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Detecting Einstein’s Elusive Waves
Opening a New Window to the Universe
An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal
IndIGO Consortium
(Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)
Version: 4 Jun 14, 2011 - BRI
Space Time as a fabric
Special Relativity (SR) replaced Absolute space and Absolute Time by flat 4dimensional space-time (the normal three dimensions of space, plus a fourth
dimension of time).
In 1916, Albert Einstein published his famous Theory of General Relativity, his
theory of gravitation consistent with SR, where gravity manifests as a curved
4-diml space-time
Theory describes how space-time is affected by mass and also how
energy, momentum and stresses affects space-time.
Matter tells space-time how to curve, and
Space-time tells matter how to move.
Space Time as a fabric
Earth follows a straight line in the curved
space-time caused by sun’s mass !!!
Beauty & Precision
Einstein’s General theory of
relativity is the most
beautiful, as well as,
theory of modern physics.
It has matched all experimental tests
of Gravitation remarkably well.
Era of precision tests : GP-B,….
What happens when
matter is in motion?
Einstein’s Gravity predicts
• Matter in motion Space-time ripples
fluctuations in space-time curvature that
propagate as waves
Gravitational waves (GW)
In GR, as in EM, GW travel at the speed of light (i.e.,
mass-less) , are transverse and have two states of
• The major qualitatively unique prediction
beyond Newton’s gravity
Begs direct verification !!!
A Century of Waiting
• Almost 100 years since Einstein predicted GW but no
direct experimental confirmation a la Hertz
• Two Fundamental Difference between GR and EM
- Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10^-39)
-Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin one of EM that forbids
dipole radiation in GR
• Low efficiency for conversion of mechanical energy
to GW. Feeble effects of GW on a Detector
• GW Hertz experiment ruled out. Only astrophysical
systems involving huge masses and accelerating very
strongly are potential sources of GW signals.
GW  Astronomy link
Astrophysical systems are sources of copious GW emission:
• Typically, GW emission (0.1) >> EM radiation via Nuclear process (0.025)
Energy emitted in GW from binary >> EM radiation in the lifetime
• Universe is buzzing with GW signals from cores of astrophysical events
Bursts (SN, GRB), mergers, accretion, stellar cannibalism ,…
• Extremely Weak interaction, hence, has been difficult to detect directly
But also implies GW carry unscreened & uncontaminated signals
GW from Binary Neutron stars
Indirect evidence for Gravity waves
Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves
leads to loss of orbital
period speeds up 14 sec
from 1975-94
measured to ~50 msec
deviation grows
quadratically with time
Nobel prize
in 1993 !!!
Hulse and Taylor
Results for PSR1913+16
Principle behind Detection of GW
Effect of GW on a ring of test masses
Interferometer mirrors as test masses
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer
Path A
Path B
Difference in distance of Path A & B  Interference of laser
light at the detector (Photodiode)
Path difference of light
 phase difference
Equal arms:
Dark fringe
The effects of gravitational
waves appear as a
fluctuation in the phase
differences between two
orthogonal light paths of an
Unequal arm:
Signal in PD
Challenge of Direct Detection
Gravitational wave is measured in
terms of strain,
(change in length/original length)
Gravitational waves are very weak!
Expected amplitude of GW
h  10
Measure changes of
 10
one part in thousand-billion-billion!
LIGO Optical Configuration
Power Recycled
end test mass
Light bounces back
and forth along arms
about 100 times
with Fabry-Perot Arm
Light is “recycled”
about 50 times
input test mass
beam splitter
Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Initial LIGO Sensitivity Goal
• Strain sensitivity
<3x10-23 1/Hz1/2
at 200 Hz
Sensor Noise
» Photon Shot Noise
» Residual Gas
Displacement Noise
» Seismic motion
» Thermal Noise
» Radiation Pressure
LIGO and Virgo TODAY
Milestone: Decades-old plans to build and operate large interferometric GW detectors
now realized at several locations worldwide
Experimental prowess: LIGO, VIRGO operating at predicted sensitivity!!!!
Pre-dawn GW astronomy : Unprecedented sensitivity already allows
• Upper Limits on GW from a variety of Astrophysical sources. Refining
theretical modelling
•Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars,
• Exptally surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound on Stochastic GW..
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO)
IndIGO - ACIGA meeting
Astrophysical Sources for Terrestrial GW Detectors
• Compact binary inspiral:
• Supernovas or GRBs: “bursts”
– GW signals observed in coincidence
with EM or neutrino detectors
• Pulsars in our galaxy: “periodic waves”
– Rapidly rotating neutron stars
– Modes of NS vibration
• Cosmological: “stochastic background” ?
