stabilizers
– Include Prozac, monoamine oxidase (MOA)
– lithium carbonate is a mood stabilizer
(effective against bipolar disorder)
– Treat depression and bipolar disorder
– Usually affect serotonin and/or
SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin between 2
Drug Therapy
• Antianxiety drugs
– work by depressing central nervous system activity
– Most common side effect - drowsiness
– highly addictive, can be fatal when mixed with alcohol
– sudden cessation after long-term use can result in
severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures,
increased anxiety,
and in rare cases, death
Xanax, Paxil
Drug Therapy in ADHD
• Stimulants suppress activity level in persons
with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
• There is controversy from concern that the
causes and boundaries of ADHD are vague and
the potential exists for overdiagnosis
_______ is any technique involving surgical
alteration of the brain.
a.Ablation lesioning
c. Deep ECT
d. Psychic surgery
4. The MOST commonly cited side effect
associated with anti-anxiety drugs is
a) insomnia
b) blurred vision
c) drowsiness
d) tachycardia
9. Prozac and other modern antidepressant
medications work to
a) block dopamine receptors
b) decrease the level of acetylcholine
c) break down the MAO enzymes
d) block the reuptake of seratonin
11. Valium is
a) an antidepressant drug
b) an MAO inhibitor
c) an antipsychotic drug
d) an antianxiety drug
13. Andre suffers from mood swings, alternating from
wild episodes of euphoria and spending sprees to
motionless staring and hopelessness. If someone
from the biomedical approach were to treat his
condition, the prescription most likely would be
a) Lithium carbonate
b) Haldol
c) Xanax
d) Thorazine
• Psychosurgery –
The general term for surgical intervention in
the brain to treat psychological disorders
– The infamous prefrontal lobotomy is no longer
– Severing the corpus callosum, however, can
reduce life-threatening seizures
Brain-Stimulation Therapies
• Electroconvulsive therapy ECT is used for the
treatment of severe depression
• Transcranial magnetic stimulation, a possible
alternative to ECT, can also be used for the
treatment of depression, schizophrenia, and
bipolar disorder
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
• Video
Frontal lobotomy
Became Prefrontal lobotomy
Muniz won Nobel prize for
• Procedure eventually banned
– Destruction of personality
– Replaced in 1954 by first antipsychotic: Thorazine