– Probe back to the Planck time (10-43 s)
– Probe phase transitions : window to force unification
– Cosmological distribution of Primordial black holes
Courtesy;: Stan Whitcomb
Using GWs to Learn about the Source an Example
Over two decades,
RRI involved in
computation of
inspiral waveforms
for compact
binaries & their
implications and
IUCAA in its Data
Analysis Aspects.
Can determine
• Distance from the earth r
• Masses of the two bodies
• Orbital eccentricity e and orbital inclination i
Advanced LIGO
•Take advantage of new technologies and on-going R&D
>> Active anti-seismic system operating to lower frequencies:
(Hannover, GEO)
>> Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics :
(GEO )
>> Higher laser power 10 W  180 W
(Hannover group, Germany)
>> More sensitive and more flexible optical configuration:
Signal recycling (GEO)
• Design: 1999 – 2010 : 10 years of high end R & D
• Construction: Start 2008; Installation 2011; Completion 2015
“Quantum measurements”
to improve further via squeezed light:
A big draw for the large Indian theoretical
physics community & students !!!
(& of course, optics technology)
Tailoring the frequency response
• Signal Recycling : New idea in interferometry
Additional cavity formed with
mirror at output
Can be made resonant,
or anti-resonant,
for gravitational wave frequencies
Allows redesigning the noise curve
to create optimal band sensitive to
specific astrophysical signatures
Schematic Optical Design of Advanced LIGO detectors
Reflects International cooperation
Basic nature of GW Astronomy
AEI, Hannover
Seismic isolation
Advanced LIGO Laser
• Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein Institute<
• Higher power
– 10W -> 180W
• Better stability
– 10x improvement in intensity and frequency stability
Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Advanced LIGO Mirrors
• Larger size
– 11 kg -> 40 kg
• Smaller figure error
– 0.7 nm -> 0.35 nm
• Lower absorption
– 2 ppm -> 0.5 ppm
• Lower coating thermal noise
All substrates delivered
Polishing underway
Reflective Coating process starting up
Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Advanced LIGO Seismic Isolation
• Two-stage six-degree-of-freedom active isolation
– Low noise sensors, Low noise actuators
– Digital control system to blend outputs of multiple sensors,
tailor loop for maximum performance
– Low frequency cut-off: 40 Hz -> 10 Hz
Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Advanced LIGO Suspensions
• UK designed and contributed
test mass suspensions
• Silicate bonds create quasimonolithic pendulums using
ultra-low loss fused silica fibres
to suspend interferometer optics
– Pendulum
Q ~105 -> ~108
four stages
Suppression at 10 Hz : ?
at 1 Hz : ?
40 kg silica
test mass
Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors: 2015
10x sensitivity
10x reach
 1000 volume
>> 1000 event rate
(reach beyond
nearest super-
A Day of Advanced
LIGO Observation >>
A year of Initial LIGO
Expected Annual Coalescence Event Rates
Initial LIGO
(2002 -2006)
Enhanced LIGO
(2X Sensitivity)
Advanced LIGO
(10X sensitivity)
(2014 - …)
In a 95% confidence interval, rates uncertain by 3 orders of magnitude
NS-NS (0.4 - 400); NS-BH (0.2 - 300) ; BH-BH (2 - 4000) yr^-1
Based on Extrapolations from observed Binary Pulsars, Stellar birth rate
estimates, Population Synthesis models. Rates quoted below are mean of the distribution.
Scientific Payoffs
Advanced GW network sensitivity needed to observe
GW signals at monthly or even weekly rates.
• Direct detection of GW probes strong field regime of gravitation
 Information about systems in which strong-field and time dependent gravitation
dominates, an untested regime including non-linear self-interactions
• GW detectors will uncover NEW aspects of the physics
 Sources at extreme physical conditions (eg., super nuclear density physics),
relativistic motions, extreme high density, temperature and magnetic fields.
• GW signals propagate un-attenuated
weak but clean signal from cores of astrophysical event where EM signal is
screened by ionized matter.
• Wide range of frequencies  Sensitivity over a range of astrophysical scales
To capitalize one needs a global array of GW antennas separated by
continental distances to pinpoint sources in the sky and extract all the
source information encoded in the GW signals
GW Astronomy with Intl. Network of GW Observatories
1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info.
GEO: 0.6km
LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km
VIRGO: 3km
LCGT 4km
LIGO-India ?
From the GWIC Strategic Roadmap for GW
Science with thirty year horizon (2007)
• … the first priority for ground-based gravitational
wave detector development is to expand the
network, adding further detectors with
appropriately chosen intercontinental baselines
and orientations to maximize the ability to extract
source information. ….Possibilities for a detector in
India (IndIGO) are being studied..
Indo-Aus.Meeting, Delhi, Feb
Gravitational wave Astronomy :
Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
SKA -Radio : Pulsars timing,
X-ray satellite (AstroSat) : High energy physics
Gamma ray observatory:
Thirty Meter Telescope: Resolving multiple AGNs, gamma ray
follow-up after GW trigger,…
• LSST: Astro-transients with GW triggers.
• INO: neutrino signals
Courtesy: B. Schutz, GWIC Roadmap Document 2010
The Gravitational wave legacy
Two decades of Indian contribution to the international effort for
detecting GW on two significant fronts :
• Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [Bala Iyer] and to GW data
analysis at IUCAA [Sanjeev Dhurandhar] which has been internationally
• RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy
waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates
used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed.
• IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced
mathematical concepts.
• Notable contributions include the search for binary in-spirals, hierarchical
methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and the radiometric
search for stochastic gravitational waves.
• IUCAA has collaborated with most international GW detector groups and has
been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
• At IUCAA, Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data and Planck has
worked to create a bridge between CMB and GW data analysis challenges.
Indian Gravitational wave strengths
• Very good students and post-docs produced from these activities.
* Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3)
*Recently returned to faculty positions at premier Indian institutions (6)
[Gopakumar, Archana Pai, Rajesh Nayak, Anand Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit
Mitra, P. Ajith?]
– Gopakumar (?) and Arun (?) : PN modeling, dynamics of CB, Ap and cosmological
implications of parameter estimation
– Rajesh Nayak (UTB  IISER K) , Archana Pai (AEI  IISER T), Anand Sengupta (LIGO,
Caltech Delhi), Sanjit Mitra (JPL  IUCAA ): Extensive experience on single and multidetector detection, hierarchical techniques, noise characterisation schemes, veto
techniques for GW transients, bursts, continuous and stochastic sources, radiometric
methods, …
– P. Ajith (Caltech, TAPIR  ? ) ……
– Sukanta Bose (Faculty UW, USA  ?)
Strong Indian presences in GW Astronomy with Global detector network  broad
international collaboration is the norm  relatively easy to get people back.
Close interactions with Rana Adhikari (Caltech), B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff),
Sukanta Bose ( WU, Pullman), Soumya Mohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan ( AEI) …
Very supportive Intl community reflected in Intl Advisory somm of IndIGO
High precision and Large experiment in India
C.S. Unnikrishnan (TIFR) : involved in high precision experiments and tests
Groups at BARC and RRCAT : involved in LHC
Optical system design
laser based instrumentation, optical metrology
Large aperture optics, diffractive optics, micro-optic system design.
Anil Prabhakar IITM and Pradeep Kumar IITK (EE dept s)
providing a variety of components and subsystems like precision magnet positioning stand jacks,
superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater protection supplies and skilled manpower
support for magnetic tests and measurement and help in commissioning LHC subsystems.
S.K. Shukla at RRCAT on INDUS: UHV experience.
S.B. Bhatt and Ajai Kumar at IPR on Aditya: UHV experience.
A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT) : consultant on UHV
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT) :
Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional balances and optical sensors.
Techniques related to precision laser spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization.
Ex students from this activity G.Rajalakshmi (TIFR, 3m prototype) Suresh Doravari (Caltech 40m)
Photonics, Fiber optics and communications
Characterization and testing of optical components and instruments for use in India..
Rijuparna Chakraborty (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur)..Adaptive Optics..
Under consideration for postdoc in LIGO or Virgo….
Multi-disciplinary Consortium
CMI, Chennai
Delhi University
IISER Kolkata
IISER Trivandrum
IIT Madras (EE)
IIT Kanpur (EE)
IPR, Bhatt
Jamia Milia Islamia
Tezpur Univ
The IndIGO Consortium
IndIGO Council
Bala Iyer
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
C. S. Unnikrishnan
Tarun Souradeep
( Chair)
Data Analysis & Theory
Instrumentation & Experiment
C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai
G Rajalakshmi
TIFR, Mumbai
P.K. Gupta
RRCAT, Indore
Sendhil Raja
RRCAT, Indore
S.K. Shukla
RRCAT, Indore
Raja Rao
ex RRCAT, Consultant
Anil Prabhakar,
Pradeep Kumar,
Ajai Kumar
IPR, Bhatt
S.K. Bhatt
IPR, Bhatt
Ranjan Gupta
Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote d’Azur, Grasse
Rana Adhikari
Caltech, USA
Suresh Doravari
Caltech, USA
Biplab Bhawal
(ex LIGO)
RRI, Bangalore
TIFR, Mumbai
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
Bala Iyer
Tarun Souradeep
Anand Sengupta
Archana Pai
Sanjit Mitra
K G Arun
Rajesh Nayak
A. Gopakumar
T R Seshadri
Patrick Dasgupta
Sanjay Jhingan
L. Sriramkumar,
Bhim P. Sarma
P Ajith
Sukanta Bose,
B. S. Sathyaprakash
Soumya Mohanty
Badri Krishnan
Delhi University
IISER, Thiruvananthapuram
Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai
IISER, Kolkata
TIFR, Mumbai
Delhi University
Delhi University
Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi
Phys., IIT M
Tezpur Univ .
Caltech , USA
Wash. U., USA
Cardiff University, UK
UTB, Brownsville , USA
Max Planck AEI, Germany
23 July 2011
Dear Bala:
I am writing to invite you to attend the next meeting of the Gravitational
Wave International Committee (GWIC) to present the GWIC membership
application for IndIGO. This in-person meeting will give you the opportunity
to interact with the members of GWIC and to answer their questions about
the status and plans for IndIGO. Jim Hough (the GWIC Chair) and I have
reviewed your application and believe that you have made a strong case for
IndIGO Advisory Structure
International Advisory Committee
Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair]
Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia)
Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)
P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)
James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]
Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)
Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)
Nary Man (Virgo, France)
Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)
David McClelland (AIGO, ANU, Australia)
Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)
B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)
Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)
Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)
Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
National Steering Committee:
Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]
Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]
D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor]
P.K. Kaw (IPR)
Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA)
P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)
J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)
G. Srinivasan
Program Management Committee:
C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair]
Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator]
Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, Pune)
Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune)
P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore)
P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore)
S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore)
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]
IndIGO: the goals
Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related experimental activity and
training new manpower
3m prototype detector in TIFR (funded) - Unnikrishnan
Laser expt. RRCAT, IIT M, IIT K - Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar
Ultra High Vacuum & controls at RRCAT, IPR, BARC, ISRO, …. Shukla, Raja Rao, Bhatt,
UG summer internship at National & International GW labs & observatories.
Postgraduate IndIGO schools, specialized courses,…
Consolidated IndIGO membership of LIGO Scientific Collaboration in Advanced LIGO
Proposal to create a Tier-2 data centre for LIGO Scientific Collaboration in IUCAA
IUSSTF Indo-US joint Centre at IUCAA with Caltech (funded)
Major experimental science initiative in GW astronomy
Earlier Plan: Partner in LIGO-Australia (a diminishing possibility)
Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to Australia at the Gingin site, near Perth. NSF approval
Australia and International partners find funds (equiv to half the detector cost ~$140M and 10 year running cost ~$60M)
within a year.
Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights.
Today: LIGO-India (Letter from LIGO Labs)
Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to India.
India provides suitable site and infrastructure to house the GW observatory
Site, two 4km arm length high vacuum tubes in L configuration
Indian cost ~ Rs 1000Cr
The Science & technology benefit of LIGO-India is
IndIGO Data [email protected]
 Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from
binary mergers using data from global detector network
 Role of IndIGO data centre
 Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of g-wave data and analysis
 Bring together data-analysts within the Indian gravity wave community.
 Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO
Science Collab. wide facility. Part of LSC participation from IndIGO
 Large University sector participation via IUCAA
• 200 Tflops peak capability
• Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer.
• Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network
• Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech
Courtesy: Anand Sengupta, IndIGO
Indo-US centre for Gravitational
Physics and Astronomy
APPROVED for funding (Dec 2010)
• Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF)
• Exchange program to fund mutual visits and
facilitate interaction.
• Nodal centres: IUCAA , India & Caltech, US.
• Institutions:
Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep
Caltech, WSU
- PI: Rana Adhikari
LIGO-India from LIGO
Dear Prof. Kasturirangan,
1 June 2011
In its road-map with a thirty year horizon, the Gravitational Wave International Committee (a
working unit of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, IUPAP) has identified the
expansion of the global network of gravitational wave interferometer observatories as a high
priority for maximizing the scientific potential of gravitational wave observations. We are writing
to you to put forward a concept proposal on behalf of LIGO Laboratory (USA) and the IndIGO
Consortium, for a Joint Partnership venture to set up an Advanced gravitational wave detector
at a suitable Indian site. In what follows this project is referred to as LIGO-India. The key idea
is to utilize the high technology instrument components already fabricated for one of the three
Advanced LIGO interferometers in an infrastructure provided by India that matches that of the
US Advanced LIGO observatories.
LIGO-India could be operational early in the lifetime of the advanced versions of gravitational wave
observatories now being installed the US (LIGO) and in Europe (Virgo and GEO) and would be of
great value not only to the gravitational wave community, but to broader physics and astronomy
research by launching an era of gravitational wave astronomy, including, the fundamental first direct
detection of gravitational waves. As the southernmost member observatory of the global array of
gravitational wave detectors, India would be unique among nations leading the scientific exploration
of this new window on the universe. The present proposal promises to achieve this at a fraction of
the total cost of independently establishing a fully-equipped and advanced observatory. It also
offers technology that was developed over two decades of highly challenging global R&D effort that
preceded the success of Initial LIGO gravitational wave detectors and the design of their advanced
LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea?
for India
• Has a 20 year legacy and wide recognition in the Intl. GW community with
seminal contributions to Source modeling (RRI)& Data Analysis (IUCAA). High
precision measurements (TIFR), Participation in LHC (RRCAT)
(Would not make it to the GWIC report, otherwise!)
AIGO/LIGO/EGO strong interest in fostering Indian community
– GWIC invitation to IndIGO join as member (July 2011)
• Provides an exciting challenge at an International forefront of experimental
science. Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG students trained in
India. (Sole cause of `brain drain’).
– 1st yr summer intern 2010  MIT for PhD
– Indian experimental scientist  Postdoc at LIGO training for Adv. LIGO subsystem
• Indian experimental expertise related to GW observatories will thrive and attain
high levels due to LIGO-India.
– Sendhil Raja, RRCAT, Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT Madras, Pradeep Kumar, EE, IITK Photonics
– Vacuum expertise with RRCAT (S.K. Shukla, A.S. Raja Rao) , IPR (S.K. Bhatt, Ajai Kumar)
• Jump start direct participation in GW observations/astronomy
going beyond analysis methodology & theoretical prediction --- to full fledged
participation in experiment, data acquisition, analysis and astronomy results.
• For once, may be perfect time to a launch into a promising field (GW
astronomy) with high end technological spinoffs well before it has obviously
blossomed. Once in a generation opportunity to host an Unique
International Experiment here.
LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea?
… for the World
• Strategic geographical relocation for GW astronomy
Improved duty cycle
Detection confidence
Improved Sky Coverage
Improved Location of Sources required for multi-messenger astronomy
Determine the two polarizations of GW
• Potentially large science community in future
– Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges
– excellent UG education system already produces large number of trained
in India find frontline research opportunity at home.
• Large data analysis trained manpower and facilities exist (and
being created.
LIGO-India: Salient points
(vis a vis other mega-projects)
On Indian Soil
Historical science discovery participation
Expenditure mostly in Indian labs & Industry
International Cooperation, not competition
Shared science risk with Intl. community
Initial setup risks, troubleshooting rests with Advance
• Well defined training possibility at advance LIGO
USA installation and commissioning for Indian
technical team
• Related major data analysis centre with huge
University secto involvement.
Strategic geographical relocation comparison
Mean horizon
Filling factor
Sky Coverage:
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
Source localization error
5-15 degrees to
~degree !!!
Ellipses version as in LIGO-Aus proposal ?
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
Polarization info
Sky coverage ?
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
- the science gain
Sky coverage
: Synthesized
(antenna power)
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
- the science gain
Sky coverage: ‘reach’ /sensitivity in different directions
LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity
LIGO-Lab contribution to LIGO-India
• 180 W pre-stablized Nd:YAG laser
• Input condition optics, including electro-optic modulators, Faraday isolators, a
suspended mode-cleaner (12-m long mode-defining cavity), and suspended modematching telescope optics.
• five "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two stage, six degree of freedom,
active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads)
• six "HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one stage, six degree of freedom,
active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads)
• eleven Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems (mount external to chamber for
longer range and lower frequency isolation and actuation
• 10 interferometer core optics (test masses, folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling
LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity
LIGO-Lab contribution to LIGO-India
* Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems
* Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended optics
* Baffles and beam dumps for controlling scattering and stray radiation
* Optical distortion monitors and thermal control/compensation system for large optics
* Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics, actuation electronics and conditioning
* Data conditioning and acquisition system, software for data acquisition
* Supervisory control and monitoring system, software for all control systems
* Installation tooling and fixturing
LIGO-India: Indian Contributions
• Indian contribution in infrastructure :
 Site
 Vacuum system
Related Controls
Data centre
 Trained manpower for installation and
Trained manpower for LIGO-India operations for
10 years
LIGO-India vs future IndianIGO : Major Advantages
• Cutting edge instrument to jump start GW astronomy. Would require at
least a decade of focused technology development to get there
• 180 W Nd-Yag: 5 years; Rs. 10-12 crores. Operation and maintenance
should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers.
Applications in high resolution spectroscopy, precision interferometry and
• Input condition optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs
• BSC, HAM.. Minimum 2 of years of experimentation and R&D. Experience
in setting up and maintaining these systems  know how for
isolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology,
AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc.
• 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and
develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years of
dedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology.
• Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of
development.. Not trivial to implement. Benefit other physics experiments
working at the quantum limit of noise.
The Science Payoffs
• New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology, New
Physics…A New Window ushers a New Era of Exploration
• Testing Einstein’s GR in strong and time-varying fields
• Testing Black Hole phenomena
• Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS
• Neutron star coalescence events
• Understanding most energetic events in the
universe..Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts, LMXB’s, Magnetars
• New cosmology..SMBHB’s as standard sirens..EOS of Dark
• Multi-messenger astronomy
• The Unexpected
The Technology Payoffs
• Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase noise,
excellent beam quality, high single frequency power
• Applications in precision metrology, medicine, micromachining
• Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for earthquake
prediction and other precision metrology
• Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than telescope
mirrors..Ultra-high reflective coatings
• Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications for mineral
• Squeezing and quantum limits
• Ultra-high vacuum system 10^-9 torr..Largest in the region
• Computation Challenges; Cloud computing, new hardware
and software tools for computational innovation
The rewards and spinoffs
• Detection of GW is the very epitome of breakthrough science.
• In collaborating with USA to realize LIGO-India, India could
become a partner in international science of Nobel Prize
• GW detection is an instrument technology intensive field
pushing frontiers simultaneously in a number of fields like
lasers and photonics. Impact allied areas and smart industries.
• The imperative need to work closely with industry and other
end users will lead to spinoffs as GW scientists further develop
optical sensor technology.
• Presence of LIGO-India will lead to pushing technologies and
greater innovation in the future.
• The largest UHV system will provide industry a challenge and
…The rewards and spinoffs
• LIGO-India can raise profile of science since it will be making
ongoing discoveries fascinating the young. GR, BH, EU and
Einstein has a special attraction and a pioneering facility in
India participating in important discoveries will provide role
models with high visibility and media interest.
• LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and LIGO-India will
provide a platform to increase it and synergically benefit.
• Increase number of research groups performing at world
class levels and produce skilled researchers.
• Increase number of businesses investing in R&D. Provide
opportunities to increase proportion of industries engaging in
• Increase international collaborations in Indian research.
Science Leadership in the Asia-Pacific(?) region
LIGO-India: … the challenges
 National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project
 Identify a lead institution and agency
 Project leader
Construction: Substantial Engg project building Indian capability in large
vacuum system engg, welding techniques and technology
 Complex Project must be well-coordinated and effectively carried out
in time and meeting the almost zero-tolerance specs
Train manpower for installation & commissioning
 Generate & sustain manpower running for 10 years.
 Site
 short lead time
 International competition (LIGO-Argentina ??)
 vacuum system
 Related Controls
 Data centre
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Trained Manpower for installation & commissioning
LIGO-India Director
Project manager
Project engineering staff:
Civil engineer(s)
Vacuum engineer(s)
Systems engineer(s),
Mechanical engineers
Electronics engineers
Software engineers
Detector leader
Project system engineer
Detector subsystem leaders [10 talented scientists or research engineers
with interest and knowledge collectively spanning:
(Lasers and optical devices, Optical metrology, handling and cleaning,
Precision mechanical structures, Low noise electronics, Digital control systems
and electro-mechanical servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling)]
Logistics and Work Plan
• Assumption: Project taken up by DAE as a National Mega
Flagship Project. All the persons mentioned who are currently working in their
centers would be mainly in a supervisory role of working on the project during the
installation phase and training manpower recruited under the project who would
then transition into the operating staff.
• Instrument Engineering: No manpower required for design and
development activity. For installation and commissioning phase
and subsequent operation
• Laser ITF: Unnikrishnan, Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhaker.
TIFR, RRCAT, IITM. 10 Post-doc/Ph.D students. Over 2-3 years.
Spend a year at Advanced LIGO. 6 full time engineers and
scientists. If project sanctioned, manpower sanctioned,
hirings possible at RRCAT.. TIFR??
Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
S.K. Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT),
S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)
•To be fabricated by IndIGO with designs from LIGO. A pumped
volume of 10000m3 (10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high
vacuum of 10-9 torr.
•Spiral welded beam tubes 1.2m in diameter and
20m length.
•Butt welding of 20m tubes together to 200m length.
•Butt welding of expansion bellows between 200m tubes.
•Gate valves of 1m aperture at the 4km tube ends and the
•Optics tanks, to house the end mirrors and beam
splitter/power and signal recycling optics vacuum pumps.
•Gate valves and peripheral vacuum components.
•Baking and leak checking
Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
•5 Engineers and 5 technicians to oversee the procurement &
fabrication of the vacuum system components and its installation. If
the project is taken up by DAE then participation of RRCAT & IPR will
be taken up. All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves,
pumps, residual gas analyzers and leak detectors will be bought.
Companies L&T, Fillunger, HindHiVac, Godrej with support from
•Preliminary detailed discussions in Feb 2011 with companies
like HHV, Fullinger in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO),
D. Blair (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO deliverable to
•Preliminary Costing for LIGO-India
Logistics and Work Plan
• Clean rooms: Movable tent type clean rooms during welding of the beam
tubes and assembly of the system. Final building a clean room with AC
and pressurization modules. SAC, ISRO. 1 engineer and 2 technicians to
draw specs for the clean room equipments and installation.
• Vibration isolation system: 2 engineers (precision
mechanical) to install and maintain the system. Sourced from
BARC. RED (Reactor Engineering Division of BARC) has a
group that works on vibration measurement, analysis and
control in reactors and turbo machinery.
• Electronic Control System: 4 Engineers to install and maintain
the electronics control and data acquisition system.
Electronics & Instrumentation Group at BARC (G. P.
Shrivastava’s group) and RRCAT. Preliminary training:six
months at LIGO. Primary responsibility (installing and running
the electronics control and data acquisition system): RRCAT &
BARC. Additional activity for LIGO-India can be factored in XII
plan if the approvals come in early.
Logistics and Work Plan
• Understand teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Group at BARC looking
for large instrumentation projects in XII plan.
• Control software Interface: 2 Engineers (install and maintain the computer
software interface, distributed networking and control system). RRCAT and
BARC. Computer software interface (part of the data acquisition system)
and is the “Human-machine-interface” for the interferometer. For seamless
implementation man power to be sourced from teams implementing
Electronic Control System.
• Site Selection & Civil Constructions: BARC Seismology Division Data reg.
seismic noise at various DAE sites to do initial selection of sites and
shortlist based on other considerations such as accessibility and
remoteness from road traffic etc. DAE: Directorate of Construction,
services and Estate Management (DCSEM): Co-ordinate design and
construction of the required civil structures required for the ITF. 2
engineers + 3 technicians (design & supervision of constructions at site).
Construction contracted to private construction firm under supervision of
• 42 persons (10 PhD/postdocs, 22 scientists/engineers and 10 technicians)
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Manpower generation for sustenance of the LIGO-India
observatory : Plans & Preliminary exploration
• Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time, participants will be identified
who will be deputed to take part in the commissioning of Advanced LIGO
and later bring in the experience to LIGO-India
• Successful Summer internships in International labs underway..
Plan to extend to National labs to generate more experimenters
• IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging
opportunities and attract some to join.
•Post graduate school specialization course
•Jayant Narlikar: Since sophisticated technology is involved IndIGO should
like ISRO or BARC training school set up a program where after successful
completion of the training, jobs are assured.
Indian Site
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Low seismicity
Low human generated noise
Air connectivity,
Proximity to Academic institution, labs, industry
Preliminary exploration:
IISc new campus & adjoining campuses near Chitra Durga
•1hr from Intl airport
• low seismicity
•National science facilities complex plans
LIGO-India: Action points
If accepted as a National Flagship Mega Project under
the 12th plan then…
Seed Money
Identification of 3-6 project leaders
Detailed Project Proposal
Site identification
1st Staffing Requirement meeting Aug 1-15
2nd Joint Staffing Meeting with LIGO-Lab
Vacuum Task related team and plans
Concluding remarks
• A century after Einstein predicted them, and after four
decades of very innovative and Herculean struggle,
We are on the threshold of a new era in GW detection.
• First generation detectors like Initial LIGO and Virgo have
reached design sensitivity . Have broken new ground in optical
sensitivity, pushed technology and proved the technique.
• Second generation detectors are starting installation and
expected to expand the “Science” by factor of 1000
• A worldwide network is starting to come on line and the
ground work has been laid for operation as a integrated
• An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for India. India
could play a key role by hosting LIGO-India.
• A compelling Science case, a proven design. Need strong
institutional support to bring together capable participants.
Concluding remarks
• A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of 31 Mar
2012. If we cannot act quickly the possibility will close.
Conditions laid out in the Req Doc of LIGO-Lab will need to
be ready for LIGO-Lab examination latest by Dec 2011 so
that in turn LIGO-Lab can make a case with NSF by Jan 2012.
• Of all the large scientific projects out there, this one is
pushing the greatest number of technologies the hardest.
“Every single technology they’re touching they’re pushing, and there’s a
lot of different technologies they’re touching.”
(Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. )
• One is left speculating if by the centenary of General Relativity
in 2015, the first discovery of Gravitational waves would be
from a Binary Black Hole system and Chandrasekhar would be
doubly right about Astronomy being the natural home of
general relativity.
The IndIGO data analysis centre
Tier 0
Tier 1
Tier 2
• LIGO Sites at Hanford, Livingston
• Data acquisition systems
• LIGO Labs at Caltech
• LIGO Lab at MIT, LSC institutions
like UWM, Syracuse etc
• IndIGO Data Analysis Centre
• Tier -2 centre with data archival
and computational facilities
• Inter-institutional proposal for
• Propose for a high-throughput
Computation and GW Data
Archival Centre.
• Will provide fundamental
infrastructure for consolidating
GW data analysis expertise in
Courtesy: Anand Sengupta
Objectives of the data centre
Indian Researchers and
TIER3 centres at
LIGO Data Grid
Tier 2
Data Centre
LIGO Data Grid as a role model for the proposed
IndIGO Data Analysis Centre.
Web Services
Courtesy: Anand Sengupta
Future GWDA Plans of IndIGO
(as part of LSC)
Project leads: Sanjit Mitra, T. Souradeep, S. Dhurandhar …
 Extend GW radiometer work (Mitra,Dhurandhar, TS,…2009)
Implementation of the cross-correlation search for
periodic sources (Dhurandhar + collab.)
 Burst Sources
• Formulation
• Implementation
Courtesy: S. Dhurandhar
Vetoes for non-Gaussian noise for
coherent detection of inspirals
Project leads: Anand Sengupta, Archana Pai, M K Harris.
 Non-Gaussian noise plagues the detector data
 Vetoes have been developed in LSC for removal of non-Gaussian noise
in the single detector case
 For coincidence search the veto is obvious but for coherent not so.
 Developing a veto for coherent is crucial – chi squared
 Scope for improving the current chi squared test – Japanese
S. Dhurandhar
8th February
Tests of General Relativity using GW
Project leads: K G Arun, Rajesh Nayak and Chandra Kant Mishra,
Bala Iyer
 GWs are unique probes of strong field gravity. Their direct
detection would enable very precise tests of GR in the
dynamical and strong field regime.
 Preparing data analysis algorithms for AdvLIGO in order to
test GR and its alternatives is one of the important and
immediate goals of LSC.
 Plan to take part in the activity to develop parameter
estimation tools based on Bayesian methods.
 Possible collaboration with B S Sathyaprakash (Cardiff
University) & P Ajith (Caltech).
Courtesy: S. Dhurandhar
Indo-Aus.Meeting, Delhi, Feb
Precision mechanical
and vaccuum
is also
I say find, train and commit, because we don't have too many
scientific staff in the institute. The modus operandi would be to
start off with project staff, who are working towards a degree and
hence are committed for 3-4 years, and who can then be absorbed into
LIGO-India. An alternative way is to sponsor the degree directly (we
just started a program for Texas Instr, where students get a 50%
higher stipend, work only on TI projects, and are guaranteed jobs at
TI). Numbers won't be a problem, if there is demand. Our present
annual intake in optics is around 15, so identifying 3-5 is easy
enough. We always have tons of applicants for our programs, but
The higher level positions at project system engineer, detector leader
and project engineering staff, should be hired for pay, comparable to
someone like HCL or GE, forks out 8-10 lakhs/year for one of our fresh
Master's students. So, if LIGO-India pays, they will join.
Change in Length manifests as Change in Transmitted Light
GW detection is about seeing the biggest things that ever happen by measuring
the smallest changes that have ever been measured - Harry Collins.
Laser Interferometer GW Observatory
40 kg
Fused silica
Optics & controls
180 W
Fig from LIGO-AUS report?
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors: 2015
If retained get better res picture
GWIC: Gravitational Wave International Committee
Courtesy: B. Schutz: GWIC Roadmap Document
LIGO-Australia: Idea and Opportunity
• The NSF approved grand decision to locate one of
the planned LIGO-USA interferometer detector at
Gingin site, W. Australia to maximize science benefits
like baseline, pointing, duty cycle, technology
development and international collaboration.
• The proposal from Australian consortium envisages
IndIGO as one of the partners to realize this amazing
- Indian contribution in hardware (end station
vacuum system, and controls), Data centre,
manpower for installation and commissioning.
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
Network: HIJLV
Mean horizon distance:
Detection Volume:
Volume Filling factor:
Triple Detection Rate(80%):
Triple Detection Rate(95%):
Sky Coverage:
Directional Precision:
LIGO-India: … the Opportunity
• Part of a fundamental scientific discovery : direct
detection of gravitational radiation
• Part of “historic” launch of a new window of Astronomy
•LIGO-India: Southernmost, hence, Unique role in the
Intl. GW observatory network.
• Full detector at about half the cost is the naïve
Adv. LIGO detector system is worth 15 years of challenging R &D – price tag?
• Indian Labs & Industry
LIGO-India: … the challenges
International competition
Preliminary assessment:
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Short lead time
Preliminary exploration: